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Article

Ismael Gutiérrez Pastor

(b Villena, Alicante, c. 1645; d Madrid, June 28, 1717).

Spanish painter, engraver and writer. He began his training in Murcia with Nicolás de Villacis (c. 1618–94) and Mateo Gilarte (c. 1620–after 1680), who both worked in a naturalist and tenebrist style. He travelled to Rome in the 1660s and came into contact with the Italian Baroque, especially the work of Pietro da Cortona and Carlo Maratti. On his return he was first in Valencia, where the work of Jerónimo Jacinto Espinosa became a strong influence. Towards 1674 he established himself in Madrid, where he entered the circle of Juan Carreño de Miranda.

García Hidalgo’s numerous paintings were frequently signed, and he painted a good many for the Augustinian Order in Madrid, Madrigal de las Altas Torres, Santiago de Compostela and Sigüenza (e.g the Vision of St Augustine, 1680; Sigüenza Cathedral), and for the Carmelite Order in Alba de Tormes, Peñaranda de Bracamonte and Segovia (e.g. the ...

Article

Christopher Foley

(fl 1634–52).

English engraver. During a period when engraved work in England mostly borrowed its attenuated forms from Flemish Mannerist originals, Glover was able to establish himself with portrait line-engravings that have a distinctly English quality. They are a graphic parallel to the work in oils of such portrait painters as Gilbert Jackson and Edward Bower, both of whom maintained a more traditional manner at a time when many artists were drawn to the Flemish Baroque style of van Dyck and others. Almost 100 of Glover’s engravings are known (examples London, BM, and elsewhere). From their inscriptions it is clear that on occasion he was responsible for drawing as well as engraving the portraits of his sitters; works he made after others include portraits after Cornelius Johnson and Edward Bower. The best of the engravings made after his own designs is the frontispiece to Sir Thomas Urquhart’s Epigrams Divine and Moral (...

Article

[Hendrik]

(b Mülbracht [now Bracht-am-Niederrhein], Jan or Feb 1558; d Haarlem, Jan 1, 1617).

Dutch draughtsman, printmaker, print publisher and painter. He was an important artist of the transitional period between the late 16th century and the early 17th, when the conception of art in the northern Netherlands was gradually changing. Goltzius was initially an exponent of Mannerism, with its strong idealization of subject and form. Together with the other two well-known Dutch Mannerists, Karel van Mander I and Cornelis Cornelisz. van Haarlem, he introduced the complex compositional schemes and exaggeratedly contorted figures of Bartholomäus Spranger to the northern Netherlands. These three artists are also supposed to have established an academy in Haarlem in the mid-1580s, but virtually nothing is known about this project. In 1590 Goltzius travelled to Italy, thereafter abandoning Spranger as a model and developing a late Renaissance style based on a broadly academic and classicizing approach. Later still, his art reflected the growing interest in naturalism that emerged in the northern Netherlands from ...

Article

W. Le Loup

(b Venlo, Oct 30, 1526; d Bruges, March 2, 1583).

Flemish humanist, printmaker, publisher, painter and numismatist. He was the son of Rutger den Meeler (Rutger van Weertsburg) and Catherina Goltzius, whose family name was taken by her husband. After studying in Venlo, Hubertus was sent to Luik (Liège) to the academy of Lambert Lombard, to whom he was apprenticed until 1546. He then moved to Antwerp, where he became a member of the Guild of St Luke and took on Willem Smout as his pupil. Before 1550 Goltzius married Elisabeth Verhulst Bessemers, a painter from Mechelen, with whom he had four sons and three daughters. Her sister Mayken Verhulst was the second wife of Pieter Coecke van Aelst, which brought Goltzius into artistic circles. Goltzius was active in Antwerp as a painter and antiques dealer, but the only painting that can be attributed to him with certainty is the Last Judgement (1557) for the town hall at Venlo. In Antwerp he was introduced by his friends to prominent numismatists, for whom he made drawings of coins and began a system of their classification. For the same purpose Goltzius undertook a study trip in ...

