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Article

Susan T. Goodman

(b Tiberias, Palestine [now Israel], 1920).

Israeli painter and sculptor. After studying at the Teachers’ Seminary in Jerusalem from 1936 to 1940, he studied architecture at the Technion Institute of Technology in Haifa (1943–5) and art at the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris (1951–4). In 1954 he returned to Israel and began working as a painter and sculptor in the artists’ village of Ein Hod. In early paintings such as A Roof and a Window (1966–7; Jerusalem, Israel Mus.) Gross simplified form in order to concentrate on proportion, on boldly juxtaposed broad areas of colour and on the size and placement of each element; a similar reductive process was applied also to his early sculptures and to later pieces, whether in painted iron or in other materials such as white concrete (e.g. the monumental sculpture at Simon Bolivar Park in Jerusalem, 1974). In later paintings such as Light of Jerusalem...

Article

Isabelle Gournay

(b Oran, Algeria, Jan 24, 1942).

French writer, teacher and architect. He graduated in architecture (1967) from the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, where he was introduced to urban design practice and theory by Eugène Beaudouin. At the same time, he attended Roland Barthes’s courses in linguistics at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes. During the 1970s Grumbach, who was influenced by the historian Joseph Ryckwert (b 1926), devoted most of his time to theory and criticism. He published extensively in specialized reviews in France, exhibited and sold his drawings and taught at the Unité Pédagogique d’Architecture 6 in Paris, the University of Toronto and Princeton University, NJ; he also lectured throughout the world. From his typological studies of the traditional urban fabric in Paris and his participation in Rome in the international exhibition Roma Interrota (1977), he became convinced that the integration of new architectural projects within the existing urban fabric was an essential prerequisite for high-quality urban design, and he adopted a polemical and theoretical approach to architectural competitions he entered at the time, such as those for the systematization of the Place Napoléon (...

Article

M. N. Sokolov

[Vladimir] (Davidovich)

(b Tiflis [now Tbilisi], March 30, 1896; d Tbilisi, July 20, 1980).

Georgian painter, draughtsman, illustrator and stage designer. From 1910 to 1914 he trained at the Tiflis School of Painting and Sculpture and from 1919 to 1926 at the Académie Ronson in Paris. While in Paris he became closely acquainted with Modigliani, Ignacio Zuloaga, Natal’ya Goncharova and Mikhail Larionov. His early works, with their theatrically romantic depictions of Georgian national life, fantastic and Symbolist motifs and surreal effects of colour, combine elements of the grotesque with a charming poetic mystery (e.g. the ‘Tsotskhali’ Fish, 1920; Tbilisi, Mus. A. Georg.). His affinity with ancient Georgian and Persian art, of which he was a connoisseur, intensified on his return to Georgia in 1926; his colours became shimmering and tinged with gold, and, at the same time, the visual link with theatre became even stronger (many of his paintings have opera or ballet performances as their subjects or portray actresses in costume). He frequently depicted fantastic and mythological subjects (e.g. ...

Article

Elisabeth Vitou

(b Istanbul, Nov 21, 1900; d Antibes, Oct 29, 1970).

American architect of Armenian birth. After studying at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Vienna, he worked for a time with Josef Hoffmann and Oskar Strnad. He went to live in Paris in 1920 and became an important colleague of Robert Mallet-Stevens. His first projects included a design for a concrete villa on pilotis, which Siegfried Giedion considered a forerunner of Le Corbusier’s Villa Laroche, and which confirmed him to be an exponent of functionalism, favouring concrete, geometric volumes and smooth walls. He gained public recognition with his designs for Sonia Delaunay’s Boutique Simultanée and the Cubist garden at the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris in 1925. This led to the commission for the garden of the villa for Vicomte Charles de Noailles at Hyères. In 1926, while working on Robert Mallet-Stevens’s Rue Mallet-Stevens in Paris, he set up his own firm and worked on a variety of projects for villas and large houses in the Paris area and on the Côte d’Azur. The widely publicized villa that he built for the couturier ...

Article

Adam M. Thomas

[Osvaldo Luigi]

(b Cairo, Egypt, April 9, 1906; d Amagansett, NY, Sept 3, 1956).

