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Elizabeth Horton Sharf

[Duli Xingyi; Dai Mangong; Tianwai yi xianren]

(b Hangzhou Prefect., Zhejiang Prov., 1596; d Nagasaki, 1672).

Chinese Ōbaku Zen monk, calligrapher, poet, seal-carver and medical expert, active in Japan. Dokuryū was one of many learned men from south-east China to emigrate to Japan during the political turmoil following the collapse of the Ming dynasty in 1644. He arrived in Nagasaki in 1653 accomplished in several disciplines and quickly became a major force in the development of these arts and skills in Japan. Together with Tōkō Shin’etsu, Dokuryū is revered for having introduced techniques and practices of late Ming literati seal-carving to Japan. On his arrival there, Dokuryū became an itinerant scholar and medical specialist, establishing ties with émigré Chinese abbots and Japanese political figures. When the distinguished Chinese prelate Yinyuan Longqi (known in Japan as Ingen Ryūki) arrived in 1654, Dokuryū was ordained as his disciple and received the Buddhist names Dokuryū and Shōeki.

He was Ingen’s scribe from 1655 until 1658, when he took up residence at the Rinzai Zen monastery Heirinji (Saitama Prefect.) under the patronage of the shogunal minister ...


Elizabeth Horton Sharf

[Muan Xingtao; Wu]

(b Quanzhou Prefecture, Fujian Province, 1611; d Nagasaki, 1684).

Chinese monk, calligrapher, painter and poet. He was the second abbot of Manpukuji and a prominent early patriarch of Ōbaku Zen Buddhism in Japan. Together with Ingen Ryūki (Yinyuan Longqi) and Sokuhi Nyoitsu (Jifei Ruyi), he became known as one of the Three Brushes of Ōbaku (Ōbaku no Sanpitsu), noted master Zen calligraphers (see also Japan, §VII, 2, (iv), (c)). Mokuan was ordained at the age of 18 (19 by Chinese reckoning) and studied under the eminent Chinese monks Miyun Yuanwu (1566–1642) and Feiyin Tongrong (1593–1661) before training at Wanfu si on Mt Huangbo (Fujian Province) under Ingen. Mokuan received dharma transmission from Ingen in 1650 and went on to serve as abbot of the monasteries Taiping si on Mt Lianshi and Huiming si on Mt Xiang in south-eastern China. In 1655, at Ingen’s behest, Mokuan emigrated to Nagasaki, where he took over as abbot of the monastery Fukusaiji and served as Ingen’s senior disciple in Japan. Sokuhi Nyoitsu and Mokuan gained renown as the ‘Two Gates to the Nectar [of liberation]’ (Jap. ...


James Robinson

[ Yün Shou-p’ing ; zi Weida, Zhengshu ; hao Nantian, Dongyuan ]

(b Wujin, Jiangsu Province, 1633; d 1690).

Chinese painter, poet and calligrapher . One of the Six Great Painters of the early Qing dynasty (1644–1911), he is acknowledged as the founder of a school of painting based in the Changzhou region, sometimes referred to as the Yun school. He was the most talented member of a prominent family renowned for its artistic talent. By virtue of his contribution to the genre of flower-and-bird painting ( see fig. ), he achieved recognition as an important, innovative master who was an equal of the revered artists of the Song dynasty (960–1299). Though he was not a court painter, his style was designated the orthodox court style of the Qing dynasty ( see China, People’s Republic of, §V, 4, (i), (e) ).

Brought up in a literati environment, Yun studied with his father, Yun Richu, and according to legend, by the age of eight he could recite literature. He followed his father, who had become a monk, and elder brothers to Jianning, Fujian Province, where they joined the Ming loyalists in resisting the Manchurian troops. When the Manchus captured Jianning, Yun Richu escaped, believing that his sons were dead. In fact, one son was killed but Yun Shouping was taken prisoner and adopted into the family of Chen Jin, the conquering general who had no sons. After Chen was assassinated in ...


Mark H. Sandler

[Yoshiatsu; Dairoku]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1748; d ?Akita, 1785).

