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Rand Carter

(b Neuruppin, Mark Brandenburg, March 13, 1781; d Berlin, Oct 9, 1841).

German architect, painter and stage designer. He was the greatest architect in 19th-century Germany, and his most important surviving buildings in Berlin (see Berlin, §I, 3) and Potsdam (see Potsdam, §1) show his sense of German idealism and technical mastery. He became Geheimer Oberlandesbaudirektor of the Prussian state and influenced many architects in Germany and abroad.

Schinkel’s father, a Lutheran pastor, died after attempting to save victims of a fire in 1787 that destroyed most of Neuruppin, a town 27 km north-west of Berlin. Much of Schinkel’s boyhood was spent in a town under reconstruction, a model of royal benevolence and rational planning. In 1794 his mother and her six children moved to Berlin to a home for the widows of Lutheran pastors. At the 1797 Akademie der Künste exhibition in Berlin the 16-year-old Schinkel was so fascinated by a project for a monument to Frederick II of Prussia...


(b Landskrona, May 11, 1790; d Stockholm, Oct 15, 1848).

Swedish painter. He entered the army in 1805 and remained a professional soldier until 1833. Having received permission to study art in Rome (1824–8), he was supervised by Johan Niklas Byström and Bengt Erland Fogelberg. During these years he copied the works of the Old Masters and also painted portraits and mythological pictures. He returned to Sweden in 1828 and the following year exhibited at the Kungliga Akademi för de Fria Konsterna in Stockholm. From 1832 to 1840 he travelled widely, studying fresco painting in Munich (1832) and visiting Rome, France and England. In the late 1830s he studied under Franz Xaver Winterhalter in Paris and soon thereafter established himself as an important portrait painter in Sweden, receiving numerous commissions. His pictures are typically Neo-classical in style, often with a touch of sentimentality (e.g. Karolina Bygler, 1835; Stockholm, Nmus.). Other works include his portrait of the opera singer ...


U. v. Hase-Schmundt

[Joseph Kaspar]

(b Mainz, Nov 1, 1781; d Munich, April 9, 1858).

German painter. In 1798 he studied under Christoph Fesel (1737–1805) in Würzburg and in 1800 with Heinrich Füger in Vienna, where his style was strongly influenced by English portraiture. After he studied in Paris (1807–8) with François Gérard the influence of Neo-classicism became apparent in his work. He visited Italy in 1809, 1810 and 1812 to do commissioned portraits for various patrons, among them Prince Eugène de Beauharnais (1809; Munich, Bayer. Nmus.) and Joachim Murat, King of Naples (reg 1808–15). In 1812 he went to Munich where he did work for middle-class clients, the nobility and the royal family of Bavaria (e.g. the portrait of Maximilian I Joseph, 1816; Ellingen, Schloss). In 1820 he was appointed court painter to Ludwig I, King of Bavaria (reg 1825–48), and painted several portraits of him. In 1823 he helped co-found the Kunstverein in Munich. He was one of the most important portrait painters in the Neo-classical style, specializing particularly in studies of women, as seen in the 36 portraits commissioned by ...


Nancy Halverson Schless

(b Philadelphia, PA, 1788; d Nashville, TN, April 6, 1854).

American architect, engineer and painter. Among the first generation of native-born architects, he was an influential designer in the Greek Revival style. Over a period of almost 50 years he executed more than 70 commissions, many of them in Philadelphia. His last major building was the Tennessee State Capitol in Nashville, built from 1845.

Through his father, a master carpenter who had worked on Latrobe’s Bank of Pennsylvania, Strickland was apprenticed to Benjamin Henry Latrobe in 1803, remaining in his office for about four years. During his apprenticeship he studied Latrobe’s folios of Greek antiquities, including James Stuart’s and Nicholas Revett’s Antiquities of Athens, 4 vols (1762–1816), as well as publications by the Society of Dilettanti. By 1807 he was in New York with his father, working as a painter of stage scenery. The following year he returned to Philadelphia, where he received his first major commission: a design for the city’s Masonic Hall (...


