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(b Lille, 1533; d Leuven, Sept 18, 1585).

South Netherlandish theologian and writer. He became professor of theology and rector of the university at Leuven in 1578 and, one year later, first president of the royal college. In 1573, as dean of the faculty of theology, he was the inspiration and first signatory of the letter from this faculty to Philip II of Spain, which sought to have the Duque de Alba recalled from the Netherlands. Molanus was also dean in 1576 when the faculty concluded that the Pacification of Ghent, which united all the provinces of the northern and southern Netherlands against the Spanish, was not inconsistent with the Catholic religion.

Molanus achieved fame chiefly through his publications, which included a number of hagiographic works and religious histories. In his De picturis et imaginibus sacris liber unus (1570) he was the first writer to dwell on the implications of the Council of Trent (1545–63...


Richard John

(b London, Feb 6, 1478; d London, July 6, 1535).

English statesman, writer and martyr. He was the son of a judge and was educated at Oxford and at the Inns of Court. He entered Parliament, where he rose rapidly, becoming Master of Requests (1517), Treasurer to the Exchequer (1521) and Speaker of the House of Commons (1523); finally he, reluctantly, succeeded Cardinal Wolsey as Lord Chancellor in 1529. Concerned at Henry VIII’s increasing antagonism towards the Church of Rome, he resigned his post in 1532. Following his refusal to acknowledge Henry as the head of the English Church, More was imprisoned, tried for high treason and beheaded in 1535. He was canonized on the fourth centenary of his death. More’s interest in the visual arts was limited, the clearest indication of his attitudes being found in his celebrated Utopia (1516). The Utopians’ aesthetic was utilitarian: they avoided finery (as More himself did whenever possible) and lived in unadorned, solidly built houses. The tomb he commissioned for himself in Chelsea Old Church was Gothic rather than Renaissance in style, suggesting a lack of interest in the avant-garde. It is only by chance that, through his friend and fellow humanist Erasmus, he came in contact with ...


[Kristoffel; Stoffel]

(b Zurich, Feb 1558; d Winterthur, March 27, 1614).

Swiss glass painter, woodcut designer, etcher, book illustrator and writer. He was the son and pupil of the glass painter and councillor Jos Murer (1530–80), founder of a family of artists who lived in Zurich in the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1577 he collaborated with his father on a cycle of 13 pairs of panes representing Thirteen Historic Scenes of the Swiss Confederation for the Zisterzienkloster of Wettingen, Aargau. Christoph’s monograms (sm, stm) are on three panes. He probably followed this work with study travels. In 1579 he designed a cycle of panes in Basle for the well-known citizen Leonhard Thurneysser (1531–96), celebrating the adventurous life of this much-travelled goldsmith, alchemist, astrologer and personal physician to the Elector of Brandenburg. Of the original cycle, two paintings, including the Birth of Leonhard Thurneysser of Basle in 1531 (1579; Basle, Öff. Kstsamml.), and two design sketches (?...


Jeffrey Chipps Smith

(b ?Nuremberg, 1497; d ?Nuremberg, 1563).

German writer, calligrapher and mathematician. He was renowned as a strict teacher of arithmetic and geometry. His calligraphic talents were recognized early. Albrecht Dürer, who lived on the same street until 1509, probably used his designs for the scripts in his woodcuts of the Map of the Eastern Hemisphere (1515) and of the portrait of Ulrich Varnbüler (1522), his painting of the Four Apostles (1526; Munich, Alte Pin.) and possibly in the woodcuts of the Triumphal Arch of Emperor Maximilian I (1515) and those illustrating his Etliche Underricht, zu Befestigung der Stett, Schloss und Flecken (Nuremberg, 1527). In 1519 Neudörfer published his Fundament … seinen Schulern zu einer Unterweysung gemacht (Nuremberg), the first writing manual printed in Germany, and in 1538 he completed his finest treatise, Eine gute Ordnung, a catalogue of styles of script, ways of holding a pen and the correct manner of forming letters. He published two other treatises on writing in Nuremberg in ...


Jill Kraye

(b Sessa Aurunca, nr Naples, ?1469; d Sessa Aurunca, Jan 18, 1538).

