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Article

Patricia Fister

[ Yokoi Myōdō ; Kōmori Dōjin ]

(b Kasanui, Ōmi Prov. [now Kusatsu, Shiga Prefect.], 1761; d Kasanui, 1832).

Japanese priest and painter . The first half of his life is recorded in his autobiography. At the age of nine he became a Buddhist monk at the Jōdo (Pure Land) sect temple Sōkinji in Osaka. He left at the age of seventeen and went to Edo (now Tokyo), where he was admitted into the Jōdo temple Zōjōji in Shiba. Expelled later for frequenting the pleasure districts, he spent some years travelling. He returned to the Kyoto area and resumed his studies, later accepting a position as head priest at Gokurakuji on Mt Kinkoku, in northern Kyoto, from which he took his artist’s name. In 1788 Gokurakuji was destroyed by fire, prompting Kinkoku to become an itinerant preacher and painter. He travelled as far as Nagasaki, staying at Jōdo temples and painting Buddhist deities and scenes from the life of Hōnen (1133–1212), the sect’s founder. These are executed in a rather folksy version of the ...

Article

Sidsel Helliesen

(b Kragerø, April 27, 1857; d Jeløya, nr Moss, Jan 21, 1914).

Norwegian draughtsman and painter. He grew up in poverty in Kragerø, a small town on the coast south of Christiania (later Kristiania; now Oslo). With support from public funds from 1874 to 1876 he studied drawing with Wilhelm von Hanno and with Julius Middelthun at the Royal School of Drawing. He then spent three years (1876–9) at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich under Wilhelm Lindenschmidt (1829–95) and Ludwig von Loefftz (1845–1910). Kittelsen did not, however, adopt the naturalistic style current in Munich, and he made little mark there as a painter. Works from his first Munich years, for example Strike (1879; Trondheim, Trøndelag Flkmus.), show that his talents were for lively and humorous narrative, and for mythical and poetic studies of nature; subjects he could treat most effectively in drawings. In Munich, Kittelsen joined the circle of Norwegian artists and established a lasting friendship with Erik Werenskiold—a strong influence on his work—and also with Eilif Peterssen, Gerhard Munthe, Christian Skredsvig and others. Lack of funds forced him back to Norway in the autumn of ...

Article

Helmut Börsch-Supan

German family of artists. Christian Wilhelm Kolbe (c. 1715–1800) lived in Berlin where he made embroideries worked in gold thread; his brother Johann Diederich Kolbe (d 1786) was a goldsmith. Christian Wilhelm’s wife came from a Huguenot family, and their two sons Christian Friedrich Kolbe (b 1758), who was an embroiderer working in gold thread, and (1) Carl Wilhelm Kolbe (i) grew up in an atmosphere steeped in French culture. Carl Wilhelm’s son was (2) Carl Wilhelm Kolbe (ii), the most important representative of the Romantic history painting movement in Berlin, and a relation by marriage to Daniel Chodowiecki, who influenced his career. Johann Diederich’s son, Heinrich Christian Kolbe (1771–1836), was a painter in Düsseldorf, whose realistic portraits were executed in a Neo-classical style that he alone employed after the appointment of Wilhelm Schadow as Director of the Staatliche Kunstakademie in 1826...

Article

Mimi Hall Yiengpruksawan

[Kōya, Mt; Kōyasan; Kōyasanji; Kōyasan Kongōbuji]

Japanese Buddhist temple and shrine complex in Ito district, Wakayama Prefecture. Lying about 70 km south of Osaka on Mt Kōya (Kōyasan), a plateau on the eastern slope of the Takamine range, it was founded in the 9th century ad as the headquarters of the Shingon sect (see Buddhism §III 10.) and is one of the two main centres of Esoteric Buddhism (mikkyō) in Japan (see also Enryakuji). At Amano Jinja (Amano Shrine) on the north-western flank of the uplands, Niu Myōjin and Kōya Myōjin, the chief Shinto tutelary deities of the complex, are enshrined. The complex now occupies c. 12 sq. km of hilly terrain, encompassing some 125 structures and housing important art works.

