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Article

Gordon Campbell

(fl 1425–67).

German manuscript illuminator. Lauber had a workshop in Hagenau (now French Haguenau) in Alsace, 15 km north-east of Strasbourg. His workshop is known to have produced more than 50 manuscripts (in both German and Latin) between 1425 and 1467.

NDB

L. von Wilckens: ‘A Note on an Embroidery with the Joys of Mary’ [15th century linen embroidery from Alsace], ...

Article

Myra D. Orth

[Batavus, Godofredus]

(fl 1515–26).

North Netherlandish illuminator, active in France. He is known solely through his activity at the court of Francis I. His name comes from a Latin inscription identifying him as pictoris batavi in the third volume of his best-known work, the Commentaries on the Gallic War (1520; Chantilly, Mus. Condé, MS. 1139). He signed himself ‘Godefroy’ there and in the Triumphes of Petrarch (c. 1524; Paris, Bib. Arsenal, MS. 6480). The Commentaries on the Gallic War (vol. i: London, BL, Harley MS. 6205; vol. ii, Paris, Bib. N., MS. fr. 13429), the Dominus illuminatio mea (1516; Paris, Bib. N., MS. fr. 2088) and the Life of the Magdalene (1517; Paris, Bib. N., MS. fr. 24955) were illuminated under the direct supervision of their Franciscan author, François Du Moulin or Demoulins (fl 1502–24), for presentation to the King and his mother Louise de Savoie, Comtesse d’Angoulême (...

Article

(b Dieppe, c. 1533; d London, before June 1, 1588).

French painter, illustrator and explorer, also active in Florida and England. In April 1564 he sailed with René de Laudonnière as artist of the Huguenot expedition to Florida. In September 1565 the Spaniards overran the colony, but he escaped and returned to France. By c. 1580 he had settled in Blackfriars, London, ‘for religion’ and received letters of denization on 12 May 1581. He later came into contact with Sir Walter Ralegh and his colonizing circle and with John White, the artist of the first English colony of Virginia, with whom he exchanged ideas and perhaps collaborated. Ralegh commissioned him to illustrate the Florida enterprise, and Le Moyne produced an account Brevis narratio eorum quae in Florida … acciderunt … auctore Iacobo le Moyne with 42 illustrations and a map that Theodor de Bry published in Frankfurt am Main in 1591 as the second part of his Collectiones perigrinationum in Indiam orientalem et occidentalem...

Article

Bodo Brinkmann

[Jan de Tavernier]

(fl c. 1434–60).

South Netherlandish illuminator. He seems to have specialized in the illustration of chronicles and similar texts and to have undertaken commissions principally for the Burgundian ducal court. In 1434 Le Tavernier became a Master in Tournai, where he was still working in 1440 when he took on an apprentice. He contributed to the decorations for the ‘banquet du faisan’ organized in Lille in 1454 by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, for which Le Tavernier’s payment was higher than average. In the same year he was resident in Oudenaarde and received payment from Philip the Good for 230 grisailles and 2 full-colour miniatures in a Book of Hours belonging to the Duke, and for illuminating a ‘Livre de Godeffroy de Buillon’. In 1460 Le Tavernier received a payment for ‘certaines histoires de blanc et de noir’ (grisailles executed in the first volume of a ‘Livre de Charlemaigne’) and an advance payment for illustrations to be produced in the second volume of this work. The manuscript, the ...

Article

Jetty E. van der Sterre

(b Antwerp, c. 1545; d Antwerp, 1592).

Flemish woodcutter and engraver. He entered the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp as a pupil of Bernard van de Putte (1528–80) in 1558–9 and is known primarily for the book illustrations that he executed while working for Christoph Plantin. Van Leest depicted a wide range of subjects in his woodcuts, including biblical themes in several editions of the New Testament (Flem. edns, 1571 and 1578; Fr. edn, 1573) and allegorical images such as those in J. B. Houwaert’s Declaratie van die triumphante incompst van den … prince van Oraignien binnen die princelijke stadt van Brussele, 1578 (‘Declaration of the triumphal entry of the … Prince of Orange into the princely city of Brussels, 1578; Antwerp, 1579), which contains images alluding to contemporary politics. There are images of figures in exotic costume in Sluperius’s Omne fere gentium (Antwerp, 1572) and in Nicolas de Nicolay’s Les Navigations pérégrinations et voyages faicts à la Turquie...

Article

[Adam; Adenot; Admiet]

(fl 1457–71).

