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Marco Carminati

(b Venice, 1659; d London, 1714).

Italian painter. He was apprenticed to his father, the Genoese painter Giovanni Francesco Cassana (1611–90), and from him learnt to paint in the tenebrist style. In 1684 he was enrolled in the guild of Venetian painters. After the death of Giusto Suttermans (1681), the official portraitist of the Medici court, Cassana tried to win favour by sending a Self-portrait (1683) to Florence to form part of the collection of self-portraits in the Uffizi. Yet this work, the earliest example of his prolific output as a portrait painter, was rejected and relegated to the gallery’s storeroom (see Chiarini). Few of his numerous early portraits for the Venetian nobility and clergy survive; some are known through engravings. Among those that have been identified are those of a Notary (Venice, Doge’s Pal.), Giambattista Doria (Venice, Correr) and various others (Lovere, Gal. Accad. B.A. Tadini; Genoa, Pal. Rosso)....


Charles Saumarez Smith

English country house in N. Yorks built (1701–24) by John Vanbrugh for Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle; the gardens were laid out by George London during the same period. One of the largest, grandest and, architecturally, most important country houses in England, Castle Howard was first planned in October 1698, when the 3rd Earl took out a lease for life on the ruinous Henderskelfe Castle (burnt 1693; destr. 1724) and its manor from his grandmother, Anne Howard, Countess of Carlisle. The following spring he consulted the architect William Talman, Comptroller of Works to William III, on the design for a house to replace the old castle of Henderskelfe, but during the summer Talman was supplanted by the playwright John Vanbrugh. Castle Howard was Vanbrugh’s first important architectural commission. A model in wood was shown to the King in the summer of 1700, and work on the hill-top site began in the spring of ...



José Manuel Cruz Valdovinos

(b Córdoba, 1716; d Córdoba, 1793).

Spanish gold- and silversmith. He qualified as master of the guild of goldsmiths in Córdoba in 1736, and his earliest-known pieces follow the Baroque tradition prevalent there in the early 18th century and in particular the work of his father-in-law, Bernabé García de los Reyes (1696–1750). By the end of the 1750s his curving outlines and decoration (e.g. fonts in Caracas Cathedral) were Rococo in form, and this was the style that was to predominate in his work from the 1760s. He was appointed Cathedral Goldsmith in 1761 and made a number of ecclesiastical pieces (e.g. pyx, 1761, Córdoba, Mezquita; monstrance, 1768, La Orotava, Tenerife, Concepción Church; several pieces for the Bishop of Segovia, Martín Descalzo, 1769). He made several monstrances, including one (1769; in situ) for S Nicolás de la Villa, Córdoba, and one (1779–80; untraced) for Sigüenza Cathedral, for Cardinal Delgado, his most important patron. Castro’s work is characterized by the use of extended and twisted shafts (e.g. chalice, ...


Alexander Kader

(b Florence, c. 1662; d Florence, March 6, 1732).

Italian sculptor. He first studied in Florence under Giovanni Battista Foggini and then from 1683 until its closure in 1686 at the Tuscan Accademia Granducale in Rome under Ciro Ferri and Ercole Ferrata. While there he collaborated with fellow students on a commission for 14 reliefs of the Stations of the Cross for the church of SS Quirico e Lucia all’Ambrogiana, Montelupo, near Florence. This well-documented scheme illustrates the personal involvement of Grand Duke Cosimo III de’ Medici in the work of the sculptors he sent to study in Rome. It was devised by Ferri and executed in 1685 by Cateni, Giuseppe Piamontini, Antonio Francesco Andreozzi (fl 1695–1720) and Francesco Ciaminghi (d ?1736). The reliefs are in glazed terracotta with white figures and blue backgrounds; Cateni was responsible for the third (Christ’s First Fall), the sixth (St Veronica) and the thirteenth (...


Emilia Calbi

(b Fano, May 17, 1703; d Fano, Aug 26, 1783).

Italian painter. Aged 14, he entered the studio of Francesco Mancini, collaborating with him at Foligno, Rome and Perugia. From 1724, when he followed Mancini to Rome, his movements are documented. His first stay in the city, which coincided with a long period of study, ended in 1729, but he was again in Rome from 1731 to 1735 and from 1744 to 1754, after travelling to Pesaro, Urbino, Perugia, Bologna, Venice and Florence. From 1755 he alternated long periods in Fano, where he remained active into old age, with short stays in Rome.