Kongōbuji’s founder, Kōbō Daishi (see Kūkai), had spent the years 804–6 in China studying the system of tantric belief that was to be the basis of Shingon teachings and was seeking a suitable location to perform the religious exercises and Esoteric rituals required by these beliefs. In 816 he received from Emperor Saga (...

Article

Gjergj Frashëri

(b Korçë; fl 1770–1807).

Albanian architect. He graduated as an engineer and was the chief architect (1800–07) of Ali Pasha Tepelena (1741–1822), ruler of an Albanian state based at Ioannina, Greece. Chroniclers of the time attribute to Korçari many projects, among which are the seraglio (1804; destr. 1819) in Tepelenë Castle, Tepelenë Bridge (1804; destr. 1807), the palace (1800–07) in the village of Karkalopulo, near Ioannina, and a palace, several houses and a mosque at the castle of Suli (1805), near Parga, Greece. His greatest project was the architectural ensemble at Ioannina Castle (1805; destr. 1822), consisting of five palaces (seraglios), of which the Litharici and the Qoshk were recorded as the most beautiful. As in all his palaces, the ground floors had very high and thick stone walls, characteristic of the ‘Albanian tower’ type of house (see Albania, §II...

Article

Sabine Kehl-Baierle

(b Bisenz bei Ung Hradisch [now Bzenec], Moravia, Oct 13, 1867; d Vienna, May 9, 1916).

Austrian painter and printmaker. He studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna under the German painter Christian Griepenkerl (1839–1916) in 1886–8 and the Austrian painter Leopold Carl Müller (1834–92) in 1890–91. He went to Paris to further his studies at the Académie Julian and visited Concarneau in Brittany for the first time in 1893: the Breton people, harbour activity, sunrises and sunsets, sailing ships and the shimmering surface of the water became motifs in his art. In 1894–5 he again studied at the academy in Vienna, this time portrait painting, under the Polish painter Kazimierz Pochwalski (1855–1940). After 1895 he came under the influence of French art (especially plein-air painting, Impressionism and works by Vuillard and Bonnard), which led him to use lighter, brighter colours than before. In 1895 he married Martha Guyot, a Breton woman. Subsequently they spent their summers in Brittany and their winters in Vienna, where in ...

Article

Franco Bernabei

(b Monte dell’Olmo, nr Macerata, June 13, 1732; d Florence, March 31, 1810).

Italian antiquary and art historian. He studied in Jesuit schools in Fermo and later in Rome, where he entered the Order of St Ignatius. His education was mainly classical, although it also included philosophy and mathematics. While in Rome he taught classical literature in Jesuit schools, concurrently absorbing the Neo-classical theories of Johann Joachim Winckelmann and Anton Raphael Mengs. When the Jesuit Order was suppressed in 1773 he was in Siena, where he had been sent for health reasons. In 1775 Grand Duke Leopold of Tuscany (1747–92) appointed him curator of the antiquarian section of the Uffizi, Florence. This initiated a period of intense activity cataloguing, classifying and enriching the collection. In 1782 his catalogue of the reorganized gallery was published. In the meantime he travelled throughout Tuscany, not only doing research into the archaeological background required for this work but coincidentally broadening his interest in modern art. The combination of his early literary and linguistic interests with his new research on bronzes, gems and antique statues, which in that region were mostly Etruscan, inspired his ...