José Manuel Arnáiz

(b Caravaca de la Cruz, Murcia, Nov 27, 1798; d Madrid, Oct 3, 1856).

Spanish painter. He began his studies with the Sociedad de Amigos del País in Murcia under the direction of Santiago Baglieto and later moved to Madrid, where he continued to study under José Aparicio and at the Real Academia de S Fernando under the patronage of the Marqués de San Mamés. In 1824 he received a grant to go to Rome, where he remained for three years, working under Pietro Benvenuti and Vicenzo Camuzi. Tejeo became an academician of the Real Academia on 21 September 1828; he was made Assistant Director on 23 August 1839 and Director on 11 August 1842; he renounced these titles after he had been involved in a violent incident. Tejeo was named court painter (Pintor de Cámara) to Isabella II. He was perhaps the leading perpetuator of Spanish Neo-classicism, as is seen in the painting made to mark his entry into the Academia, ...


(b Montalbano, nr Modena, Jan 15, 1730; d Bologna, July 18, 1766).

Italian painter and engraver. Jacopo Alessandro Calvi’s ‘Vita di Mauro Tesi’, preface to an early collection of the artist’s engravings, Raccolta di disegni originale di Mauro Tesi, gives a detailed account of Tesi’s life and career. The Raccolta also includes a catalogue both of Tesi’s own engravings and of those after his work, as well as a representative selection of his numerous engraved architectural designs (capriccios and vedute, theatre decorations, baldacchini and funerary monuments). According to the ‘Vita’, Tesi received some formal training, first, in decorative painting and, thereafter, in engraving in his native Bologna, but he was largely self-taught. He worked successfully as a decorative and architectural painter, both in fresco and in oil, executing vedute and ornamentation all’antica in and on churches and private and public buildings throughout Bologna, as well as in Pistoia and Florence. Most of his monumental painting has disappeared or been destroyed, with the notable exception of the frescoed chapel of SS Sacramento in S Martino Maggiore, Bologna. Tesi is perhaps best known through his association with his patron and close friend, the Venetian collector and critic ...


R. H. Davis jr and Edward Kasinec

[Tomon; Toma de]

(b Nancy, Dec 21, 1754; d St Petersburg, 22–23 Aug 1813).

French architect, engraver and painter, active mainly in Russia. He was educated at the Académie Royale d’Architecture, Paris, and from 1780 in Rome, where he sketched Classical sites in the city and elsewhere in Italy. As a royalist he left France in the wake of the Revolution and settled successively in Vienna, Eisenstadt and Russia (1798). In 1800 he was elected an Academician. He was appointed court architect on 30 January 1802 and Professor of Architecture at the Imperial Academy on 11 December 1802. Thomon’s major works include the reconstruction of the Bolshoi Theatre (1803; destr. 1813), Moscow. Its design was influenced by Charles de Wailly’s Odéon in Paris: a long rectangle housing a horseshoe-shaped auditorium, with various foyers and salons filling the intervening space. The two-storey façade featured a portico of eight Ionic columns.

In St Petersburg, Thomon built the Stock Exchange (1805–10; now the ...


Olivier Michel

(b Nave, Lucca, Sept 26, 1752; d Lucca, Nov 29, 1812).

Italian painter. At the age of ten he entered the workshop of Giuseppe Antonio Luchi (1709–74), and in 1767 joined the school of Bernardino Nocchi, who in 1769 took him to Rome, where Tofanelli completed his training with Niccolò Lapiccola. Under the supervision of the latter he took part in the restoration (1772) of Pope Julius II’s villa and the decoration of the Palazzo Caffarelli-Vidoni-Stoppani (from 1773; in situ), both in Rome. His talent as a draughtsman quickly attracted attention: he was sought after by the engravers Giovanni Volpato and Raphael Morghen to make copies of works by Old Masters, and in 1781 he set up a school of drawing.

