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Peyton Skipwith

(b London, April 14, 1863; d London, Nov 27, 1933).

English decorative artist and painter. He was articled to an architect and studied at Westminster School of Art under Frederick Brown and at the Royal Academy Schools. Later he worked in the studio of Aimé Morot in Paris and travelled to Italy. Bell belonged to the group of artist–craftsmen who brought about the last flowering of the Pre-Raphaelite movement. He painted in oil and watercolour and was among the pioneers of the revival of the use of tempera. He was an illustrator and also worked in stained glass and mosaic. He is best known for a series of bas-reliefs in coloured plaster, a group of which was used in the interior decoration at Le Bois de Moutiers, a house in Varengeville, Normandy, designed by Edwin Lutyens in 1898. Bell’s understanding of early Italian art underpinned his work in mosaic, a medium he used to great effect in three public commissions in London: the ...


Michel Sylvestre

(Charles) (de)

(b ?Bassigny, c. 1575; d Nancy, 1616).

French painter, etcher and draughtsman. His known artistic activity dates only from 1602 to 1616 and he is now familiar chiefly for his etchings and drawings, all his decorative works and most of his paintings having perished. His highly idiosyncratic style was inspired by such Italian artists as Parmigianino, by the School of Fontainebleau and by northern artists including Albrecht Dürer and Bartholomeus Spranger. His work would seem to express a private and nervous religious sensibility through a style of the greatest refinement. It is among the latest and most extreme expressions of Mannerism. He was influential on other Lorraine artists: Claude Déruet was his pupil, as, perhaps, was Georges de La Tour.

He may have had his earliest artistic training in Bassigny, the south-west part of the then independent duchy of Lorraine, or in Nancy, its capital. He may have completed it in Italy, perhaps in Florence, and/or in Paris. On ...



(b Venice, Jan 30, 1721; d Warsaw, Nov 17, 1780).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was a view painter who worked in Italy and later at the courts of Dresden, Vienna, Munich and Warsaw. The nephew and almost certainly the pupil of Canaletto, outside Italy he signed his works de Canaletto and hence became known as Canaletto. He painted both topographical and imaginary views in a style independent of his uncle’s, distinguished by cold colour and by the austere geometry of architectural masses.

Bellotto was the son of Lorenzo Bellotto, whose origins and occupation are obscure, and of Fiorenza Domenica Canale, sister of Canaletto, the most celebrated exponent of view painting and almost certainly Bellotto’s teacher. Bellotto’s early induction into the Fraglia dei Pittori (the Venetian painters’ guild) in 1738 suggests influential backing; and in the mid-1730s Canaletto, at the height of his first fame, undoubtedly required assistance on his immense output. Bellotto’s earliest attributed works were clearly produced under his uncle’s influence. Examples include the limpid painting of the ...


John Steen

(b Amsterdam, April 16, 1890; d Amsterdam, Dec 16, 1933).

Dutch painter and draughtsman. He made his first abstract line drawings c. 1910, which he showed at an autumn exhibition of De Onafhankelijken (The Independents) in Amsterdam. Between 1909 and 1914, with Jan van Deene (1886–1977) and John Anton Raedecker (1885–1956) in Paris he developed absolute schilderkunst, an early form of linear abstraction. In 1912 he exhibited stylized heads composed of flowing lines in the Moderne Kunstkring. In his oeuvre abstract work and stylized motifs from nature feature alongside each other. Bendien was a close friend of Mondrian. In 1923 he settled in Amsterdam. Towards the end of the 1920s he also produced figurative work in the style of Neue Sachlichkeit. He also made biomorphic sculptures, reminiscent of the work of Hans Arp. A posthumously published book (1935) lays down Bendien’s views on contemporary painting, in which he postulates the term Meditisme to define his own work: fluidity of line and colour represent the painter’s thoughts and emotional life....