Italian philosopher. One of the most celebrated philosophers of his day, he taught at the universities of Padua, Naples, Pisa, Salerno and Rome. He wrote a number of Aristotelian commentaries, as well as treatises on natural and moral philosophy, logic, astronomy, psychology and politics. In De pulchro (1531) he criticized the Neo-Platonist Marsilio Ficino for his belief that beauty was an immaterial image in the mind of the lover, claiming instead that beauty really existed in the nature of things. He not only used philosophical arguments, based on Plato and Aristotle, to support this view but also provided empirical evidence in the form of a detailed description of the beauty embodied in Joanna of Aragon, the dedicatee of his treatise. Adopting the peripatetic definition of beauty as that which arouses the soul’s desire, he maintained that it was a property belonging only to human bodies. True beauty could not be possessed by immaterial beings (such as God and angels), the sky, the world, poems or buildings because none of these was capable of stimulating sensual longing in the soul. Benedetto Croce (p. 105) dismissed Nifo’s aesthetics as a simplistic and crude assertion that beauty consisted merely in sex appeal....


Cecil H. Uyehara


(b 1565; d 1614).

Japanese government official, poet, painter and calligrapher. Together with Hon’ami Kōetsu (see Hon’ami family §(1)) and Shōkadō Shōjō, Nobutada is recognized as one of the Kan’ei no Sanpitsu (‘Three Brushes of the Kan’ei [1624–44] era’), despite his death a decade earlier. The Konoe family belonged to the powerful Hokke branch of the Fujiwara family; Nobutada was the son of Fujiwara [Konoe] Sakihisa, a court official. He became Minister of the Left at the age of 21, but resigned this post in 1592 after a disagreement with the then Regent, Toyotomi Hideyoshi. He participated without permission in Hideyoshi’s ill-fated invasion of Korea in 1592, incurring imperial displeasure, and in 1594 was exiled to Satsuma in southern Kyushu. He returned to Kyoto in 1596, however, regained his ministerial portfolio and became Regent in 1605. He was one of the best-known calligraphers of his time. He studied Zen Buddhism at Daitokuji in Kyoto, which undoubtedly influenced his approach to calligraphy. While he was initially trained in the Shōren’in tradition of calligraphy (...


Jürgen Zimmer

(b Lugano, May 1, 1544; d Dresden, Sept 20, 1620).

Swiss sculptor, architect, painter, writer and collector, active in Germany. He was the son of Bernardinus Zamelinus Nosseni and Lucia Verda. His move to Dresden, via Florence, was organized by the intermediary Johann Albrecht von Sprintzenstein, and in 1575 he was appointed court sculptor, architect, painter and decorative artist on an annual salary of 400 taler. He was commissioned to exploit the sources of alabaster and marble in Saxony for the Electors Augustus and Christian I (reg 1586–91). In the following years Nosseni worked in the fields of sculpture and painting (including portraiture), made furniture and other stone and wooden objects for the royal art collection and designed buildings. He also devised triumphal processions, masked celebrations, allegorical plays and tournaments. The precious and semi-precious stones that he acquired were used for epitaphs, monuments, altars, sculptures and other works. It appears that he designed or conceived all these works but actually executed only a few of them. He created his own workshop, in which he employed Italian artists and craftsmen, whom he had engaged during a trip to Italy at the end of ...


Sabine Eiche

(b Urbino, Oct 14, 1569; d Urbino, Dec 15, 1639).

Italian architect, writer, mathematician and engineer. He began his apprenticeship as a painter in the workshop of Federico Barocci but, after the discovery that he was colour-blind, went to study perspective and mathematics with Marchese Guidobaldo del Monte in Pesaro. In 1596 he was appointed Court Architect to Francesco Maria II della Rovere, Duke of Urbino (although surviving records do not identify any of the buildings he designed for the Duke). In 1598 he collaborated on the decorations for Clement VIII’s visit to Pesaro. Oddi also designed furniture for the Duke, including an ebony cabinet and sideboard (1599). At the beginning of 1601 he was asked to submit designs for enlarging the oratory of the Croce in Senigallia (1604–8), but later in the same year he fell out of favour with the Duke for fighting and neglecting to follow orders concerning some work at Urbania (formerly Castel Durante) and sought refuge in Venice. In ...