Article

[Iennin; Janin; Jennyn] [Mabuse]

(b ?Maubeuge, c. 1478; d ?Antwerp, Oct 1, 1532).

South Netherlandish painter, draughtsman and printmaker. During the first decade of the 16th century he was one of the earliest exponents of Antwerp Mannerism. Following his trip to Italy in 1508–9 in the entourage of the humanist sea admiral Philip of Burgundy, later Bishop of Utrecht, Gossart played an important role in the Netherlands in effecting the transition between Late Gothic and ‘Romanism’, a northern style based on antique and Italian Renaissance models. He was also the first Netherlandish artist to paint classically inspired, mythological nudes.

Signatures found on a number of his paintings, Iennin Gossart de Mabu[se] and later Ioannes Malbodius, suggest that he was born in or near Maubeuge in the province of Hainaut (now in France). His date of birth is deduced from the usual age of accession to the status of master and from the inscription on a portrait dated 1528 (untraced; recorded by Arnhout van Buchell in ...

Article

Jacques Thirion

(b c. 1510; d ?Bologna, c. 1565).

French sculptor, illustrator and architect. He was one of the great masters of relief sculpture. Through his collaboration with the architect Pierre Lescot he was involved in many major building projects, and in his refined relief sculptures, such as the carved panels for the Fountain of the Innocents, Paris, he achieved a highly personal synthesis between the mannered style of the Fontainebleau school and a classicism derived from his study of antique sculpture. He illustrated with skilful and lively wood-engravings Jean Baptiste Martin I’s first complete French translation (Paris, 1547) of Vitruvius, De architectura: Architecture ou art de bien bastir, an edition that was to have considerable influence on the revival of the classical style in France.

Goujon was possibly of Norman origin, and the knowledge of the sculpture and architecture of anti-quity and the Italian Renaissance displayed in his works suggests that he spent time in Italy. He is first recorded at Rouen in ...

Article

Christiane Andersson

(b Solothurn, c. 1485; d ?Basle, 1527–9).

Swiss draughtsman, goldsmith, die-cutter, engraver, woodcut and stained-glass designer, painter and glass painter. He was the most original and gifted artist of the early Renaissance in German-speaking Switzerland. His highly imaginative drawings, created as independent works of art, are works of exceptional quality, vitality, expressiveness and often humour. For northern European art, Graf played an important role in the liberation of drawing from its traditionally subsidiary status as preparatory study for works of art in other media.

Graf was trained as a goldsmith by his father, Hug Graf (d 1527–30), and remained active in this profession throughout his career. Although almost none of his goldsmith work is preserved, examples such as the silver engraved plates (1519; London, BM; Zurich, Schweizer. Landesmus.) from a reliquary bust executed for a monastery in the canton of Lucerne are of a high quality. He received additional training (1507–8) from the goldsmith ...

Article

Feliciano Benvenuti

(fl Venice, 1543–58).

Italian painter, wood-engraver and publisher. No paintings by him are known. In August 1546, on his return from a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, he requested from the Venetian Senate a licence to publish a series of drawings executed during his journey. This privilege being granted, the work was published under the title Particularis et vera descriptio plateae sancti sepulcri … diligentia Dominici Dalle Greche Venet. Pict. descripta MDXLI … (the date is clearly incorrect). He later provided illustrations for the Pellegrinaggio di Ulrich von Wilkanaus (Prague, 1547). He also provided the botanical illustrations for the codices by the naturalist Pietro Antonio Michiel (Venice, Bib. N. Marciana, MSS Marc. It. II. 26-30/4860–4). Apart from some maps, some of which are lost, his most notable undertaking is the 1549 edition of Titian’s 12-block wood-engraving of the Submersion of Pharaoh’s Army in the Red Sea. On the Pharaoh’s scroll ornament is the inscription ...

Article

Fernando Marías

[Theotokopoulos, Domenikos [Dominico ; Dominikos ; Menegos ]]

(b Candia [now Herakleion], Crete, c. 1541; d Toledo, April 7, 1614).