French illuminator. The earliest document relating to him is dated 1457, when he illuminated a manuscript for Joanna of Laval (m. 1454; d 1498), wife of René I, Duke of Anjou. In February 1457 the artist received 6 livres 17 sous 6 deniers of silver for producing ‘ung ymaige et plusieurs lettres’ for a copy of the Miroir des dames (untraced) for Joanna. In May the court moved to Provence and the Miroir was completed by another, unnamed, illuminator. In 1458 Adenet received payment from the chapter of Angers Cathedral for decorating a five-volume Gradual (untraced). He was paid the substantial sum of 42 sous 6 deniers for each of the 18 miniatures and was assisted by Gervaise Godelin. Although not officially attached to the court, Adenet was nevertheless described in this document as ‘enlumineur de la reine de Sicile’, possibly indicating the esteem in which he was held. The final record of his activities is on ...

Article

Bodo Brinkmann

(b ?Hesdin, c. 1420; d Bruges, 1479).

South Netherlandish illuminator. His earliest work is a two-volume copy of Jean Mansel’s Fleur des histoires (Paris, Bib. Arsenal, MSS 5087–8), which, according to the colophon, was completed in Hesdin in 1454. A bill dated 29 March 1460 refers to this manuscript, stating that Liédet, who was then in Hesdin, was paid for ‘cinquante cinq histoires, vignettes, grosses lettres et paraffes’ in a Fleur des histoires for Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. The influence of Simon Marmion is very clear on Liédet’s best miniatures in the first volume. In the second volume there is stylistic evidence that Liédet collaborated with the Master of Amiens 200, named after a Book of Hours (Amiens, Bib. Mun., MS. 200), who originated from Marmion’s circle.

There are no further references to Liédet until 1468, when he was in Bruges, becoming a member of the Bruges guild the following year. A large number of commissions is recorded for ...

Article

Margaret M. Manion

[Limbourc; Maelwael, Malouel, Manuel]

North Netherlandish family of illuminators, active in France. The three brothers, Pol de Limbourg [Paul, Paulequin, Polequin], Jean de Limbourg [Hannequin, Janequin, Jannechin, Jehanequin, Jehannequin, Jennekin], and Herman de Limbourg, came to Paris from Nijmegen around the beginning of the 15th century and are particularly renowned for the illumination of two manuscripts for Jean, Duc de Berry (see Valois, House of family, §3): the Belles Heures and the Très Riches Heures (see §1, (i) below), both of which are outstanding examples of the Late Gothic style. With the notable exception of Meiss, most art historians agree that it is impossible to distinguish adequately the artistic personality and style of each of the three brothers and that their oeuvre is more appropriately treated as a single entity, with Pol de Limbourg the acknowledged master of the group.

The brothers’ father, Arnold Limbourg, was a sculptor whose family came from the small duchy of Limburg, near Aachen, but they are also referred to in some of the documents by their mother’s name, Malouel (with various spellings). Their mother’s brother, ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Style of mid-16th century French Bookbinding, often (but not always) used to cover books printed in Lyon. Covers are typically decorated with polychrome Strapwork panels that are then painted, lacquered or enamelled. The style was also used in late 16th-century England, where bindings typically had a large central device and corner ornaments on a dotted ground. Unlike Grolier bindings (...

Article

(fl c. 1537–57).

Italian writer. The only known work by this anonymous writer is a manuscript (Florence, Bib. N. Cent., MS. Magl. XVII, 17), including biographies of major artists active in Florence from the late 13th century to the 16th, which was discovered in 1755 in the Magliabechiano collection of manuscripts and first published in 1892 (Frey). Its provenance can be traced back to descendants of the Gaddi family of artists, hence its alternative title. The provenance and the accuracy of the accounts of Gaddo, Taddeo, and Agnolo Gaddi suggest that the family was known to the writer who was evidently a Florentine citizen, although probably not an artist. The manuscript begins with a list of artists of Classical antiquity and continues with biographies of artists in Florence from Cimabue to Michelangelo, but not in strict chronological order. There is also a brief section on Sienese artists. It ends with a list of artists’ names, including Raphael and Sebastiano del Piombo, so arranged as to suggest that the work was to be continued. Bound with the main text is an account of buildings and works of art in Rome, written ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Name given to a group of almost 100 Bookbinding made in Paris in the 1550s, possibly by the same craftsmen who supplied the Grolier bindings (see Jean, Vicomte d’Agnisy Grolier). Each volume is stamped with the name ‘Thos Maioli’, who is probably Thomas Mahieu (Lat. Maiolus), secretary to Catherine de’ Medici and one of Jean Grolier’s successors as Treasurer of France. The sumptuous bindings are decorated with arabesques and ...