Clare Robertson

(b Rome, Dec 11, 1529; d Rome, May 18, 1600).

Italian antiquarian and collector. He was an illegitimate son of the Orsini family. He devoted himself early to the study of manuscripts under the guidance of Gentile Delfini, Cardinal Ranuccio Farnese’s Vicario at S Giovanni in Laterano, Rome. In 1554 he became a canon of the same church, and on Delfini’s death in 1559 entered Farnese service, in which he remained for the rest of his career.

Orsini was secretary and librarian to Ranuccio Farnese until the latter’s death in 1565. He was then ‘inherited’ by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (see Farnese family §(3)) as librarian and as keeper of the antiques and works of art in the Palazzo Farnese. Orsini fulfilled his duties with care, acquiring many new works for the Farnese collection and advising his patron on the choice of artists for several commissions. He also composed inscriptions for the Cardinal’s frescoes and devised iconographic programmes, including that for the Sala d’Ercole in the Villa Farnese at Caprarola....


Enrique Valdivièso

(b Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Cádiz, 1564; d Seville, 1644).

Spanish painter and writer. He is not considered to be a great painter, but he is remembered for his theoretical work Arte de la pintura. The book is the most important contribution to Spanish artistic theory in the 17th century.

From his earliest years he lived in Seville in the care of his uncle, also Francisco Pacheco, who was a canon of Seville Cathedral. Having served his apprenticeship with Luis Fernández (fl 1542–81) around 1580, by 1585 Pacheco was already working as a master painter and was becoming known for his interest in humanist studies, especially literature, and poetry in particular. From his youth he was familiar with the clerics and the intelligentsia of Seville, and it was through these connections that he received commissions for paintings. As a result of his intimacy with the clergy he enthusiastically defended iconographic orthodoxy, and this led to a strict and unvarying formula for his compositions and a certain coldness of expression. His visit to Castile in ...


Peter Boutourline Young

[ Luca di Borgo ; Fra Luca di Borgo ]

(b Borgo San Sepolcro, c. 1445; d ?Rome, c. 1514).

Italian monk, scientist and writer . At an early age he settled in Venice, where he studied mathematics with Domenico Bragadino. Sometime between 1470 and 1476 he joined the Franciscan Order. In 1471 he was in Rome, staying with Leon Battista Alberti, while between 1472 and 1474 he was in Urbino, where he came into contact with Piero della Francesca, who depicted Pacioli, and perhaps other eminent artists and architects, in the S Bernardino altarpiece (Milan, Brera). Throughout his life he taught mathematics, in various universities including Perugia (from 1477), Florence, Rome and Naples. As a Franciscan, in 1493 he was summoned to Assisi by his religious superiors and threatened with excommunication because of his attitude as a free-thinker. However, he left almost immediately for Urbino, where, according to Bernardino Baldi, he received a particularly warm welcome.

Between 1496 and 1499 Pacioli was in Milan, where he met artists and scholars, including ...


Peter M. Lukehart

(b Genoa, Feb 27, 1554; d Genoa, ?March 11, 1627).

Italian painter and theorist. As the son of a newly inscribed nobleman, he received a Renaissance gentleman’s education, but as an artist he was it seems self-taught, despite the encouragement of Luca Cambiaso. The gentleman who then set up as a painter was obliged to give his work to patrons, sometimes expecting future remuneration; but when one patron reneged on payment in 1581, Paggi mortally wounded him and was banished from Genoa. He was given protection by Francesco I de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and settled in Florence. A fresco of St Catherine Converting Two Criminals (1582), painted for Niccolò Gaddi’s family chapel at S Maria Novella and thoroughly Florentine in manner, established Paggi’s reputation at the Medici court. He painted ephemeral decorations, portraits (all untraced) and altarpieces for many Florentine churches and for the cathedrals of San Gimignano (c. 1590), Pistoia (1591–3) and Lucca (...


Andreas Beyer

[Gondola, Andrea di Pietro della]

(b Padua, Nov 8, 1508; d Vicenza or Maser, Aug 19, 1580).