Ceccarini first assimilated the grand style of such 17th-century artists from Rome as Domenichino, Reni and Maratti, both directly and through Mancini’s teaching, as well as the various trends in contemporary painting. His artistic individuality was confirmed, however, from the 1720s, particularly in the fields of portraiture and altarpieces. He adopted the formula of courtly ceremonial portraiture, where the grandiosity of the settings and the rigidity of the poses are redeemed by his technical skill and the brilliant description of the clothes and furnishings. In his vast output he depicted ecclesiastical figures (e.g. ...


(b Venice, 1637; d Venice, ?1712).

Italian painter. He trained first with Matteo Ponzoni, then with Sebastiano Mazzoni; Mazzoni encouraged the development of a Baroque style, but Celesti was also attracted by the naturalism of the tenebrists. The first known works by Celesti are mature in style, and he had already achieved considerable fame in Venice when the Doge Alvise Contarini honoured him with the title of Cavaliere in 1681. The complexity of his sources is evident in two canvases, Moses Destroying the Golden Calf and Moses Chastising the Hebrew People for their Idolatry, both painted c. 1681 for the Palazzo Ducale, Venice, and signed Cavaliere; they are influenced by Luca Giordano and by the narrative techniques of Jacopo Tintoretto. The most distinguished works of Celesti’s early period are two large lunettes that show three scenes: Benedict III Visiting St Zacharias, A Doge Presented with the Body of a Saint, and the Virtues Surrounding a Doge Holding the Model of St Zacharias...


Geneviève Bresc-Bautier

(b ?Avignon, 1660; d Lyon, Aug 4, 1726).

French sculptor and painter. According to Pernetti he trained in the workshop of Pierre Puget. By 1684 he was settled in Lyon, where in 1687 he contracted with the abbey of St Pierre to make statues of Minerva and Concord (stone; untraced). Shortly after, he submitted the relief Lot and his Daughters (clay; untraced) as his morceau d’agrément to the Académie Royale in Paris, but he never became a full academician. Between 1690 and 1696 he painted six scenes from the Life of St Anthony, full of vehement energy and a Baroque sense of movement, for the choir of the abbey of St Antoine (in situ). From 1703 to 1706 he executed stone sculpture for the façade of the Hôtel de Ville in Lyon. Inspired by the example of Puget’s sculpture for the Hôtel de Ville in Toulon, Chabry seems to have taken liberties with the intentions of the architect Robert de Cotte, using caryatids instead of slave figures or scrolls. Much of this sculpture, including statues of ...


Françoise de la Moureyre

(b Cuillé, Mayenne, 1680; d Paris, May 11, 1723).

French sculptor, designer and engraver. A pupil of François Girardon, he went to Potsdam in 1701, where he executed decorative sculpture for the Portal of Fortuna (destr. 1945) to the designs of Jean de Bodt. On his return to France he was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1707 with a Death of Adonis (plaster; untraced), changing the subject for his morceau de réception of 1713 to the Death of Meleager, an affecting recumbent statuette (marble; Paris, Louvre). Chiefly active as a decorative sculptor specializing in trophies, he also contributed to the decoration of the chapel at the château of Versailles (1708–10; various works in situ), the choir of Notre-Dame, Paris (1711–14; destr.), the Tuileries Palace (1713; destr.), the Luxembourg Palace (1717; destr.), the Louvre (1717–22; destr.), the Château de la Muette, Paris (1720; destr.) and the church of St Roch, Paris (...


N. A. Yevsina


(b Veshki, Novyy Torzhok District, 1713; d Veshki, c. 1774–80).

Russian architect. He studied at the St Petersburg Maritime Academy from 1729 and worked under Ivan Korobov (1700–47) on the building of the Admiralty there (1732–8). He was an assistant from 1739, but soon became chief architect to the Board of the Admiralty (1741–67) and became involved with projects at Tsarskoye Selo (now Pushkin 1745–60). Chevakinsky carried out the design for the Great Palace (by Mikhail Zemtsov and Andrey Kvasov; 1718–22) until the appointment of Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli (1748). He improved it appreciably: the composition of several buildings linked by galleries became more organic and, by adding further units at the sides, including the five-domed church, Chevakinsky foreshadowed the subsequent scale of the grandiose façade (completed 1751). His most important work, the naval cathedral of St Nicholas (1753–62) in St Petersburg, is among the masterpieces of Russian Baroque. The Baroque manner governs the entire appearance of the building, from the overall mass, surmounted by a complex five-domed composition, and the broken line of the wall with its projections and recessions, to the smallest features of the decoration. The variously shaped windows set off by ornate surrounds, the clustered Corinthian columns, the decorative sculpture, the contrasting colours and gilding, contribute to the fine, vivid appearance of the cathedral. The emotional focus of the interior is provided by the iconostasis, a masterpiece of Russian art. More restrained is the handling of the free-standing bell-tower (...