American painter of Italian origin. After residing in Europe, his family relocated to New York in 1914. Guglielmi studied at the National Academy of Design from 1920 to 1925 and became a naturalized citizen in 1927. He arrived at his first mature painting style in the early 1930s. Guglielmi was among the principal practitioners of Social Surrealism, an American variant of European Surrealist art that adapted some of its imagery and techniques but eschewed its sexual symbolism and psychic automatism. Guglielmi rooted his pictures in the physical world in order to address social and political issues but, unlike Social Realism, did so through the use of unexpected or irrational juxtapositions and disorienting variations in scale. Although Guglielmi was not actively engaged in politics, many of his paintings contain expressly political, if sometimes ambiguous, content, such as Phoenix (The Portrait in the Desert) (1935; Lincoln, U. NE, Sheldon Mem. A.G.), in which a foreground portrait of Vladimir Lenin presides over a deserted landscape of factories and rubble....

Article

Hilary Pyle

[Mary Catherine]

(b Dublin, March 11, 1863; d Dublin, July 16, 1955).

Irish painter. She was educated mainly at home, where she drew, painted and copied the family portraits. Although she exhibited Turkeys at the Royal Hibernian Academy in 1897, family obligations prevented her from studying art until c. 1910; she was taught in Paris by Kees van Dongen and later by Hermenegildo Anglada-Camarasa, and she spent each of the 15 subsequent winters in the city. She joined the French army as a nurse during World War I and received the Croix de Guerre in September 1915. From 1922 to 1925 she worked with André Lhôte, in the latter year holding her first solo exhibition in Paris, which helped to establish her as one of the first Irish artists associated with the Ecole de Paris. In 1925, having absorbed aspects of the work of Matisse, of Cubism and finally of the work of Marie Laurençin and Raoul Dufy, still maintaining Anglada-Camarasa’s rather hot colouring, she achieved a free, decorative manner of her own. She said in ...

Article

Angela Delaforce

(b Istanbul, March 23, 1869; d Lisbon, July 20, 1955).

Iranian oil magnate and collector of Armenian descent. He studied at King’s College, London, where he gained a diploma in engineering in 1887. He then embarked on travels that led to the publication of La Transcaucasie et la Péninsule d’Apcheron—Souvenirs de voyage (Paris, 1891), a work that showed his considerable interest in economics and his passion for art, which were also apparent in his diaries and letters. He was a pioneer in the development of the Middle Eastern oil fields as an energy source, and from the end of the 19th century he was closely involved in the growth of the oil industry, beginning with the formation of Royal Dutch Shell and the Turkish Petroleum Co. The income derived from these sources enabled him to become a collector of art. In 1902 he became a British citizen and in 1926 Persian.

Gulbenkian was a true connoisseur, highly knowledgeable and perceptive, and carried out extensive research in his own library and in museums before acquiring a work. The collection he formed is considered one of the most remarkable made in the 20th century. It comprises European paintings, Italian medals and coins, Egyptian sculpture, Islamic, Persian and Indian art, East Asian ceramics, illuminated manuscripts, book bindings, French furniture, sculpture, bronzes, silver, textiles, Roman glass, Greek coins and jewellery. The only contemporary artist he commissioned was ...

Article

[Ziya]

(b Istanbul, 1881; d Istanbul, 1937).

Turkish painter. After studying for a career in government, he turned to painting and entered the Fine Arts Academy in Istanbul, where he studied under Joseph Warnia-Zarzecki (b 1850) and Salvator Valéri (1857–1946). His interest in Impressionism and painting en plein air, however, especially after 1905 when he observed Paul Signac working in Istanbul, led to quarrels with Warnia-Zarzecki and Valéri, and with Osman Hamdi, the Director of the Academy. As a result his graduation diploma was refused in 1907, and he did not graduate until 1908. Güran then went to Paris and studied at the Académie Julian, and under Marcel Baschet (1862–1941) and Fernand Cormon. In 1913 he visited Germany and Austria. Upon his return to Istanbul he took up government employment and joined the Çallı Group, led by the painter Ibrahim Çallı. He was later assigned a teaching post at the Fine Arts Academy and became its director. Influenced by Impressionism, he strove in his paintings to capture the reflection of light on objects and painted some scenes many times to explore the changes of light. He was also a follower of Kemal Atatürk’s cultural reforms, and one of the finest portraits of the leader, ...