Italian architect, theorist and writer. More than any other Italian architect, he shaped the building culture of the following generations. As the last of the great Renaissance architects, he based his designs on Classical architecture, the idiom of which he converted with increasing virtuosity and independence into a repertory that was subsequently developed into the distinctive style that bears his name, Palladianism (see §II below). In his buildings, which profoundly influenced the physical appearance of the Veneto region of North Italy (the terra firma), the social and cultural characteristics of his time are epitomized (see Vicenza, §1; see also Villa, §II, 1). From them, the specific ambitions and interests of his patrons can be discerned no less than Palladio’s endeavour to derive a contemporary form of building from the study of ancient architecture. His solution is an impressive monument to the last phase of the High Renaissance. His imposing oeuvre includes town palaces, villas, public buildings and churches; much of it is documented in his ...


Clare Robertson

(b Verona, Feb 23, 1530; d Palermo, 7–8 April 1568).

Italian antiquarian and artistic adviser. He became an Augustinian monk at the age of 11. He was sent by Girolamo Seripando, General of the Order, to study in Naples between 1547 and 1549 before moving to Rome, where his precocious gifts as a historical writer and epigrapher recommended him to Cardinal Alessandro Farnese. The Cardinal gave him a monthly retainer for the rest of his life and provided assistance for his antiquarian studies. Panvinio was particularly interested in portraiture and collected images to accompany his biographies of the popes (Venice, 1563). His own portrait (Rome, Gal. Colonna) was for many years attributed to Titian, but it has been suggested that it was an early work by Tintoretto. Like Annibal Caro and Fulvio Orsini, Panvinio was on occasion required to produce iconographic programmes for Cardinal Farnese’s fresco cycles, though he did so with less confidence than his fellow advisers. The only scheme by Panvinio to have survived is for an allegorical title-page, with many rather conventional personifications. He devised the scheme for the Stanza della Solitudine at the Villa Farnese, Caprarola, with considerable assistance from ...


Maurice Howard

(b Norwich, Aug 6, 1504; d London, May 17, 1575).

English archbishop, scholar and antiquary. He was chaplain to Queen Anne Boleyn in 1535, and in 1559 he reluctantly agreed to be made Archbishop of Canterbury; thus he was instrumental in the enforcement of the Elizabethan religious settlement. Always a moderate, Parker presided over the continued removal of images from churches but, in line with Elizabeth I’s wishes, issued his Advertisements of 1565, which sought to restore something of the significance of the visual tokens of worship in the prescription of surplices, copes and the covering of tables. The inventory of his goods made at his death records a large number of portraits of royalty, Tudor politicians and historical persons, but also a few of those permitted religious narratives that survived the Reformation, such as the Story of Esther.

Parker was a significant benefactor to his college, Corpus Christi, Cambridge (of which university he was Vice-chancellor in the 1540s). He paid for repairs to Corpus Christi’s building fabric and for construction of a gallery running south from the master’s lodge (destr. 1820s, during the building of New Court). He also gave his college many manuscripts and books; these he had gathered together in an effort to retrieve something of the great collections dispersed after the dissolution of the monasteries in the 1530s. Several pieces of Corpus Christi’s present collection of plate were also given by him, including a tankard, commissioned in ...


Alexandra Skliar-Piguet


(b Bois Jouan, Anjou, ?1435–40; d Toul, Feb 1, 1524).

French cleric, architect, sculptor and diplomat. After studying law, he took holy orders. He became secretary to Louis XI; at the same time as carrying out various diplomatic missions, he was in charge of some royal building works. Soon after the king’s death in 1483 Pélerin was appointed canon of Saint-Dié, Vosges, which was then a brilliant centre of humanist culture and the seat of the famous Gymnase Vosgien, one of the oldest literary and scientific associations in Europe. Pélerin also accompanied Duke René II of Lorraine on many of his journeys, visiting the courts of René I, King of Naples, in Provence, of the Emperor Maximilian I at Worms and of Louis XII of France in Touraine; he may have also visited Italy. His sobriquet ‘Viator’, the Latin translation of his surname, also registers his love of travel.

About 1498 Pélerin became canon of the chapter of Toul and was put in charge of the cathedral’s fabric. As architect, he took part in much of the work of repair and redecoration in the cathedral and chapter buildings; he drew up the plans, directed the work and managed the finances. In addition, he executed a number of sculptures, such as the Italianate tomb of ...


Angela Delaforce

(b ?1540; d Paris, 1611).