(b Lucca or Rome, March 10, 1654; d Rome, Sept 7, 1727).

Italian painter. He was the most faithful pupil of Carlo Maratti, keeping his art alive into the 1720s with a softer, more elegant version of his classicism. This in its turn influenced the style of Agostino Masucci, Maratti’s last significant pupil. According to Pascoli, Chiari was apprenticed to the painter and art dealer Carlantonio Galliani at the age of ten before he joined Maratti’s studio in Rome, in 1666. His first official commission was for paintings on the side walls of the chapel of the Marcaccioni in S Maria del Suffragio, Rome (Birth of the Virgin; Adoration of the Magi), entrusted to him on the death of Niccolò Berrettoni (1637–82), who had originally been asked to do them. This project established his reputation, and thereafter he won the patronage of many noble Roman families and of foreign visitors to Rome.

In 1686 Chiari decorated the vault of the chapel of the Montioni in S Maria di Montesanto, Rome, with an ...


Andrzej Rottermund

(b Rome, 1689; d Foligno, Umbria, March 5, 1770).

Italian architect, active in Russia, Poland and Germany. He was recruited in Rome in 1717 by a Russian diplomat to work for the imperial court in St Petersburg. At first he worked there under Niccolò Michetti, who was converting Peter I’s residence at Strelna into an Italian villa; he also participated in the building of the fortress of Kronstadt, on the island of Kotlin. In 1720 Chiaveri was appointed a member of the Imperial Chancellery of Building and, after a return visit to Rome in 1721, drew up plans for an Orthodox church at Korostino (1722, not executed) at the request of Catherine I. He collaborated (1723) with Nikolaus Friedrich Härbel (d 1724) in his reworking of Georg Johann Mattarnovy’s scheme for the first Cathedral of St Isaac of Dalmatia (destr. 1735). After Härbel’s death, Chiaveri continued with his work on the Cathedral and on the ...


Matthias Frehner

(b Buochs, Feb 22, 1767; d Thorberg, March 30, 1838).

Swiss sculptor. He was trained by his father, Jakob Lorenz Christen, a wood-carver and painter of votive pictures, and by the painter Johann Melchior Wyrsch in Lucerne, and the wood-carver Friedrich Schäfer (1709–86). He began an apprenticeship as a sculptor in Rome (1788), studying with Alexander Trippel. In 1790 he returned to Switzerland, where he initially settled in Zurich. In 1792, together with a number of students, he founded an art school in Stans. In 1794 he moved to Lucerne. He also worked in Basle (1799), Berne (1801) and Aarau (1803), where he fulfilled a number of portrait commissions, including a bust of Heinrich Pestalozzi (bronze, undated, terracotta version, 1809; both Aarau, Aargau. Ksthaus). In 1805 in Milan he produced a massive bust of Napoleon Bonaparte. Further commissions in Aarau included a bust of General César de la Harpe (Aarau, Aargau. Ksthaus). Christen produced several portrait busts for ...


Christian Norberg-Schulz



Spanish family of artists. Their most important work was executed between 1675 and 1750, when they created a decorative style known as Churrigueresque, which can be considered the culmination of the Spanish Baroque. After the death of Josep de Xuriguera, a carpenter and wood-carver from Barcelona, his son José Simón de Churriguera (‘the elder’; d 1679) became the stepson of José Ratés Dalmau, a sculptor and wood-carver also from Barcelona. They set up a workshop together in Madrid (c. 1662). In 1674 they were contracted to construct the altarpiece (destr. 1903; fragments in situ) of the hospital of Montserrat; this had large solomonic columns and profuse decoration that signalled the family style. Among José Simón’s five sons were (1) José Benito de Churriguera, (2) Joaquín de Churriguera and (3) Alberto de Churriguera. José Benito’s sons, Nicolás Churriguera and Jerónimo Churriguera (d 1731), were both trained as architects and wood-carvers in the Madrid workshop and continued their father’s work at the church (destr.) of the Colegio de S Tomás, Madrid. Of José Simón’s other grandsons (by his daughter, Mariana, and the sculptor ...