Tofanelli was one of the best Neo-classical portrait painters and in Rome he produced such examples as Count Alessandro Castracane (1781; Providence, RI Sch. Des., Mus. A.) and Christopher Hewetson Sculpting the Bust of Gavin Hamilton...


Maria Cristina Bandera Viani

(b Florence, Nov 2, 1727; d Milan, Nov 14, 1812).

Italian painter and engraver. He trained in Florence with Agostino Veracini (1689–1762) and Francesco Conti (1681–1760), and studied architecture and stage design under Antonio Galli-Bibiena. His earliest known painting is a fresco of 1758: Heavenly Father in Glory in the Dominican church in Livorno. He enriched his art by the study of Correggio’s works in Parma, and also those of Bolognese painters, making engravings (1764–7) after paintings by Guido Reni, Agostino Carracci, Annibale Carracci, Guercino and others. These were praised in 1765 by Pierre-Jean Mariette and were later collected in an album entitled Venticinque quadri ai maestri eccellenti incisi da Giuliano Traballesi (Milan, 1796).

In 1764 he won a competition at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Parma with the painting Furius Camillus Liberating Rome from the Gallic Senones, a work that is deeply influenced by the Bolognese tradition and by the Roman classicism of Nicolas Poussin. The success of this painting won Traballesi major commissions in his native Tuscany, where the transition from Rococo to Neo-classicism had been encouraged by the reforms initiated by Leopoldo II Habsburg-Lorraine when he became Grand Duke of Tuscany in ...


Ramón Gutiérrez

(b Celaya, Oct 13, 1759; d Celaya, Aug 3, 1833).

Mexican architect, painter, engraver, and sculptor. He studied painting under Miguel Cabrera at the Real Academia de las Nobles Artes de S Carlos in Mexico City but did not graduate. He subsequently took up wood-carving and engraving. He learnt the elements of architecture from the Jesuits, who gave him a copy of the writings of Jacopo Vignola. His architecture exhibits a familiarity with the classic treatises, although he never visited Europe. Tresguerras’s first major work (1780s) was the reconstruction in Neo-classical style of the convent church of S Rosa, Querétaro, originally consecrated in 1752. The dome over the crossing is set on a drum articulated by rusticated columns, which flank a series of round-headed openings. He is also credited with remodelling the interior of the convent church of S Clara, Querétaro, and with constructing the Neptune Fountain (1802–7) in the plaza in front of it. The god stands under a triumphal arch, while water pours through the mouth of a fish at his feet. Tresguerras also completed (...


Mimi Cazort



Philip Conisbee


(b Toulouse, Dec 6, 1750; d Paris, Feb 16, 1819).

French painter. He trained at the academy in Toulouse under the history painter Jean-Baptiste Despax (1709–73). In 1769 he went to Italy for the first time, with Mathias Du Bourg, a councillor at the Toulouse parliament. Du Bourg introduced him to Etienne-François, Duc de Choiseul, a keen patron of the arts, who in turn recommended him to Gabriel-François Doyen, one of the leading history painters in Paris, whose studio he entered in 1773. Doyen gave his pupil a sense of the elevated ideals of history painting but was also sympathetic to the lesser genre of landscape. Valenciennes presumably frequented Choiseul’s country seat at Chanteloup, near Amboise, meeting there the landscape painters Hubert Robert and Jean Hoüel, both protégés of Choiseul. His early interest in the native landscape can be seen in his sketchbooks (Paris, Louvre), especially one dated 1775 that contains drawings made at Amboise, Compiègne and Fontainebleau, and in a later series of oil studies on paper made in Brittany, at the mouth of the River Rance and around St Malo....


Kenneth C. Lindsay

(b Kingston, NY, Oct 15, 1775; d Kingston, Sept 24, 1852).

American painter. The grandson of Pieter Vanderlyn (1687–1778), a portrait painter active in the Hudson River Valley, he manifested an early talent for penmanship and drawing. During his late youth he moved to New York, where he worked in a frame shop and studied in Archibald Robertson’s drawing academy. His copy of a portrait by Gilbert Stuart brought him to the attention of that artist, with whom he then worked in Philadelphia.