Sergey Kuznetsov, Catherine Cooke and Kenneth Archer


Russian family of artists, of French descent. The architect (1) Nikolay Benois, who married the daughter of the architect Al’bert Kavos, was the father of the painter Albert Benois (1852–1937), the architect (2) Leonty Benois and the painter (3) Alexandre Benois, who were part of a circle that comprised the leading arbiters of aesthetic matters in St Petersburg for at least two decades before the Russian Revolution of 1917. This position was consolidated by the marriage of Nikolay’s daughter, Yekaterina, to the sculptor Yevgeny (Aleksandrovich) Lansere (1848–86): their children were the architect Nikolay Lansere, the painter Yevgeny Lansere (see Lansere family) and the painter Serebryakova [Lansere], Zinaida.

(b St Petersburg, July 13, 1813; d St Petersburg, Dec 23, 1898).

Architect. From 1827 his first tutor at the St Petersburg Academy of Arts was Ivan Gomzin (1784–1831); in 1831 Kh. F. Meyer (?...


M. Newcome

(b Pieve di Teco, Oct 30, 1592; d Pieve di Teco, Nov 6, 1668).

Italian painter and draughtsman. Around 1605 he came to Genoa, where he presented himself to a leading patron of the arts, Gian Carlo Doria, who gave him lodging and recommended him to Giovanni Battista Paggi, in whose influential studio he trained. Students were required first to copy sketches, then paintings and reliefs and, finally, to draw from nature. Benso made many copies after a variety of source material, among them the Sacrifice of Abraham (Florence, Uffizi) after Luca Cambiaso and the Joseph Sold into Slavery (Berlin, Kupferstichkab.) after Raphael. While still with Paggi, Benso produced ‘bizarre sketches of great number and variety, as he had a fertile mind along with a lively and vigorous imagination’ (Soprani, p. 280). In order to learn perspective he constructed architectural models, which were greatly admired; they enabled him to achieve formidable feats of aerial perspective in his paintings, in which figures and ornament are boldly foreshortened....



(bapt Haarlem, Oct 1, 1621/2; d Amsterdam, Feb 18, 1683).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and etcher, son of Pieter Claesz. He was one of the most talented, versatile and well-paid artists of his time. A prolific member of the second generation of Dutch Italianates, Berchem also produced scenes of his native landscape, winter landscapes, night scenes, hunts, battles, imaginary Mediterranean harbours, complex allegories, as well as history paintings. According to Hofstede de Groot, his oeuvre amounts to c. 857 paintings, and while this estimate is inflated by numerous misattributions, Berchem was undoubtedly a prolific artist. He also made more than 300 drawings and around 50 etchings, mostly of animal subjects. In addition, he painted the staffage in the works of such artists as Jacob van Ruisdael (e.g. the Great Oak, 1652; Birmingham, Mus. & A.G.), Meindert Hobbema, Willem Schellinks, Allaert van Everdingen and Jan Hackaert. Furthermore, Berchem collaborated with Gerrit Dou, Jan Wils (c. 1610–66) and Jan Baptist Weenix the elder....


Mario Béland

(bapt Wallerstein, Saxony, Dec 10, 1744; d New York, Feb 5, 1813).

Canadian painter and architect of German birth. He studied at the Akademie der bildenden Künste in Vienna in 1762 and subsequently at the University of Jena in Saxony. During the 1770s he lived in several European countries before settling in Florence as a miniature painter at the end of the decade. About 1790 he moved to London where he pursued his career as a painter, exhibiting at the Royal Academy. In 1792 he departed for America with a group of settlers and two years later set up a business in the area of York (now Toronto). In 1798–9 he worked as a portrait painter in Quebec, producing a wide range of pictures from miniatures on ivory to life-size canvases (e.g. Governor Prescott; Quebec, Mus. Semin.). From 1803 he made his living solely from painting, mainly in Montreal and Quebec. Berczy was recognized as one of the best painters in both Upper and Lower Canada. At the same time as he was becoming a popular portrait painter, he devoted time to religious painting and to architectural work, including plans made in ...


Christiaan Schuckman

(b Haarlem, 1629; d Haarlem, March 4, 1684).