Greek painter, designer, and engraver, active in Italy and Spain. One of the most original and interesting painters of 16th-century Europe, he transformed the Byzantine style of his early paintings into another, wholly Western manner. He was active in his native Crete, in Venice, and Rome, and, during the second half of his life, in Toledo. He was renowned in his lifetime for his originality and extravagance and provides one of the most curious examples of the oscillations of taste in the evaluation of a painter, and of the changes of interpretation to which an artist’s work can be submitted.

El Greco appears to have belonged to a Greek Orthodox—more than to a Catholic Greek—family of officials who worked for the Venetian colonial service; his father was a tax-collector, and an elder brother combined this activity with that of trader and privateer. It is not known with whom El Greco trained, although ...

Article

Feliciano Benvenuti

(b Forlì; fl c. Venice, 1480–1528).

Italian publisher, printer and woodcutter. He went to Venice c. 1480, where, with his brother Giovanni de’ Gregoriis, he set up a press that produced many of the most admired illustrated books of the time (e.g. Boccaccio’s Decameron, 1492; for illustration see Boccaccio, Giovanni). From 1505 to 1528 he ran the press on his own. In 1517 he published a five-block edition of Titian’s Triumph of Christ (e.g. Bassano del Grappa, Mus. Civ.; and see 1976–7 exh. cat., no. 2) and two other woodcuts designed by Titian: the Virgin and Child with SS John the Baptist and Gregory the Great (see 1976–7 exh. cat., no. 13), which also bears the monogram of Lucantonio degli Uberti, and a Martyrdom of St Cecilia, which is signed and dated.

F. Mauroner: Le incisioni di Tiziano (Venice, 1943/R 1982)Tiziano e la silografia veneziana del cinquecento (exh. cat., ed. M. Muraro and ...

Article

(b Bologna, 1606; d Rome, Nov 28, 1680).

Italian painter, printmaker, draughtsman and architect. He was an accomplished fresco painter, whose decorative landscapes were popular with such leading Roman families as the Santacroce, the Pamphili and the Borghese; his many landscape etchings and drawings spread the influence of 17th-century Bolognese landscape throughout Europe. After studying in Bologna in the circle of the Carracci, he arrived in Rome c. 1626 and by 1635 was already a member of the Accademia di S Luca and associated with the circle of artists working with Pietro da Cortona. Sometime between 1635 and 1640 he collaborated with François Perrier and Giovanni Ruggieri on the decoration of the gallery in the Palazzo Peretti–Amalgia, Rome; the vault, which was probably designed by Grimaldi, was modelled on Cortona’s gallery in the Villa Sacchetti at Castelfusano. In 1640–41, again inspired by the Villa Sacchetti, Grimaldi frescoed the vault of the great hall of the Palazzo Santacroce ai Catinari, Rome. The ceiling is framed with stucco cartouches, and the vault is decorated with five ...

Article

Kai Budde

(b Cologne; fl Strasbourg, 1590s).

German cabinetmaker, writer and engraver. He is recorded as a cabinetmaker and citizen of Strasbourg from 1596. He appears to have been a pupil of the architect Johann Schoch, who designed Schloss Gottesau, near Karlsruhe (c. 1587), and the Friedrichsbau of the Heidelberg Schloss (c. 1601–7). Guckeisen, in collaboration with Veit Eck (fl Strasbourg, 1587), wrote a Kunstbüchlein (Strasbourg, 1596) dedicated to masons and cabinetmakers. He also wrote a similar work, Etlicher Architectischer Portalen, Epitapien, Caminen Und Schweyffen, published in the same year in Cologne. They were followed in 1599 by a series of engraved designs for six chests, also published in Cologne. In collaboration with the cabinetmaker and etcher Hans Jakob Ebelmann, Guckeisen also produced the Schränke (1598), Seilenbuch (1598), Architectura Kunstbuch Darinnen Alerhand Portalen Reisbetten Undt Epitaphien (1599) and Schweyfbuch (1599), the last dedicated to the cabinetmaker Jacob Riedel in Strasbourg. As a designer of ornament, Guckeisen was familiar with the whole repertory of Renaissance decoration, using it in varied combinations....