Under the patronage of the politician Aaron Burr (1756–1836), Vanderlyn went to France in 1796, becoming the first American painter to study in Paris. He gained a reliable Neo-classical technique and aspirations after ‘the Grand Manner’ from his teacher François-André Vincent. Exhibits at the Paris Salons over several years—beginning with the notable Self-portrait of 1800 (New York, Met.)—reflected his growing ambitions. In 1804 he produced a history painting with an American subject, the Murder of Jane McCrea...


Jörg Garms

(b Naples, May 12, 1700; d Caserta, March 1, 1773).

Italian architect, draughtsman and painter. His work represents the transition from Baroque to Neo-classicism, and his correspondence and the number of his extant drawings make him perhaps the best-documented Italian architect of the 18th century. Vanvitelli’s father was the Dutch vedute painter Gaspar van Wittel, and his mother was Roman. Luigi began his career as a history painter, and from 1724 he was employed as a copyist in the fabbrica of St Peter’s in Rome. The extent of his academic training is not clear, but under Antonio Valeri (1648–1736), who succeeded Carlo Fontana as architetto soprastante, Vanvitelli discovered his talent as an architect. Ultimately, however, Valeri was a less significant influence on his work than Fontana or Filippo Juvarra. His first patron was the prefect Cardinal Annibale Albani. As a member of the latter’s retinue, in the 1720s, Vanvitelli went to Urbino, where he participated in the decoration of the Albani Chapel (...


(b Aarschot, 1728; d Leuven, 1811).

Belgian painter. He was a late imitator of Rubens, and his entire career reflects his unwillingness to come to terms with the Neo-classicism of the late 18th century. At 18 he was in the studio of Balthazar Beschey in Antwerp. There he studied the work of Rubens and the Antwerp school. For the first 20 years of his career Verhagen received few commissions and supported himself with decorative work. His first important painting was the Presentation of the Virgin (Ghent, Mus. S. Kst.), and this large Baroque work brought him commissions (e.g. St Stephen Receiving the Papal Legates, Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.). Charles of Lorraine (1712–81) offered to finance Verhagen on a visit to Italy. Verhagen left for Italy in 1771 but found the Neo-classicism prevalent in Rome of little interest. He did, however, produce a few works in this period, for example the Pilgrims to Emmaus (Laxenburg, Altes Schloss). He left Rome in ...


(b Oporto, May 13, 1765; d Funchal, Madeira, May 2, 1805).

Portuguese painter. He was the son of the painter Domingos Francisco Vieira (d 1804), with whom he attended the Oporto studio of the French artist Jean Pillement. He moved to Lisbon in 1787 to take drawing lessons and two years later left for Rome, on a bursary from a group of mainly British merchants from Oporto. In Rome he studied with Domenico Corvi, became a member of the Accademia di S Luca and in 1791 set up his own studio, receiving the patronage of the Portuguese ambassador, João de Almeida e Mello e Castro, and Alexandre de Sousa Holstein, father of the 1st Duque de Palmela. The canvases he returned to Portugal, for instance St John the Baptist (1791; Oporto, N. Mus. Soares dos Reis) and St Augustine, St Ambrose, St Jerome and St Gregory (1792–3; Faro, Museu Mun.), show the influence of Corvi. At this time Vieira developed a rapid, synthesizing draughtsmanship while copying or drawing from nature, though the invention of figures caused him greater difficulty (sketchbooks, Lisbon, Mus. N. A. Ant.). In Italy he also began to study classical composition, as exemplified in the work of Poussin and the Carracci. His painting was subsequently characterized by the submission of colour to line....


Joshua Drapkin

(b Montpellier, June 18, 1716; d Paris, March 27, 1809).