Dutch draughtsman, etcher and painter. He was an amateur artist from a ruling-class family in Haarlem. In 1644 he was registered as a pupil of Salomon de Bray. A year earlier his sister Elisabeth had married Pieter Cornelisz. Verbeeck (c. 1610–1654), a horse painter and minor printmaker who may have taught Beresteyn both painting and etching. Beresteyn’s only signed painting shows his brother-in-law leaning over a grey horse (ex-E. A. van Beresteyn priv. col., The Hague; Gerson, no. A1). The subject-matter and the style of Beresteyn’s etchings, however, show that he was profoundly influenced by Jacob van Ruisdael. Most of Beresteyn’s nine etchings are signed and two are dated 1650, one year after Ruisdael had stopped dating his own etchings. Beresteyn’s etching Cornfield Surrounded by Gnarled Trees (Gerson, no. C5) and the related pen-and-ink drawing (Paris, Fond. Custodia, Inst. Néer) are free versions of Ruisdael’s etching Grainfield at the Edge of a...


(b Salzburg, May 1, 1753; d Prague, June 25, 1829).

Austrian painter, printmaker, draughtsman, illustrator and teacher, active in Bohemia. He was taught by his father, the sculptor and painter Josef Bergler the elder (1718–88), and, during his stay in Italy, by Martin Knoller in Milan and Anton von Maron in Rome. An accomplished portrait painter, he was employed as official painter by bishops and cardinals at Passau and painted a number of altarpieces in Austria and especially in Bohemia. He helped establish the Academy of Fine Arts, Prague (1800), which placed a new emphasis on draughtsmanship, composition and Classical subjects and models. As the first Director of the Academy, Bergler won new academic prestige for art in Bohemia and, for himself, a privileged position in obtaining commissions such as the Curtain at the Estates Theatre (sketches, 1803–4; Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes). He also published albums of engravings intended as models (Compositions and Sketches...


(b Türkheim, bapt April 15, 1688; d Augsburg, April 2, 1762).

German painter, teacher, draughtsman and printmaker. His frescoes and altarpieces and his teaching established him as the dominant figure in the art life of Augsburg in the earlier 18th century. He came from a family of well-known Swabian sculptors, cabinetmakers and painters, with whom he probably initially trained. The Bavarian Duke Maximilian Philip paid for him to study (1702–8) with the Munich court painter Johann Andreas Wolff, after which he was summoned by the Elector of the Palatinate to decorate the court church of St Hubertus in Düsseldorf (1708–9; destr.). In 1710 or 1712 Bergmüller frescoed the church of Kreuzpullach, near Wolfratshausen. In his request for permission to marry and for mastership in Augsburg in 1712, he referred to an otherwise undocumented stay in the Netherlands. He settled permanently in the Imperial Free City in 1713 and attended its Reichstädtische Kunstakademie from 1715. From this time he rose to become the most influential painter and teacher in Augsburg, with apprentices coming from beyond the city, including ...


Theodor Enescu

(b Bucharest, Sep 14, 1938).

Romanian painter. He started painting in 1955–6 and studied architecture, physics and painting at the Pedagogical Institute in Bucharest (1963–5), although from 1960 to 1965 his studies were interrupted by bans imposed by the Communist authorities. His style was sincere and austere, with expressionistic accents inspired by the peculiar landscape and spiritual atmosphere of Poiana Mărului, the village near Braşov where, because of the exile of his family, he had spent his childhood and adolescence and where he constantly returned between 1960 and 1977. His early paintings resemble those of Ion Ţuculescu. His most characteristic subjects were village landscapes, country houses and self-portraits. Between 1969 and 1971 he concentrated mainly on an Abstract Expressionist style of painting and conceptual drawing. He returned subsequently to natural forms, which he interpreted with a purified ‘realism’. In 1971–8 he created five cycles of paintings that represented a hill near his home village (e.g. ...


Nathalie Volle

(b Laon, March 5, 1743; d Paris, March 1, 1811).