Article

(b Stockholm, Nov 11, 1882; reg 1950–73; d Hälsingborg, Sept 15, 1973).

Swedish ruler, collector and archaeologist. He was educated at Uppsala University, where he studied history, Nordic archaeology and Egyptology, and in his youth assisted in archaeological expeditions in Sweden, Greece, Italy and Cyprus. In 1907 he began to collect Chinese art and was soon attracted to the early periods, the area in which his collection eventually became pre-eminent. In 1908 he met the foremost scholars and collectors of Chinese art in London and then helped to plan a large exhibition of Chinese art at the Kungliga Akademien för de Fria Konsterna (Royal Academy of Fine Arts), Stockholm, in 1914. The following year he met Erik Nyström, Professor of natural history at Taiyuan University, who purchased items for him in China. His collection was also enriched from 1916 with the help of Orvar Karlbeck, the Swedish railway engineer active in China. Other Chinese pieces were purchased or presented to his collection during his journey to East Asia in ...

Article

Allan M. Craven

(b Liverpool, March 3, 1942).

English architect. Having studied at the University of Manchester School of Architecture (1961–7), he worked briefly in Montreal, in connection with Expo ’67, and in Tripoli, where he was a housing architect for the Libyan government. From 1968 to 1971 he was an assistant to Arne Jacobsen in Copenhagen, for whom he worked on the design of the Kuwait Central Bank (built 1973–6), Kuwait City. His doctoral dissertation (1979) has Jacobsen’s work as its subject-matter. In 1972 he formed the practice of Rod Hackney & Associates at Macclesfield, Ches, and soon became known for the refurbishment of several brick-built terrace houses (1972–5) around Black Road in the town. Although intended for demolition, the houses were saved and then improved and altered in accordance with the wishes of the inhabitants. The significant contribution of the residents in determining what alterations were made and assisting in the execution of the work meant that the scheme was subsequently seen as one of the pioneering examples of ...

Article

Walter Smith

Reviser Carla Tilghman

(b Baghdad, Oct 31, 1950; d Miami, FL, Mar 31, 2016).

British architect, designer and teacher, of Iraqi birth. She studied at the Architectural Association, London, from 1972 to 1977 and then joined the Office for Metropolitan Architecture founded by Rem Koolhaas, one of her teachers; there she worked on the Dutch Parliament Building extension (1978), The Hague. In 1979 she opened her own practice in London, designing a flat in Eaton Place that won a gold medal from Architectural Design in 1982. She also began teaching at the Architectural Association (1980–87). During the 1980s she entered several architectural competitions, winning those for the Hong Kong Peak (1983, see fig.), the Kurfürstendamm (1986), Berlin, and for an art and media centre in Düsseldorf (1989). She also designed furniture and interiors (1985) for Bitar, London, and interiors (1990) for the Monsoon Restaurant, Sapporo, Japan. Her work seeks to develop the traditions of Modernism; it is inspired by Cubism, Futurism and Constructivism, but perhaps most profoundly by the Suprematism of Kazimir Malevich: she believed that the possibilities inherent in the work of such figures as Malevich had only begun to be realized. Sometimes described as ‘Neo-Suprematist’ and as resembling spaceships, her designs are typified by fragmented convex geometrical forms that engage and define the space around them, incorporating a Futurist sense of dynamic movement....

Article

Mary M. Tinti

[Heukelekian, Haig]

(b Istanbul, March 28, 1905; d Woodstock, NY, Feb 17, 1993).

American sculptor of Armenian heritage. Hague came to the New York art scene by a most circuitous route. Raised in Turkey, Hague learned English at the Roberts College Preparatory School in Istanbul before moving to Egypt with his family in 1921. From there, he traveled through France on his way to the mid-western United States, where he enrolled at Iowa State University, Ames. Hague left Iowa after his first year and moved to Chicago, where he spent three months dancing on the vaudeville circuit. From that point on, Haig Heukelekian went by his stage name, Raoul Hague. In 1922, Hague began studies at the Art Institute of Chicago but quickly realized his skills were not in drawing or draftsmanship.

In 1925, Hague moved to New York City, attended the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design (1925–7), began fraternizing with artists at the Art Students League (1927–8), and became close friends with ...