Article

Gabriele Ramsauer

(b ?Flensburg, c. 1523; d Vienna, 1596–1603).

German Joiner and etcher, active in Austria. In 1571 he was commissioned to make the doors and magnificent inlaid ceiling of the Landhaus, Vienna. The ceiling in the Verordnetenstube, which was completed in 1572, demonstrates great artistic ability with its combination of delicate inlay, carving and applied decoration. The heraldic programme of the ceiling was very rich, featuring the coats of arms of Old Austria, New Austria, the imperial arms and those of Bohemia and Hungary; the armorials of the other ten hereditary states formed a border. According to the accounts of the city treasurer’s office, he received 40 florins for his work on the Ehrenpforte, which was constructed by the Viennese city council on the occasion of the entry of Rudolf II into Vienna. In 1583 Künstlicher und zierlicher Newer vor nie gesehener: Fünfftzig perspectifischer Stück …allen Malern Tischlern und denen sich des Bawens gebrauchen sehr nützlich und dienstlich mit sonderem Fleiss gestelt und in Kupffer gesetzt durch Georgen Hasen Hoff Tischler und Burger in Wienn...

Article

Franco Panvini Rosati

Italian family of engravers and medallists, of Bavarian origin. They worked mainly in the Roman mint from the mid-17th century to the end of the 18th. The medals they made are notable above all for their documentary value relating to the history of Rome and the city’s monuments. They were technically skilled but somewhat unimaginative portrait artists. Johan Andreas Hamerani (b Adensburg, c. 1600; d Livorno, 1644) arrived in Rome in 1615 during the pontificate of Pope Paul V. Although he worked in the papal mint, he did not execute annual medals. His son Alberto Hamerani (b Rome, 10 Oct 1620; d Rome, 21 June 1677) worked for a short time at the mint of Massa Carrara, then, between 1657 and 1669, in Rome, as assistant first to Gaspare Morone Mola and later to Girolamo Lucenti. From 1667 he engraved papal seals. Noteworthy among his medals was one commemorating the entry into Rome of Queen Christina of Sweden (...

Article

(b Heemskerck, 1498; d Haarlem, Oct 1, 1574).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and print designer. He was among the second generation of Netherlandish artists to travel to Italy, where he was profoundly affected by the work of contemporary artists in Rome and by the examples of Classical sculpture to be seen in the city (see Romanism). On his return to the north, van Heemskerck had a long and successful career. His extensive oeuvre (over 100 paintings) comprises large altarpieces, portraits and smaller works (with both religious and mythological subjects). He also produced a vast number of drawings for prints. He helped spread the influence of Michelangelo and Giulio Romano in the northern Netherlands, through his strong, monumental style, with much emphasis on anatomical detail. He was thus an important figure in the dissemination of late Mannerism in northern Europe, particularly through the hundreds of prints executed after his drawings.

The most important source for his life is van Mander, who worked on his ...

Article

Christine van Mulders

[a Merice [a Merige, Ameringus, Merecinus, Merecynus, Miricenis, Miricenys, Miricinus, Miriginus, Mirycinis, Myricenis, Myricinus, Myriginus], Petrus; Verheyden, Peter [Pieter]]

(b Antwerp, ?c. 1530; d Berchem, nr Antwerp, after March 1572).

Flemish engraver. In 1557 he became a master in the Antwerp Guild of St Luke. In the early part of his career, from 1551, but mainly between 1556 and 1559, he worked with the publisher Hieronymus Cock, a collaboration that lasted until the latter’s death in 1570. Hundreds of van der Heyden’s reproductive prints were issued through Cock’s publishing house, Aux Quatre Vents, and he also had contacts with the publisher Christoph Plantin. In 1571 van der Heyden moved to a country house at Berchem (nr Antwerp) rented by Plantin, who paid him for engravings for the last time in March 1572. It is assumed that van der Heyden died there during the Spanish Fury of 1576.

Van der Heyden’s printed oeuvre is very diverse and includes religious, mythological, allegorical, satirical and genre scenes as well as portraits and ornaments. The prints are notable for their faithful replication of the original artist’s style and thus lack individuality. During the early years of his collaboration with ...