Article

Harley Preston

English family of painters and printmakers. Frederick Christian Lewis the elder (b London, 14 March 1779; d Enfield, London, 18 Dec 1856) was a student of Joseph Constantine Stadler (fl 1780–1812) and of the Royal Academy Schools, London, who became an eminent reproductive engraver and landscape painter. He made aquatints after Thomas Girtin’s Twenty of the Most Picturesque Views in Paris and its Environs (London, 1803) and produced one plate—Bridge and Goats—for Turner’s Liber Studiorum (London, 1807) before collaboration collapsed after a financial disagreement. He worked extensively in reproducing master drawings in various intaglio techniques, especially for William Young Ottley’s 3-volume The Italian School of Design (London, 1808–23), and was Engraver of Drawings to Princess Charlotte, Prince Leopold, George IV, William IV and Queen Victoria. He executed engravings after many contemporary painters’ works, particularly Thomas Lawrence’s portrait drawings, and, under the patronage of ...

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

(b Hørsholm, Denmark, March 4, 1787; d Christiania [now Oslo], July 10, 1851).

Norwegian architect of Danish birth. He was educated as a mining engineer and officer in Copenhagen, where he also attended drawing, painting and possibly architectural classes at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, and in Kongsberg, Norway, from 1812 to 1815. He began teaching drawing at Christiania’s Royal School of Design in 1819 and taught architecture there from 1822 to 1840. Despite his relative lack of formal architectural education, Linstow’s works are distinguished by artistic ability and solid historical knowledge. Numerous churches throughout Norway were built after Neo-classical pattern drawings prepared by him (1838–41). His major project, the Royal Palace in Oslo (1823–48), is a reduced version of a much larger original project, with Baroque details inspired by Nicodemus Tessin the younger’s Royal Palace in Stockholm. The Palladian building, facing Karl Johans Gate and the city, is dominated by a central pavilion with giant Ionic columns of Norwegian marble. The interiors, like those of C. F. Hansen’s contemporary Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen, were influenced by the classicism of Karl Friedrich Schinkel, whom Linstow visited while in Germany in ...

Article

Jens Peter Munk

(b Kalundborg, Sept 1, 1818; d Bedsted, April 25, 1848).

Danish painter. He studied at the Kongelige Akademi for de Skønne Kunster, Copenhagen, under Johan Ludvig Lund (1777–1867) and the animal painter Christian Holm (1804–46) between 1832 and 1842. Early on he was influenced by the ideas of the art historian N. L. Høyen, especially his concept of a truly national school of landscape painting. Kalundborg Church (1837; Copenhagen, Stat. Mus. Kst) depicts a historical monument familiar to all Danes, and one that had a particular nostalgic attraction for a painter born in Kalundborg. The picture is both sharply naturalistic and emphatically painterly. In Landscape Near Arresø (1838; Copenhagen, Thorvaldsens Mus.) Lundbye was more occupied with the representation of light and space. There is no anecdotal element; the lake, the open sky, the low hills, the ancient cairn, the cattle and the playing children sum up a typical Danish summer landscape. His larger canvases emphasize openness; flat expanses of land terminate in low tree-fringed horizons below vast skies. They have little of Constable’s temperament or the broadness of Corot but are close to the elegiac mood of Caspar David Friedrich and Johan Christian Dahl. Danish landscape painting during the mid-1830s was greatly influenced by Romanticism; Danish and German Romantic literature was an important element in the nationalist movement of those years....

Article

Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

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Article

Rüdiger an der Heiden

(b Strasbourg, Oct 2, 1741; d Munich, Jan 3, 1822).

German painter, lithographer and administrator. He received his first training from his father, Konrad Mannlich (1701–58), court painter to Christian IV, Duke of Zweibrücken. In 1758 he was sent to the drawing academy at Mannheim by Christian IV, and in 1762–3 accompanied him to Paris, where he met François Boucher, Carle Vanloo and also Christoph Gluck and Diderot. His work from this period reveals the influence of French Rococo, for example in The Surprise (a scene from ‘Blaise the Shoemaker’, an opera by F.-A. Danican Philidor; Regensburg, Staatsgal.). He studied in Paris under Boucher in 1765–6, at the Académie de France in Rome under Charles-Joseph Natoire in 1767–70 and also visited Naples; on his return journey to Germany he met Anton Raphael Mengs in Florence. During 1770–71 he made a great many copies of paintings, including one after Raphael’s Madonna della sedia and another after Correggio’s Madonna of St Jerome...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(Robert)

(b Stockholm, May 8, 1868; d Cairo, April 13, 1933).