Dwight C. Miller

(b Bologna, May 15, 1628; d Forlì, Sept 6, 1719).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was the leading master in Bologna during the later decades of the 17th century, commanding a position of authority comparable to that of Carlo Maratti in Rome. He bore the title of Conte, and his biographer Giovan Pietro Zanotti wrote that he ‘always worked for glory, not for need’. Zanotti’s emphasis on Cignani’s ‘new manner’ refers to the reflective, intimate mood of his art, presaged in the later pictures of Guido Reni and Guercino, and in those of Simone Cantarini. This gentle manner, which prevailed in the second half of the 17th century, marks a break with the more energetic style of earlier Bolognese classicism.

Cignani began his training in Bologna under a minor painter, Giovanni Battista del Cairo. Subsequently he became the favoured pupil of Francesco Albani, in whose studio he absorbed the tradition of Bolognese classicism established by Annibale Carracci and evolved by Domenichino, Reni and Albani himself. In ...


Pedro Dias

[Manuel de Sousa]

(b Braga, c. 1650; d Tibães, 1716).

Portuguese sculptor. He was born to a family of craftsmen and later entered one of the many workshops of wood-carvers in Braga. In 1676, however, he entered the Benedictine order at its Portuguese mother house of Tibães, near Braga. Here he made statues and reliefs for the church of S Martinho. From this period date his St Benedict and St Gregory the Great and the relief of the Visitation, now in the Benedictine church, S Romão do Neiva. Between 1680 and 1683, during the abbotship of Frei João Osório, he made terracotta sculptures of the eight Virtues and the four Benedictine kings (Tibães, Sacristy), images that appear rather rigid and stereotyped.

Frei Cipriano da Cruz moved to Coimbra before July 1691, when it is recorded that he made the St Catherine in the chapel of the University of Coimbra. This contact with the main centre for sculpture in Portugal had a broadening effect on his art. His most important work outside Tibães is the group of serene and dignified sculptures (dispersed) that he made for the Colégio de S Bento (Benedict), Coimbra. This group includes his gilt and polychromed wooden ...


Françoise de la Moureyre

(b Paris, baptJune 10, 1646; d Paris, Dec 31, 1732).

French sculptor and bronze-caster. He came from a family of goldsmiths of Flemish origin who settled in Paris in the early 17th century. Early biographers state that he trained with Michel or François Anguier and at the Académie Royale. He spent six years at the Académie de France in Rome, where he is said to have studied above all the sculpture of Bernini. This was followed by four years in Venice. He applied for admission to the Académie in 1678, and he was received (reçu) in 1681 with a marble statuette of Polyphemus (Paris, Louvre), inspired by Annibale Carracci’s fresco in the Palazzo Farnese, Rome. From this time until 1720 he enjoyed a highly successful career in royal service and in the employ of the Church and of private clients. He devoted much energy to the affairs of the academy, eventually holding the office of Chancellor. He worked in every branch of sculpture, from monumental marble and bronze statues to small bronze statuettes and candlesticks....


John Sheeran

(b Osnabrück, 1660; d London, 1711).

German painter, active in England. John Closterman and John Baptist Closterman were, until the publication of the former’s will in 1964, thought to be the same artist. It is now clear that ‘John Closterman of Covent Garden Limner’ was the elder of two artist brothers and much the more accomplished painter. According to George Vertue, he was trained by his father in Osnabrück and at the age of 19 travelled to Paris. He worked for two years in the studio of François de Troy, who ran a fashionable portrait practice. Later he established himself in London in partnership with John Riley, acting as his drapery painter in 1681–3. Through Riley he was introduced to a potential clientele for his own independent practice, which he appears to have set up in the mid-1680s. He is thought to have finished a number of Riley’s portraits after his death, although Vertue recorded that the partnership had been discontinued owing to financial differences....


Maria Leonor d’Orey

(b S Payo de Ruilhe, Braga, 1710–20; d Oporto, Nov 11, 1784).

Portuguese silversmith. Nothing is known of his early career. He was established in Oporto as a member of the Confraria de S Eloi (Confraternity of St Eligius) by 1747, as his name appears in a list of signatories to the ‘Covenant and Statutes of the workers in silver of the city of Oporto’ and to later additions to the Covenant, which was of major importance for the regulation of the craft in the city. In 1755 he was a guarantor for another goldsmith, Domingos Sousa Coelho, and he worked on the silver altarpiece (in situ) of Oporto Cathedral. This altarpiece was designed by the architect Nicolau Nasoni, whose work greatly influenced Sampaio. He also worked for the church of Clérigos from 1756 and for the church of S Ildefonso between 1760 and 1781. He was considered one of the best silversmiths in Oporto, being elected a judge of the goldsmiths’ guild in ...