Spanish collector, writer and administrator. He was the illegitimate son of the scholarly priest Gonzalo Pérez, Secretary of State to Philip II from 1556 until his death in 1566. Antonio Pérez received an intensive education at the universities of Alcalá, Leuven, Padua and Salamanca. In his Relaciones he later wrote that his love of Italian art and culture had developed during his early visits to Italy, in particular to Venice, in the 1550s, when he met Titian. Pérez’s rapid rise to power began in 1566, when he became Secretary to Philip II. A brilliant and astute politician, in February 1568 he was made Secretary of State for the affairs of Spain in southern Europe.

The inventory of his collection (Delaforce), dated 21 May 1585, lists 127 paintings from his luxurious country house, La Casilla (1573), now the convent of S Isabel, at that time on the outskirts of Madrid. The inventory vividly describes the interior decoration of La Casilla, with its fashionable furniture, Italian state beds and rich hangings, and also the display of the paintings. The collection was exceptional for a Spanish private collection of this date due to the large number of Italian paintings and the high proportion of mythological subjects. Many of the paintings were diplomatic and political gifts, such as those by ...


Thomas Tolley

[Jean de Paris; Master of Charles VIII]

(b ?1450–60; d Paris, after April 5, 1530).

French painter, illuminator, sculpture designer and architect. The most celebrated and best-documented French artist of his time, Perréal was painter and valet de chambre to three kings of France, Charles VIII, Louis XII and Francis I. In the earliest reliable document to mention him, of 1485, he was a resident of Lyon and painted two escutcheons for use during the celebrations for the entry of Charles of Bourbon into the city. Throughout his career he devoted considerable time to designing props for staging such ceremonial events. Perréal visited Italy on at least four occasions and recorded that he studied ancient remains there. In 1514 he was sent to England to negotiate the marriage of Louis XII and his second wife, Mary Tudor, and to ensure that her wardrobe conformed to French taste. According to Dupont, a portrait of Louis XII in the British Royal Collection (Windsor Castle, Berks) was painted by Perréal and brought to England at this time. Considered by Sterling to be a copy, this portrait is one of few panels that can still be associated with Perréal, who during his lifetime was highly praised for his abilities as a portrait painter....


(b Castel Durante, 1523–4; d Castel Durante, 1579).

Italian writer and maiolica painter. He came from a patrician family of Bolognese descent and was a humanist by education and an amateur devotee of the arts. He was also active as a dilettante poet, land surveyor, civil and military engineer and draughtsman. Between 1556 and 1559 he wrote Li tre libri dell’arte del vasaio—the earliest European treatise on maiolica production—at the request of Cardinal François de Tournon (1489–1562), who may have intended the treatise to help improve the quality of faience being manufactured in his native France. In this three-part treatise, Piccolpasso explained and illustrated in lively detail the basic procedures required for maiolica production; these procedures have remained largely unchanged during the ensuing centuries. He described the composition of glazes, pigments and lustres, the location and preparation of the raw materials, the methods for constructing the tools—including the wheel and kiln—and for forming, trimming, drying, painting and firing the wares. He also included a selection of designs for plate decoration that were popular during the first half of the 16th century. His other major literary work was a topographical description of Umbria entitled ...


(b Kempen, 1520; d Xanten, Oct 9, 1604).

Dutch antiquarian and churchman. He was a nephew of the noted mathematician, theologian and polemicist Albert Pighius. After finishing his studies he began a career in the church, and spent eight years in Rome where he studied ancient monuments and transcribed their inscriptions. On returning to Flanders he was appointed librarian to Cardinal Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, who encouraged him to undertake what was to be the most important work of his life, a Roman history illustrated with pictures of the ancient monuments. On the death of his patron he went into the service of the Duke of Clèves, who entrusted him with the education of his oldest son. In 1575 Pighius returned to Italy with his pupil, who died of a sudden illness during the journey. Pighius wrote a panegyric to him (Hercules prodicius) which was published in Antwerp in 1587 with an account of the journey to Italy. On returning to his homeland Pighius retired to his villa in Xanten, where the Duke of Clèves had obtained for him the post of canon of the chapter of St Victor. There he spent the last years of his life working on his history of Rome, the second volume of which was completed after his death by ...