Article

Gennaro Toscano

(b Naples; fl c. 1480–94).

Italian illuminator. Two manuscripts by this artist can be identified from surviving payment records in the Aragonese treasury: on 13 October 1480 he was paid for the illustration of ‘Agostino super Salamis’, a work that has now been identified as St Augustine’s Commentary on the Psalms (London, BL, MSS Add. 14779–83), while a copy of Aesop’s Fables (U. Valencia, Bib., MS. 758) has been linked to a payment made in 1481. Analysis of these documented volumes allows the partial reconstruction of the artist’s career. Other work for the King of Naples, Ferdinand of Aragon, is recorded in numerous sources, but the manuscripts described in these commissions remain untraced. Majorana’s hand has nevertheless been identified in a Breviary that once belonged to Ferdinand (c. 1480; Naples, Bib. N., MS. 1. B. 57). This was probably executed while Majorana was in the workshop of the Neapolitan illuminator Cola Rapicano, where he appears to have begun his career, as some pages reveal the hand of ...

Article

Michael Curschmann

The medieval term mappa mundi (also forma mundi, historia/istoire) covers a broad array of maps of the world of which roughly 1100 survive. These have resisted systematic classification, but the clearly dominant type is one that aims at comprehensively symbolistic representation. Its early, schematic form is a disc composed of three continents surrounded and separated from one another by water (“T-O Map”) and associated with the three sons of Noah: Asia (Shem) occupies all of the upper half, Europe (Japhet) to the left and Africa (Ham) to the right share the lower half. Quadripartite cartographic schemes included the antipodes as a fourth continent, but the tripartite model was adopted by the large majority of the more developed world maps in use from the 11th century on and—with important variations—well into the Renaissance. While details were added as available space permitted, the Mediterranean continued to serve as the vertical axis and, with diminishing clarity, the rivers Don and Nile as the horizontal one. The map also continues to be ‘oriented’ towards Asia, where paradise sits at the very top. A circular ocean forms the perimeter and not infrequently the city of Jerusalem constitutes its centre....

Article

Bodo Brinkmann

[Louthe Master; Master of the St Bertin Altar]

(b Amiens, c. 1425; d Valenciennes, Dec 25, 1489).

French illuminator and painter. He was trained in Amiens and established a productive workshop in Valenciennes, but at the end of his career appears to have had connections with manuscript painting in the southern Netherlands. Although no signed or documented works survive, many illuminated manuscripts and some panel paintings have been convincingly attributed to him and his workshop. On the basis of these he has been recognized as an important figure in the development of both French and Netherlandish painting.

Documentary references to the Marmion family of painters from Amiens were first assembled by Hénault. Simon’s father, Jean Marmion, is mentioned for the first time in 1426. In 1449 Simon is first documented, assisting his father, and by 1450 he was already working in Amiens independently. He was called to Lille in 1454 to take part in the preparations for the ‘banquet du faisan’ given by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. In ...

Article

Thomas Tolley

(b c. 1460; fl ?1505).

Italian illuminator, painter and gem-engraver. According to Vasari, Marmitta lived in Parma and, after training as a painter, became an engraver of gemstones, ‘closely imitating the ancients’. Although no signed work is known, he is mentioned in verses prefacing a manuscript of Petrarch’s Canzoniere and Trionfi (Kassel, Landesbib., MS. Poet.4°.6) as the illuminator of the accompanying miniatures. This poem, written by Jacobus Lilius, the patron and scribe of the manuscript, praises Marmitta by comparing him with two of the greatest artists of antiquity, Apelles and Lysippos. Marmitta’s familiarity with ancient art is particularly evident in the cameos with Classical figures inset in the frames of the miniatures. These are modelled as if in three dimensions and, with other illusionistic devices featuring Classical motifs, suggest his knowledge of illumination of the 1470s and 1480s from the Veneto. An equally important influence is the work of the Ferrarese painter Ercole de’ Roberti. Marmitta’s highly personal figure style, characterized by slender, slightly elongated forms (...

Article

Kurt Löcher

(b Munich, 1516; d Munich, March 10, 1573).

German painter and illuminator. He was a leading painter in Munich of religious compositions, manuscript illuminations and portraits. He studied with his father, Wolfgang Mielich, a Munich municipal painter, who appears in the Munich tax records from 1509 onwards, but the years 1536–9, spent with Albrecht Altdorfer in Regensburg, were decisive for Hans Mielich’s approach to colour. In 1536 he illuminated the title-page to the Freiheitenbuch of the city of Regensburg (Regensburg, Stadtmus.). In 1541 Mielich travelled to Rome on a commission from Duke William IV of Bavaria. He stayed there until 1543, when he became a master in Munich. From 1545 onwards Duke Albert V of Bavaria helped him obtain commissions, and in 1558 Mielich became leader of the Munich painters’ guild. He consistently signed his works with the monogram HM (=M in H).