Article

Roy R. Behrens

(b Flint, MI, Sep 13, 1940).

American book designer, typographer poet and teacher . His father was from Lebanon and his mother was an American-born paediatrician and bibliophile. He studied art at Wayne State University in Detroit, MI (1964) and at the nearby Cranbrook Academy of Art (1966). While visiting Iowa City, IA as an undergraduate, he met Harry Duncan (1917–97), a printer and typographer at the University of Iowa, who was also a leading participant in the revival of interest in letterpress printing. It was during that visit that he first saw a hand-crafted letterpress book. In Detroit he founded The Perishable Press Limited in 1964, followed soon after by the Shadwell Papermill at Cranbrook; involvements that gradually led to the publication of about 130 limited edition books by such well-known writers as Paul Blackburn, Robert Creeley, Robert Duncan, Loren Eiseley, Denise Levertov, W. S. Merwin, Howard Nemerov, Toby Olson, Joel Oppenheimer, Jonathan Williams, William Stafford and Paul Auster. In ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

[Edhem, Osman Hamdi; Hamdi Bey]

(b Istanbul, Dec 30, 1842; d Eskihisar, Gebze, nr Istanbul, Feb 24, 1910).

Turkish painter, museum director and archaeologist. In 1857 he was sent to Paris, where he stayed for 11 years, training as a painter under Gustave Boulanger and Jean-Léon Gérôme. On returning to Turkey he served in various official positions, including two years in Baghdad as chargé d’affaires, while at the same time continuing to paint. In 1873 he worked on a catalogue of costumes of the Ottoman empire, with photographic illustrations, for the Weltausstellung in Vienna. In 1881 he was appointed director of the Archaeological Museum at the Çinili Köşk, Topkapı Palace, in Istanbul. He persuaded Sultan Abdülhamid II (reg 1876–1909) to issue an order against the traffic in antiquities, which was put into effect in 1883, and he began to direct excavations within the Ottoman empire. As a result he brought together Classical and Islamic objects for the museum in Istanbul, including the Sarcophagus of Alexander, unearthed in Sidon in ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(Andrew)

(b Cairo, Oct 28, 1892; d London, May 26, 1969).

Merchant banker and collector. He was the elder son of Sir Victor Harari Pasha, a leading member of the Anglo-Jewish community in Egypt, and was educated at Lausanne and Pembroke College, Cambridge. On returning to Egypt, he became a junior officer in the Palestine campaign of Edmund Allenby and then finance officer to Ronalds Storrs, the military governor of Jerusalem. In 1920 he served under Herbert Samuel as director of the Department of Commerce and Trade in the British Mandate, but returned to Egypt in 1925 to help in the family business. With the outbreak of World War II, he became economic adviser to GHQ Middle East, and then served under Peter Ritchie-Calder, the director of plans in the Department of Political Warfare in London. After the war, he stayed in London as managing director of the merchant bank S. Japhet & Co., and when it was taken over he joined the board of the Charterhouse group. From the 1920s he was interested in Islamic metalwork, becoming an authority on the subject and contributing a chapter to the ...

Article

Oleg Grabar

(b Cairo, July 1908; d Baghdad, March 1957).

Egyptian historian. He was educated at the University of Cairo and in Paris, where he obtained his doctorate in 1934 with a thesis on the history and culture of Egypt in the 9th century ad. In Cairo he moved between the university—where he taught history—the Department of Antiquities and the Museum of Arab (later Islamic) Art, where he became director in 1951. After the 1952 revolution in Egypt, he went to Iraq, where he chaired the Department of Antiquities and Civilization at Baghdad University. His publications illustrate the multiple concerns of his generation, born in the ‘Third World’ and trained in the West to educate youth in the values of their cultural past through the medium of Western techniques and institutions. His scholarly work is exemplified by his study on the treasures of the Fatimid dynasty of Egypt (reg 969–1171). He also tried to meet the traditional opposition to the visual arts by writing on the specific theological issues involved and showing how the Islamic tradition never gave up representation. His third concern was pedagogical, and he wrote mostly in Arabic to reach a mass of people untouched by Western scholarship. His last major work was an atlas of Islamic painting and decorative arts, designed to make Islamic art known to those whose cultural heritage it is....