French painter and draughtsman. In 1764 he entered the studio of Noël Hallé, whose work strongly influenced his early paintings. Alexander Cutting the Gordian Knot (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.), with which he won the Prix de Rome in 1767, is a brilliant exercise in the grand academic style as conceived by the followers of François Boucher. After a period at the Ecole Royale des Elèves Protégés he completed his training at the Académie de France in Rome from 1771 to 1774. Although he impressed the then director of the Académie, Charles-Joseph Natoire, and formed friendships with the painters François-Guillaume Ménageot, François-André Vincent and Joseph-Benoît Suvée and the architects Pierre-Adrien Pâris and Jean-Jacques-Marie Huvé (1742–1808), his artistic activity during his years in Rome is obscure. A number of spectacular drawings in red chalk, such as those of the Villa d’Este, Tivoli (Orléans, Mus. B.-A.) and the Villa Colonna and Villa Negroni...


Simon Lee

(b Paris, Jan 1668; d Paris, April 11, 1736).

French painter and draughtsman. In 1678 he was apprenticed to Guy-Louis Vernansal (1648–1729); he later became a pupil of Jean Jouvenet and in 1684–5 of Bon Boullogne. By 1684 he was enrolled at the Académie Royale, Paris, and a year later won the Prix de Rome with his Construction of Noah’s Ark (untraced). He probably arrived in Rome towards the end of 1685, and he stayed until the winter of 1688–9. While in Italy he studied the work of Raphael and the Carracci family, as well as showing an interest in Correggio. He also led a student protest against the teaching régime of the Académie de France in Rome. After some months in Lyon he returned to Paris in 1689 and began to work on minor commissions, including drawings of the statues in the park at Versailles (Paris, Bib. N.). The influence of the Boullogne brothers is evident in his small-scale paintings of this time, such as ...


(b Parma, July 22, 1544; d ?1573).

Italian painter and draughtsman. His earliest known work, the fresco of the Coronation of the Virgin (1566) for the façade of the Palazzo Comunale, Parma, of which a fragment of the Virgin’s head remains (detached, Parma, Pal. Com.), shows the influence of Parmigianino. Bertoia’s only other documented paintings are frescoes depicting scenes from the Passion cycle in the oratory of S Lucia del Gonfalone, Rome, and biblical scenes in the Palazzo Farnese, Caprarola (all 1569–73), works that reflect his contact with the art of Raphael and with contemporary Roman Mannerism.

Bertoia devised the decorative scheme at the oratory of S Lucia del Gonfalone, where the ornamental architectural framework, derived from stage scenery, shows a dependence on similar work by Francesco Salviati. His figure style in the cycle is directly influenced by Raphael’s frescoes in the Chigi Chapel, S Maria della Pace, Rome. Bertoia executed the first scene, the ...


Francine-Claire Legrand

(b Wonck, Limbourg, Sept 2, 1910; d Feb 20, 1994).

Belgian painter, draughtsman and engraver. He formulated his style at the Ecole Saint-Luc in Brussels (1927–31), where he later taught (1956–62). He also studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts (1933) and at the academy at Saint-Josse (1936), where he joined up with Anne Bonnet (1908–60) and Louis Van Lint (b 1909). In 1945 he was a founder-member of the Jeune Peinture Belge group, which brought together and encouraged young artists. His self-portraits, interiors, seascapes and urban landscapes underline the unusual elements in everyday life by means of a witty stylization and a use of colour that sometimes gives the canvas a subdued appearance, sometimes with sharp accents of red and yellow (e.g. The Main Beach, 1940–43; Brussels, Mus. A. Mod.)

From 1949 Bertrand moved progressively towards non-figurative painting, firstly through studies of architectural ensembles, later exploring internal three-dimensional space through simplification, for example ...