Japanese painter and daimyo. Lord of the domain of Akita in Dewa Province (now Akita Prefect.), patron and practitioner of Akita ranga (‘Akita Dutch painting’), the school of Western-style painting based in his fief, Shozan advocated empirical study as a means of acquiring practical knowledge. Interested in the study of medicinal plants and in Western technology, he invited the polymath Hiraga Gennai to Akita in 1773 to revive the domain’s copper-mining industry. Shozan and some of his retainers took instruction in Western-style painting from Gennai during his stay. After the latter’s return to Edo, Shozan sent his vassal Odano Naotake there to reside with Gennai and continue the study of Western descriptive realism. In 1778, with the assistance of Naotake, Shozan composed three illustrated treatises: Gahō kōryō (‘Summary of the laws of painting’; priv. col.), Gato rikai (‘Understanding painting’; priv. col.), and Tanseibu (‘Red and blue’), which address theoretical and practical aspects of Western-style painting for the first time in Japan. The treatises, with diagrams and explanatory drawings based on the Dutch manual ...


Yanfei Zhu

(b Urumqi, Nov 4, 1963).

Chinese architect and teacher. Wang Shu was born in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and studied at the Nanjing Institute of Technology (now Southeast University) in Jiangsu Province, receiving his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in architecture in 1985 and 1988 respectively. He earned his Ph.D. degree at the School of Architecture of Tongji University in Shanghai in 2000. Wang became a faculty member of the China Academy of Art in Hangzhou in 2000, and was named chair of the Architecture Department in 2003 and dean of the School of Architecture in 2007. In 2011 he was the Kenzo Tange Visiting Professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Design.

His first architectural commission, completed in 1990, was a youth centre in Haining, a small city near Hangzhou. In 1997 Wang and his architect wife, Lu Wenyu, established the Amateur Architecture Studio in Hangzhou. The name of the firm suggested the couples’ non-professional approach based on everyday life, spontaneity, and experimentation. Both of them received relatively liberal educations in post-Mao China, and belonged to the generation of architects who advocated tectonic modernism combined with regionalism. Some of the built works designed by Wang and the firm are the Library of Wenzheng College at Suzhou University (...


Ellen Johnston Laing

[Chun; Ch’en Shun; zi Daofu, Fufu; hao Baiyang, Baiyang Shanren]

(b Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1483; d 1544).

Chinese painter, calligrapher and poet. Born into a wealthy family of the scholar–official class, he is known for his landscapes (see fig.) and flower paintings. He was once a student of Wen Zhengming and was loosely associated with the Wu school.

He is best known for his landscapes in the style of the Northern Song-period (960–1127) master Mi Fu and his son, Mi Youren, and of their Yuan-period (1279–1368) interpreter, Gao Kegong (see fig.). The Mi style was rarely appreciated by Suzhou artists, but Chen’s affinity for it could be explained by the fact that his family owned a painting by Mi Youren. The style is characterized by cone-shaped or rounded hills composed of large, horizontal, wet blobs of ink applied in vertical layers. Chen added motifs and techniques borrowed from the Suzhou artist Shen Zhou, such as rhomboid plateaux outlined with dry brush lines and squat, blocky figures. Chen further modified the Mi style, giving it a rich, colouristic effect by introducing fluid colour washes and large blobs of blue and buff, as in his ...


Tadashi Kobayashi

[Kubota Yasubei; Shōsadō; Hitofushi no Chitsui; Shiokarabō; Nanda Kashiran, Kōzandō]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1757; d Edo, 1820).

Japanese print designer, painter, poet, writer and lacquer and shell-inlay artist. Orphaned at an early age, he was raised by an uncle. He studied honga (‘true or book pictures’) with the Nanga (literati painting) artist Tabete Ryōtai (1719–74) and ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) with Kitao Shigemasa. Early examples of Shunman’s work include the illustrations for the sharebon (‘witty book’; comic novel) Tama kiku tōrōben (1780) and the gafu (‘picture album’) Gakoku (1783) in the honga style. He was a prolific designer of bijinga (‘pictures of beautiful women’) and fūzokuga (‘pictures of customs and manners’), which show the influence, not of his teacher, Shigemasa, but of Torii Kiyonaga (see Torii family §(8)), one of the leading ukiyoe artists of the day. Shunman introduced the benigirai (‘red-hating’; using no red (pink) pigment) technique, which he employed in his Mutamagawa (‘Six crystal rivers’). In around ...


Yi Sŏng-mi

[cha Yŏlgyŏng; ho Maewŏltang, Tongbong, Ch’ŏnghanja]

(b Kangnŭng, Kangwŏn Province, 1435; d Hongsan, South Ch’ungch’ŏng Province, 1493).