Article

S. J. Vernoit

[Arab. Fā‛iq Hasan]

(b Baghdad, 1914; d 1992).

Iraqi painter. He won a scholarship to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, from which he graduated in 1938. On returning to Iraq he exhibited his work, and established and directed the department of painting and sculpture at the Institute of Fine Arts, Baghdad. He was influenced by a number of European movements, including Impressionism and Cubism, as well as by abstract art, but he also painted realistic scenes of life in Iraq. Between 1943 and 1946 he took part in the exhibitions of the Friends of the Arts Society in Baghdad, and in 1952 exhibited at the Ibn Sina Exhibition of Arab artists in Baghdad. In the 1950s he was president of the group of artists called The Pioneers (founded in 1950 as La Société Primitive), and was later succeeded in this position by his pupil Ismail Sheikhly (al-Chekhli; 1924–2004). This group held private exhibitions until 1962, the year in which Hassan withdrew from it. After the creation of the Iraqi republic in ...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

(Joseph)

(b Beirut, Feb 11, 1952).

Palestinian sculptor, performance and installation artist, active in England. Hatoum’s art, as the work of a Palestinian woman in an initially involuntary exile in London, transformed from confrontational performance in the 1980s to a more reflective engagement with a minimalist and conceptualist heritage in the 1990s. This engagement is exemplified by Socle du Monde (1992–3; wood, steel and iron filings, Toronto, A.G. Ont.), a large block covered with a deep patterned crust of magnetized iron filings, a sensuous and visceral remake of Piero Manzoni’s original Socle du Monde (1962; iron and brass, Herning, Kstmus.). The related themes of exile and institutionalized authority pervade Hatoum's oeuvre and find pithy exemplification in her submissions for the 1995 Turner Prize, Light Sentence (1992; Paris, Pompidou) and Corps étranger (1994; video installation; Paris, Pompidou). The latter showed colour video images of an endoscopic probe of the artist's own body, an earthy and disturbing critique of the dualisms of ‘inner’ and ‘outer’ that recasts the political criticisms of her earlier performance work. By working with a variety of media Hatoum criticizes the boundaries of traditional art practice and evokes the danger and threat of authoritarian politics; ...

Article

Ingeborg Kuhn-Régnier

(b Vienna, Dec 4, 1914; d Mödling, Feb 25, 1995).

Austrian painter. He studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna from 1931 until 1936. During this period he also travelled to England, France, Italy, Greece, Turkey and Egypt. After he was designated a ‘degenerate’ artist in 1938 (see Entartete Kunst), exhibition of his work was forbidden in Germany. From 1941 until 1945 he was a soldier. Before allying himself with the style of Phantastischer Realismus, based in Vienna, his works were mainly Expressionist-influenced images of suburbs, still-lifes and female models, most of which he destroyed.

In 1946 Hausner joined the Art-Club and had his first one-man exhibition in the Konzerthaus, Vienna. A key work of this period, It’s me! (1948; Vienna, Hist. Mus.), shows his awareness of Pittura Metafisica and Surrealism in a psychoanalytical painting where the elongated being in the foreground penetrates what was apparently a real landscape, until it tears like a backdrop; another painting, ...

Article

Andrzej Rottermund

(b Warsaw, July 16, 1873; d Warsaw, Dec 11, 1925).

Polish architect. Son of the Warsaw architect Jan Kacper Heurich (1834–87), he studied at the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg (1890–96) then travelled in Western Europe and North Africa on a Grand Prix de Rome fellowship (1897–9) before returning to Warsaw. Until about 1905 he worked mostly on commissions from various Polish aristocratic families, designing palaces, villas and manors in the Kingdom of Poland, Lithuania, Volhynia and Podole. His work here was marked by eclectic arrangements of forms, mainly Baroque and Neo-classical: his palace chapel (1903–4) at Kozłówka near Lublin, designed for Count Zamoyski, is a copy of the chapel at Versailles.

It is, however, to work of a far more radical style, executed in Warsaw after 1905, that Heurich owes his reputation. The large town house at 2 Małachowski Square (1907–10; destr. 1939–44, rebuilt 1948–9), the ‘Under the Eagles House’ Bank of Co-operative Societies at 1 Jasna Street (...