Swedish diplomat, scholar, collector and dealer. In 1884 he became assistant at the ethnographical museum in Stockholm, and by 1890 he was assistant at the archaeological museum. He combined his interests in ethnography and archaeology on a visit to Siberia (1891–2), publishing his findings in L’Age du bronze au Musée de Minoussinsk. He then turned to Islamic art, travelling widely and collecting in Russia, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Egypt and Turkey. He began to acquire Islamic book paintings at Bukhara in 1894 and in the following year sold 387 oriental manuscripts to the University Library at Uppsala. In the winter of 1896 he excavated at Fustat (Old Cairo), returning with several thousand ceramic fragments. In 1897 he exhibited his collection at Stockholm. About this time he formed the opinion that manuscripts had been the chief disseminators of ornamental motifs in the Islamic world. From 1903, when he was attached to the Swedish Embassy in Istanbul as dragoman, he acquired a number of precious manuscripts and albums, and he also probably formed in these years a collection of etchings of views of Istanbul, portraits of sultans and political pictures that went to Lund University. He published ...

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

[Arie, Aryeh]

(b. Stanislav [now Ivano-frankivsk, Ukraine], 12 Jan. 1895; d. Jerusalem, April 6, 1959).

Israeli historian of Islamic art. Born in a city that was then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Mayer studied at the universities of Lausanne, Vienna and Berlin and received his Ph.D. at Vienna in 1917 for a thesis on town planning in Islam. A staunch Zionist, he emigrated to Palestine in 1921 where he served as inspector and then librarian in the Department of Antiquities for the Government of Palestine under the British Mandate. When Hebrew University, Jerusalem, was established in 1929, he was appointed lecturer in Islamic Art and Archaeology, and then in 1932 the first Sir David Sassoon Professor of Near Eastern Art and Archaeology. From 1935 to 1949 Mayer was the first local director and also dean and rector of the School of Oriental Studies.

Mayer was interested in many aspects of Islamic art, including coins and works from the Mamluk period. A fine Arabist, he wrote many articles on Arabic epigraphy for the ...

Article

Jeanne Sheehy

(b Dublin, Jan 6, 1817; d Dublin, Feb 6, 1882).

Irish architect. He was educated at the Christian Brothers’ School, Dublin, and entered the Figure and Ornament Schools of the Royal Dublin Society in 1834. In 1837 he moved to the Architecture School and in the same year began to exhibit designs at the Royal Hibernian Academy. He was articled to the architect William Farrell (d 1852). He probably spent the years 1843–6 in England, where he came under the influence of A. W. N. Pugin and the Ecclesiological movement. By 1846 he was back in Ireland and embarked on his first major commission, St Kevin’s, Glendalough, Co. Wicklow, which he described as ‘the first uncompromisingly true church of the old type erected in the archdiocese of Dublin’. It followed Ecclesiological recommendations for a small rural church, with a nave and carefully differentiated chancel, a bell cote, south porch and a sacristy, and was built of local granite with limestone dressings. He planned a richly decorated interior, with rood screen, sedilia and founder’s tomb, stained glass, encaustic tiles and stencilled walls, but little of this was achieved. St Kevin’s launched McCarthy on a successful career. His religion was no disadvantage, as the Catholic church began a vigorous building campaign. McCarthy was a skilled self-publicist, writing about the new architecture in Duffy’s ...

Article

Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

In 

Article

(b Hegstad, Melhus, bapt Aug 30, 1789; d Christiania [now Oslo], June 20, 1859).