Korean poet and calligrapher. He was one of the saeng yuksin, a group of six scholar–officials who opposed the succession by force of King Sejo (reg 1455–68) to the throne in 1455 after the assassination of his young nephew, Tanjong (reg 1453–5). Kim was born into an illustrious scholar–official family and showed a precocious talent. However, upon hearing of King Sejo’s succession, he burnt all his books and became a Buddhist monk, taking the name Sŏlcham. Thereafter he led the life of a wanderer, writing poems expressing the transient nature of life.

Most of Kim Si-sŭp’s extensive writings survive. A passage in the album Kŭnsŏ (‘Korean calligraphy’; Seoul, Sunggyun’gwan U. Mus.; see Ch’ŏn, pl. 18) displays the free and wandering spirit of the poet–calligrapher. The work is a draft of a poem written in running script with an unusual degree of variation in the thickness of the strokes. Most of the strokes that slant from right to left are very lightly touched and thus extremely thin. Kim does not seem to have adopted the style of Zhao Mengfu, which was in vogue at the beginning of the Chosŏn period (...


Helmut Brinker


(b Kyoto, 1394; d Kyoto, 1481).

Japanese Zen Buddhist priest, poet, calligrapher and painter. He was one of the most unconventional figures in 15th-century Japan, an uncompromising critic of the Zen establishment, both in his poems, religious statements, paintings and calligraphic works and in his eccentric conduct that sometimes verged on the manic. Kyōun (‘Crazy Cloud’), his self-mocking sobriquet, is rich in literary connotations and emphasizes his non-attachment to the world, the essential requirement of a committed Zen monk. His famous manuscript of the Chinese verses named Kyōunshū (‘Crazy Cloud anthology’) reveals Ikkyū’s unique literary genius and also his mercurial temperament. According to the Ikkyū Oshō nenpu (‘Chronicle of Reverend Ikkyū’), which is thought to have been compiled shortly after the master’s death by his disciple Shōtō Bokusai, he was the illegitimate son of Emperor GoKomatsu (reg 1382–1412) and a woman of a branch of the Fujiwara clan, connected with the rival southern court, who was dismissed from the imperial household before her child was born. Although Ikkyū was never recognized as the offspring of an emperor, GoKomatsu received him twice in audience. At the age of five Ikkyū was sent to Ankokuji, a temple in the province of Yamashiro (now part of Kyoto), where he began his training as a Zen monk. In ...


Cecil H. Uyehara

[Son’en Shinnō]

(b Japan, 1298; d 1356).

Japanese prince, Buddhist monk, poet and calligrapher. He was the sixth son of Emperor Fushimi and the half-brother of the emperors GoFushimi (reg 1289–1301) and Hanazono (reg 1308–18), all of whom were excellent calligraphers. He began his Buddhist training at the age of 11 at the temple of Shōren’in in Kyoto, took his vows at 13 and later served three times as abbot there. He studied the calligraphy of Fujiwara no Kōzei (see Fujiwara family §(2)) and Ono no Michikaze, two of the Sanseki (‘three brush traces’; three masters of calligraphy) and leaders in the later part of the Heian period (ad 794–1185) in creating a Japanese-style (Wayō) calligraphy. Building on this foundation he developed a style that became known as the Shōren’in (less popularly, the Son’en or Awata) school of calligraphy (see Japan §VII 2., (iii)). This style was perpetuated by successive abbots of the Shōren’in. During the Edo period (...


Yi Sŏng-mi

[myŏng Yi Kong or Kyun]

(reg 1567–1608).

Korean ruler, poet and painter. He reigned during the Chosŏn dynasty (1392–1910). As an artist he excelled in ink paintings of bamboo and orchid as well as calligraphy (see Korea §V 5.) and promoted scholarship and good government by inviting such famous Neo-Confucian scholars as Yi Yi to court. No paintings by Sŏnjo survive. Only the poetic inscriptions he wrote on his ink bamboo paintings that were given to the High Priest Sŏsan Taesa have been recorded. Kim Chŏng-hŭi, the noted scholar–painter and calligrapher, commented on King Sŏnjo’s ink orchid painting: ‘In our country no one before King Sŏnjo did ink orchid well. When I see the King’s orchid painting, I feel his heaven-sent talent. His orchid leaves and flowers follow the methods of Cheng Sixiao [fl c. 1240–1310], a Chinese scholar–painter of the late Southern Song period [1027–1279; also of the early Yuan, ...


Bruce A. Coats

(b Ise Prov. [now in Mie Prefect.], 1275; d Kyoto, 1351).