(b Ancona, c. 1710; d Bologna, Jan 2, 1777).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was a pupil of Vittorio Bigari, whose Rococo style he reinterpreted in a highly personal manner. Bertuzzi’s work was also indebted to Luca Giordano, Antonio Gionima and Giuseppe Maria Crespi. Bertuzzi’s early paintings, which continue the traditions of Emilian art, include scenes from the Life of the Blessed Franco (1753–4; Medicina, Carmelite church) in which he collaborated with the specialist in perspective, Vincenzo del Buono (fl 1726). A theatrical brilliance also distinguishes Bertuzzi’s five standards with the Mysteries of the Passion (1753; Ancona, Gesù) and his paintings on tempera, the Crucifixion and figures of saints and popes (1750–57; Bologna, Madonna di S Luca), which suggest the inspiration of Crespi. Between 1755 and 1760 Bertuzzi frescoed the small chapel of the palazzo ‘di sopra’ at Bagnarola and executed four large decorative paintings in tempera featuring Old Testament scenes (Milan, Pal. Visconti di Modrone Erba) for the gallery. Bertuzzi’s style is distinguished by his virtuoso execution, most evident in his preparatory oil sketches; significantly, the sketches (Milan, Geri priv. col., see Roli, p. 230) for these pictures have been attributed to various 18th-century Venetian painters, whose style he clearly imitated. In the 1750s and 1760s Bertuzzi collaborated with the landscape painters ...


Mariana Katzarova

(b Dolni Dŭbnik, nr Pleven, July 24, 1901; d Sofia, Jan 23, 1958).

Bulgarian cartoonist, illustrator, draughtsman, painter, teacher, editor and critic. In 1926 he studied painting at the Academy of Art, Sofia, and although he was later known for his paintings, he achieved greater fame as a political and social cartoonist and newspaper and magazine illustrator. His early cartoons are courageous commentaries on political events in Bulgaria from 1925 to 1934, wittily satirizing the monarchy and dictatorships. He also mocked the machinations of the various bourgeois political parties as they fought for power. Among his most celebrated cartoons are the Kidnapping of the Constitution and the Tsar’s Family, published in the Sofia newspapers Zemedelsko Zname and Sturetz, as well as Suvremennik and other left-wing publications. He also illustrated the series Spanish Chronicle (1936). In 1940 he began freelancing for the anti-Fascist satirical newspaper Sturshel (Sofia) and in 1941 became its editor. During World War II he executed many political cartoons opposing Fascism and Nazism (e.g. ...


Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(b Gotha, Dec 27, 1725; d Vienna, March 23, 1806).

German sculptor, painter and architect. He was the son of a court gardener who worked first in Gotha and then in Württemberg. He was originally intended to become an architect; in 1747 Duke Charles-Eugene of Württemberg sent him to train in Paris where, under the influence of painters such as Charles-Joseph Natoire and François Boucher, he turned to painting. The eight-year period of study in Rome that followed prompted Beyer to devote himself to sculpture, as he was impressed by antique works of sculpture and was also influenced by his close contacts with Johann Joachim Winckelmann and his circle. He also served an apprenticeship with Filippo della Valle, one of the main representatives of the Neo-classical tendency in sculpture. In 1759 Beyer returned to Germany, to take part in the decoration of Charles-Eugene’s Neues Schloss in Stuttgart.

In Stuttgart Beyer made an important contribution to the founding and improvement of facilities for the training of artists, notably at the Akademie, and to manufacture in the field of arts and crafts, particularly at the ...


Hans Frei

(b Winterthur, Dec 22, 1908; d Zurich, Dec 9, 1994).

Swiss architect, sculptor, painter, industrial designer, graphic designer and writer. He attended silversmithing classes at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Zurich from 1924 to 1927. Then, inspired by the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (1925), Paris, by the works of Le Corbusier and by a competition entry (1927) for the Palace of the League of Nations, Geneva, by Hannes Meyer and Hans Wittwer (1894–1952), he decided to become an architect and enrolled in the Bauhaus, Dessau, in 1927. He studied there for two years as a pupil of Josef Albers, László Moholy-Nagy, Paul Klee and Vasily Kandinsky, mainly in the field of ‘free art’. In 1929 he returned to Zurich. After working on graphic designs for the few modern buildings being constructed, he built his first work, his own house and studio (1932–3) in Zurich-Höngg; although this adheres to the principles of the new architecture, it retains echoes of the traditional, for example in the gently sloping saddle roof....