French painter, draughtsman and engraver. He was one of the earliest French painters to work in the Neo-classical style, and although his own work veered uncertainly between that style and the Baroque, Vien was a decisive influence on some of the foremost artists of the heroic phase of Neo-classicism, notably Jacques-Louis David, Jean-François-Pierre Peyron, Joseph-Benoît Suvée and Jean-Baptiste Regnault, all of whom he taught. Both his wife, Marie-Thérèse Reboul (1738–1805), and Joseph-Marie Vien fils (1762–1848) were artists: Marie-Thérèse exhibited at the Salon in 1757–67; Joseph-Marie fils earned his living as a portrait painter and engraver.

After spending his youth in various forms of employment, including work as a painter of faience and as an assistant to the artist Jacques Giral, Vien travelled to Paris and entered the studio of Charles-Joseph Natoire in 1740. Three years later he won the Prix de Rome and in 1744 went to the Académie de France in Rome. His participation in the energetic reappraisal of form, technique and purpose taking place in French art from the mid-1740s onwards is well demonstrated by paintings executed before and during his time in Italy. These include the ...


Jean-Pierre Cuzin

(b Paris, Dec 30, 1746; d Paris, 3 or Aug 4, 1816).

French painter and draughtsman. He was one of the principal innovators in French art of the 1770s and 1780s, in the field of both Neo-classical subjects and themes from national history. Despite the fact that he worked in a variety of styles, his sense of purpose appears to have been coherent at a time of profound change. His stylistic sources lay in the art of Classical antiquity and such masters as Raphael, the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century and Charles Le Brun; yet he also studied reality in a quasi-documentary way. His work, too often confused with that of Jean-Honoré Fragonard, Jacques-Louis David or Louis-Léopold Boilly, is of a high standard, even though the completed paintings do not always uphold the promise of energy of his drawings and oil sketches.

He was the son of the miniature painter François-Elie Vincent (1708–90), who was perhaps his first teacher. He then studied in ...


(b Balingen, nr Tübingen, Feb 28, 1762; d Stuttgart, Aug 14, 1852).

German painter. He was one of the leading figures of German Neo-classicism and a precursor of the Nazarenes. From 1781 to 1784 he trained as an artist at the Karlsschule in Stuttgart and worked on his own in Mannheim. In 1785 he went to Paris, where he studied with Jean-Baptiste Regnault until 1792. From either 1792 or 1793 to 1798 he lived in Rome and was influenced by Asmus Jakob Carstens’s strict formal language and tendency to monumentalize. He was also impressed with Classical art and the work of Italian painters of the 13th and 14th centuries. He created his most original works in Rome, among them Job and his Friends (begun 1793 or 1794, completed 1824; Stuttgart, Staatsgal.). His choice of a biblical subject and his flat relief-like space accounts for his subsequent popularity with the Nazarene painters. In 1796 he married Franziska Bandini and converted to Catholicism. In ...


Clementine Schack von Wittenau

(b Karthaus Prüll, nr Regensburg, April 14, 1839; d Munich, Dec 26, 1881).

German sculptor and painter. He trained at the Munich Akademie der Bildenden Künste, where he soon turned against the basically Neo-classicist attitudes of his teacher Max von Widnmann and turned to naturalism, following the example of Reinhold Begas. After establishing a studio of his own in 1860, he received few commissions for sculpture and turned his hand to genre painting instead. Between 1868 and 1874 he exhibited paintings at the Royal Academy in London. However, he went on to achieve wide recognition through commissions from Ludwig II and from the Munich Akademie, which made him an honorary member in 1872.

Wagmüller is considered the most important Munich representative of naturalistic sculpture; he left a substantial body of work, which displays both a knowledge of antique sculpture and scrupulous attention to living models. Even in his most mature works Wagmüller emphasized the painterly values of light and shade and rich detail, as well as clear formal construction. This combination is exemplified by his own tomb at the cemetery in Old Schwabing, a sarcophagus decorated with sphinxes supporting a seated female figure holding a child. In contrast, the decorative figures in Baroque garb modelled for ...