Japanese Zen master, poet, scholar and garden designer. As spiritual adviser to both Emperor GoDaigo (reg 1318–39) and the military leaders who overthrew him, Musō was politically influential and acted as mediator during the civil wars of the 1330s. At various times in his life Musō served as abbot of Nanzenji, one of the various Gozan (Five Mountains) Zen monasteries including Nanzenji in Kyoto (see Kyoto §IV 4.). The support of both imperial and shogunal courts enabled him to found many new Rinzai Zen temples. He was instrumental in popularizing Zen teachings, though also criticized for the secularization of some Zen institutions. Three times during his life and four times posthumously he was given the honorific title kokushi (National Master).

Musō began Buddhist studies at the age of three. Although his early training was in the Esoteric Tendai and Shingon doctrines, attraction to Zen brought him to Kamakura, where he received instruction from the Japanese disciples of distinguished Chinese Chan (Jap. Zen) monks, including Kōhō Kennichi (...


Hajime Yatsuka

(b Ebetsu, Hokkaido, April 28, 1935).

Japanese architect and writer. He was a student of the architect Takamasa Yoshizaka at Waseda University, Tokyo, graduating in 1959, and he established his own office in 1964. In 1971 he formed the avant-garde group Architext with four other architects; they all continued to work independently, however, with no common design philosophy. Suzuki’s work is characterized by an innovative use of raw concrete, revealing the influence of Yoshizaka. Ultimately, although he did not work in the Brutalist style, he succeeded in developing an individual style with a combination of simple geometries (especially rectilinear) and finely finished concrete surfaces. He also incorporated traditional features such as eaves and open spaces, together with modern elements such as skylights and voids. Suzuki concentrated on residential work and produced buildings that represent some of the most successful solutions to the problems of living in modern Japanese cities. In this respect he is followed by Tadao Andō. Important works include the Shishido House (...


Stephen Addiss

[Murase Taiichi]

(b Kōzuchi [now Mino City], nr Nagoya, 1803; d Inuyama, nr Nagoya, 1881).

Japanese painter, poet and calligrapher. He became one of the most notable and eccentric exponents of literati painting (Bunjinga or Nanga, see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)) of the early Meiji period (1868–1912). He was educated in Confucianism and Buddhism from the monk Kaigen at the temple of Zen’oji. He was also influenced by his uncles Murase Tōjō (1791–1853), Murase Ryūsai (1792/4–1876) and Murase Shunsui (1795–1876). Through Tōjō’s introduction, Taiitsu studied under the poet, calligrapher and historian Rai San’yō from 1829 until San’yō’s death in 1832. Taiitsu then returned to his native village, but in 1837 he moved to Nagoya to open his own Confucian academy. In 1844 Taiitsu became the teacher at the Naruse clan school in Nagoya, remaining there until feudal schools were abolished at the beginning of the Meiji period.

From 1879 until his death Taiitsu lived in Inuyama near Nagoya. Most of his paintings and calligraphy date from his years there, where he fashioned a reputation as a scholarly eccentric who delighted in brushwork. Taiitsu painted as the spirit moved him: apparently on a paper lantern on a street corner, on a ...


Yasuyoshi Saito

(b Tokyo, March 13, 1883; d Tokyo, April 2, 1956).

Japanese sculptor and writer. He was the son of the sculptor Kōun Takamura (1852–1934). He studied sculpture at the Tokyo School of Fine Arts, graduating in 1902. In 1906 he went to the USA and studied at the Art Students League, New York. In the same year he met Morie Ogiwara. In 1907 he went to London, moving to Paris in 1908. He returned to Japan in 1909, forming a close friendship with Ogiwara. In 1910 his essay Midoriiro no taiyō (‘Green sun’) was published in the magazine Subaru (2–4, April, pp. 23–9). In this essay he wrote, ‘If someone paints the sun green, then I do not intend to say that he is wrong.’ It is regarded as Japan’s first Impressionist statement. He was an active essayist and translator, publishing in 1916 the translated Rodan no kotoba (‘The words of Rodin’; Tokyo). In his sculpture he left a legacy of excellent works, such as ...


Botond Bognar

(b Sapporo, Hokkaido, March 15, 1934).