In an early religious work, the Crucifixion (1536; Hannover, Niedersächs. Landesmus.), Mielich adhered to the traditions of Bavarian Late Gothic painting. ...

Article

Charles M. Rosenberg

(b ?Milan; fl c. 1492–1523).

Italian illuminator. He is first documented in November 1504 among the artists working on the Breviary of Ercole I d’Este (1502–5; Modena, Bib. Estense, MS. VG. 11, lat. 424). He appears in the Este accounts until 1512. Hermann identified Matteo as the illuminator of numerous historiated initials in the Breviary, as well as four full-page miniatures that were cut out of the manuscript (Zagreb, Yug. Acad. Sci. & A.). Matteo’s style is characterized by a late 15th-century Lombard sense of three-dimensional form and modelling, suggesting that his earliest training took place in Milan. His use of Classical motifs is often superficial and decorative. Matteo’s familiarity with the prints of Albrecht Dürer is apparent in quotations in the background of the full-page miniature of the Calling of SS Peter and Andrew from the Breviary, in cuttings from the Hours of Alfonso I d’Este (Zagreb, Yug. Acad. Sci & A.) and in the architectural background of the miniature from the ...

Article

Claude Schaefer

[Molisson]

French family of painters and illuminators. Jean Raoul de Montluçon (b Montluçon, 1417; d Bourges, 1494) settled in Bourges c. 1460, when he married Louise Debrielle, the daughter of a local notary. Unusually for a painter, he owned three houses and a vineyard in Bourges, and in 1469 he was living in a house near that of the illuminator Jean Colombe. The Book of Hours belonging to the Bourbon Chappes family (Paris, Bib. Arsenal, MS. 438) bears his signature on the border of the chasuble worn by the high priest in the Marriage of the Virgin (johannes de montelucio me pinxit). Jean also signed himself phonetically as moluson, as in the Monypenny Breviary (sold London, Sotheby’s, 19 June 1989, lot 3031), which belonged to a member of a family of Scottish origin living in Berry.

Jean and his son Jacquelin Raoul (b Bourges, 1463; d...

Article

[Kristoffel; Stoffel]

(b Zurich, Feb 1558; d Winterthur, March 27, 1614).

Swiss glass painter, woodcut designer, etcher, book illustrator and writer. He was the son and pupil of the glass painter and councillor Jos Murer (1530–80), founder of a family of artists who lived in Zurich in the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1577 he collaborated with his father on a cycle of 13 pairs of panes representing Thirteen Historic Scenes of the Swiss Confederation for the Zisterzienkloster of Wettingen, Aargau. Christoph’s monograms (sm, stm) are on three panes. He probably followed this work with study travels. In 1579 he designed a cycle of panes in Basle for the well-known citizen Leonhard Thurneysser (1531–96), celebrating the adventurous life of this much-travelled goldsmith, alchemist, astrologer and personal physician to the Elector of Brandenburg. Of the original cycle, two paintings, including the Birth of Leonhard Thurneysser of Basle in 1531 (1579; Basle, Öff. Kstsamml.), and two design sketches (?...

Article

Charles M. Rosenberg

(fl 1463; d before 1503).

Italian illuminator and painter. In 1463 he wrote to the Duke of Milan’s agent in Cremona requesting consideration for a commission to paint an altarpiece for a memorial altar erected in S Agostino, Cremona; this would suggest that he was a painter as well as an illuminator. In 1503, in a payment made to his nephew Marchino for the illumination of a Gradual, Nebridio is referred to as deceased. Two signed illuminations survive: a cutting in Bologna with a representation of St Augustine (Bologna, Mus. Civ., Palagi, no. 130) and another showing the Resurrection (Cambridge, MA, Fogg, MS. 1916.28). On the Bolognese cutting, Nebridio identifies himself on a scroll as a ‘son of the saint’, that is, an Augustinian. His style displays a density of decoration characterized by courtliness and elegance and shows the survival of Late Gothic influences in Cremonese art. Levi d’Ancona detected a reflection of the style of Bonifacio Bembo and of the later work of Belbello da Pavia in Nebridio’s illuminations and suggested a Venetian connection between Nebridio and Belbello, an idea that was rejected by Bandera. A number of works have been attributed to Nebridio, including a Breviary dated ...