Norwegian sculptor. He joined the army in 1810 but in 1815 obtained a discharge and moved to Stockholm to pursue an artistic career. There he studied at the Konstakademi from 1815 to 1819 under Erik Gustav Göthe and in 1820 moved to Rome, where he worked with the Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen. In Rome he made copies of antique sculptures, including a marble Head of Bacchus (1820–26; Oslo, N.G.) copied from a work in the Museo Capitolino. This Classical influence was reinforced by Thorvaldsen’s Neo-classicism. After leaving Rome in 1826 he spent a while in Christiania before moving to Stockholm again, where he worked as an assistant to Göthe and Johan Niklas Byström.

In 1833 Michelsen began work on statues of the 12 Apostles for the church at Trondheim, which were finished by 1840. Widely acknowledged as his finest work, the Apostles have a monumentality and grandeur associated with Renaissance sculpture. The year of their completion Michelsen became a member of the Kunstakademi in Christiania and at the same time was given the title of Royal Sculptor. He settled in Christiania in ...

Article

Glenny Alfsen

(b Kongsberg, July 3, 1820; d Christiania [now Oslo], May 5, 1886).

Norwegian sculptor. He worked first as an apprentice goldsmith in Christiania, and then studied under Herman Wilhelm Bissen from 1840 to 1851 at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen. Here he adopted a conservative, late classical style, inspired by the art and literature of Denmark’s golden age. He lived in Rome between 1851 and 1860 and became familiar with the works of Classical and Renaissance masters. This experience increased his self-doubt, and he later became harshly self-critical. A font reflecting his admiration for Berthel Thorvaldsen is Middelthun’s only great work from this period (plaster, 1859; marble, 1865; Oslo, Trefoldighetskirken). He returned to Norway in 1860 and executed a series of busts, which established him as Norway’s leading portrait sculptor. His bust of the poet Johan Sebastian Welhaven (plaster, 1861; Oslo, Ubib.; marble, 1865; Oslo, N.G.), one of the most important examples of Norwegian portrait sculpture, is herm-like in form and, with its sense of classical balance and harmony, embodies the poet’s ideals. Middelthun’s later head-and-shoulders bust of the composer ...

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S. J. Vernoit

[Sayyid Mīrzā]

(fl c. 1810–40).

Persian painter. He specialized in oil portraits of the Qajar monarch Fath ‛Ali Shah (reg 1797–1834) and his family, and he also produced fine examples of painted and varnished (‘lacquered’) pieces. One of the artist’s earliest works is a mirror-case (1815–16; Dublin, Chester Beatty Lib.) with depictions of the Virgin and Child and the Annunciation. Sayyid Mirza, together with Baqir, signed the impressive varnished covers that Fath ‛Ali Shah ordered to replace the original binding on the famous copy (London, BL, Or. MS. 2265) of Nizami’s Khamsa (‘Five poems’) made for the Safavid shah Tahmasp I in 1539–43. Sayyid Mirza’s signature appears on the front cover, on which is depicted Fath ‛Ali Shah hunting with his sons. The artist’s most impressive work (1828–9; Firuz priv. col.), a large painting of the Shah enthroned with his sons and courtiers, was in the Hasht Bihisht Palace in Isfahan during the 19th century. In ...

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Donald F. McCallum

[Mokujiki Gogyō; Mokujiki Gyōdō; Mokujiki Meiman]

(b Marubatake, Kai Province [now Yamashi Prefecture], 1718; d 1810).

Japanese sculptor and Buddhist monk. He was an ascetic priest of the Shingon sect (see Buddhism §III 10.) during the Edo period (1600–1868) and apparently functioned as an itinerant monk (hijiri) in early adulthood. At the age of 45 he took vows as a ‘wood-eater’ (mokujiki), one who abstained not only from meat, fish and fowl but also from grains, eating only nuts, roots and berries. In 1773, after taking an additional vow to travel throughout Japan, he embarked on a programme of missionary activity that took him from Hokkaido in the north to Kyushu in the south. Mokujiki was already in his early 60s when he began sculpting devotional images for the communities he visited, apparently following the example of his predecessor Enkū. Interestingly, he avoided localities where Enkū had made images. Mokujiki enjoyed excellent health and continued to produce sculptures until he was over 90 years old....