Japanese architect, writer and teacher. He graduated from Waseda University, Tokyo, in 1958 and continued his studies as a Fulbright scholar (1959–60) at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. He then worked for Josep Lluís Sert in Cambridge, MA (1960–61); for Harrison & Abramovitz in New York (1961–2); and for Jørn Utzon, Arne Jacobsen and Henning Larsen in Copenhagen, Denmark (1962–4). On his return to Japan he established his own office, Minoru Takeyama and the United Actions, in Tokyo in 1965, opening a second office in Sapporo in 1975. One of the New Wave of avant-garde Japanese architects and one of the early representatives of Post-modernism in Japan, Takeyama was interested in semiotics and the language of architecture. In 1971, with Takefumi Aida, Takamitsu Azuma, Mayumi Miyawaki and Makoto Suzuki, he formed the counter-Metabolist group Architext. His first significant buildings were Ichiban-kan (‘Number One Building’; ...


Hiroshi Watanabe

(b Osaka, Sept 4, 1913; d Tokyo, March 22, 2005).

Japanese architect, urban planner and writer. He graduated in architecture from the University of Tokyo (1938) and worked briefly for Kunio Maekawa. From 1946 to 1974 he taught at the university, becoming professor emeritus after 1974; he also received a PhD there in 1959. Many Japanese architects who later gained prominence, such as Arata Isozaki, Kishō Kurokawa and Fumihiko Maki, were once members of his university studio, the centre of his design activities until 1961 when he established the office Kenzō Tange & Urtec, Urbanists and Architects, in Tokyo. Tange was perhaps the most important architect in Japan during the 1950s and 1960s, times of national unity and established social agenda with which his heroic vision and hierarchical, structured architecture were in tune. His career was marked by early success with winning entries for competitions to design a memorial to the creation of the Great East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere (...


Hajime Yatsuka

(b Kanazawa, Ishikawa Prefect., July 24, 1904; d Tokyo, Feb 2, 1979).

Japanese architect and writer. He graduated from the architecture department of Tokyo Imperial University in 1928 and established his own office in Tokyo in 1930. He began his career as an avant-garde designer. His first work, the Hydraulics Laboratory (1932) at Tokyo Institute of Technology, was a radically functionalist building, regarded as one of the first Constructivist works in Japan. He also criticized Le Corbusier in 1930 for élitism and a lack of practical concern. However, the Hydraulics Laboratory and other modernist works of this period such as the Keio Kindergarten (1937), Tokyo, reveal a classical sense of order in their composition, and, during his visit to Germany in 1938, he was most impressed by the Neo-classical works of Karl Friedrich Schinkel and Heinrich Tessenow.

After his return to Japan, he adopted a style quite different from his earlier modernism: buildings designed for Keio University, Tokyo, after World War II, for example the Department of Medicine (...


Ray McKenzie

(b Edinburgh, June 14, 1837; d London, Sept 30, 1921).

Scottish photographer and writer. After studying chemistry at Edinburgh University he settled on the island of Pinang, Malaysia, where he began practising as a professional photographer in 1862. Over the next 12 years he travelled extensively in the region, taking many photographs in Siam (now Thailand; see fig.), Cambodia, Vietnam and China. His subjects ranged from ethnography to antiquities, and his style is distinguished by the directness with which he represented landscapes and social practices that to his western contemporaries appeared almost fantastic. Despite acute difficulties of climate and terrain, he used the cumbersome wet collodion process, producing large-format (up to 360×480 mm) and stereographic negatives that are noted for their clarity of detail and richness of tone.

Unlike most travel photographers of his generation Thomson rarely exhibited his work, preferring the illustrated album as the medium best suited to his documentary approach. In all he produced nine such albums, varying widely both in format and reprographic process. The first, ...


Shen Fu

[Huang T’ing-chien; zi Luzhi; hao Shangu Laoren]

(b Fenning [modern Xiushui], Jiangxi Province, 1045; d Fenning, 1105).

Chinese calligrapher, poet and scholar-official. He is regarded as the avant-garde figure of the Four Great Calligraphers of the Northern Song (960–1127), who emphasized individual expression in their work; the others are Cai Xiang, Su Shi and Mi Fu (see Mi family, §1; see also China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (iv)). Huang was a calligraphy critic and an early theorist of literati painting (wenren hua; see China, People’s Republic of §V 4., (ii)) and is also acknowledged as the founder of the Jiangxi school of poetry. A member of an exceptionally cultured family of well-known poets, he became associated with individuals such as Su Shi, who at court opposed the reforms of the Chief Councillor, Wang Anshi (1021–86). As a result of political struggles between conservatives and reformers, Huang was exiled in 1094 to Fuzhou in Sichuan Province and only after this produced his most impressive calligraphy....