Article

M. J. C. Otten

(bapt Amsterdam, Sept 10, 1645; bur Haarlem, June 15, 1708).

Dutch etcher, draughtsman, painter, sculptor, medallist and writer. He is best known for his political caricatures of Louis XIV of France and for his prints glorifying William III, Stadholder of the Netherlands and King of England. De Hooghe is an important representative of the late Dutch Baroque. His style is characterized by strong contrasts of lights and darks and an expressive composition. In his prints he combined contemporary personalities with allegorical figures. His prints are numerous, but few of his drawings survive and his paintings are rarer still. De Hooghe’s first commission for an etching probably came from Constantijn Huygens the elder, secretary to William III; this was Zeestraet (1667; Hollstein, no. 287). In 1668 de Hooghe was in Paris, where he produced some book illustrations, but he returned to Amsterdam, where from 1670 to 1691 he illustrated the annual newsheet Hollandsche Mercurius. He regularly produced such political prints as ...

Article

(b Antwerp, ?early 16th century; d Prague, 1583).

Flemish goldsmith, printmaker and draughtsman, active in Germany. He trained as a goldsmith in Antwerp and was probably already established in Augsburg by 1555, when he married Afra Haug, who was from a prominent Augsburg patrician family. Between 1559 and 1566 he was active in Nuremberg. Because of his reputation as a goldsmith, Nuremberg’s city council honoured him in 1559 with citizenship, and in 1563 he was admitted to the goldsmiths’ guild. After giving up his Nuremberg citizenship in 1566, Hornick presumably returned to Augsburg, where he is recorded in 1568, in 1570 (when he remarried) and again in 1578.

Although Hornick’s contemporaries held his goldsmith work in high esteem, no examples by his hand have been positively identified. His known oeuvre includes 83 etchings plus over 600 drawings attributed to him or his workshop on the basis of his prints. Most of the etchings were published as pattern books of vessels (...

Article

Paul Hogarth

(b Kotagiri, Madras, India, March 13, 1836; d London, Nov 25, 1875).

English painter and illustrator. He played a leading role in the renaissance of wood-engraved illustration during the so-called golden decade of English book illustration (c. 1860–75), when a new school of artists overcame the limitations of the medium. Deeply influenced by the idealism of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, he imbued both his paintings and drawings with a haunting blend of poetic realism. He was the fourth son of Captain John Michael Houghton (1797–1874), who served in the East India Company’s Marine as a draughtsman.

Houghton was admitted to the Royal Academy Schools, London, in 1854 but did not pass further than the Life School. He received additional training at J. M. Leigh’s academy and its convivial corollary, the Langham Artists’ Society, which was then a forcing-house for young impoverished painters who wished to have a foot in both publishing and the fine arts. There, with older artists such as Charles Keene and John Tenniel, he learnt to run the race against time with a set weekly subject. Keene, already a well-known contributor to ...

Article

Janez Höfler

[Wolf]

(b Feldkirch, Vorarlberg, c. 1485; d Passau, June 3, 1553).

Austrian painter, draughtsman, woodcut designer and architect. A contract of 1515, for the St Anne altar in Feldkirch in Vorarlberg, describes him as coming from that town; Hans Huber, a Feldkirch painter mentioned in 1491, was probably either his father or uncle. He does not seem to have trained with any well-known painter of the previous generation in southern Germany or Austria. Huber has been regarded by art historians as the next most important painter in the so-called Danube school after Albrecht Altdorfer; but he was a thoroughly independent artist from the outset of his career, and even later, when he did move closer to Altdorfer in his manner, he retained his individuality, distinct from any other representative of the Danube style. His own talent was matched by a sure recognition of artistic quality that made him turn his attention when young to Albrecht Dürer and Dürer’s Italian models, though not imitatively. He strove to construct calm and unified compositions with an atmosphere of lyricism and intimacy, both in his paintings—religious subjects and portraits—and in his freehand drawings—mainly landscapes. Though Italian influences are evident in Huber’s work, their manner of transmission remains a mystery....