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Hans-Christoph Dittscheid

(b Kassel, Dec 9, 1754; d Kassel, July 26, 1825).

German architect. He studied architecture from 1778 at the Collegium Carolinum in Kassel under Simon Louis Du Ry. His earliest surviving designs show a close allegiance to the architecture of the Prussian court in Berlin and Potsdam. At about this time he taught architecture under Du Ry. In 1783 Jussow received a bursary from Landgrave Frederick II of Hesse-Kassel (reg 1760–85), which enabled him to stay in Paris until 1785. There he was a pupil of Charles de Wailly, who had produced various designs for a new residential palace and a pleasure palace, both at Weissenstein (later Wilhelmshöhe), for the Kassel court. In de Wailly’s studio Jussow drew up his first scheme for Schloss Wilhelmshöhe, which exhibits the direct influence of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, who was also working on projects for Landgrave Frederick at the time. Jussow also spent a year in Italy (1785–6) and was one of the first German architects to study and draw the ancient temples at Paestum. Landgrave ...


Hans Joachim Neidhardt

(b Karlsruhe, Jan 22, 1773; d Dresden, July 14, 1810).

German painter and draughtsman. His training began with an apprenticeship in bookbinding in Pforzheim. From 1792 Kaaz trained as an engraver and miniature painter with Moise Perret-Gentil (1744–1815) in La Chaux de Fonds, Switzerland, and he then studied at the Kunstakademie in Stuttgart. In 1796 he went to Dresden, where from 1797 he attended the Kunstakademie, being influenced particularly by his teacher Johann Christian Klengel and by the landscape painter Jacob Wilhelm Mechau (1745–1808). These two painters recommended that Kaaz study the paintings of Jacob Ruisdael and Claude Lorrain in the Dresden Gemäldegalerie, and these works had a lasting influence on Kaaz’s landscape style. This may be seen in the earliest of his few surviving paintings, for example the Landscape with Waterfall (1800; Dresden, Gemäldegal. Neue Meister). Kaaz’s work from this time is marked by wide orderly spaces and an arcadian harmony. In Dresden he benefited from the patronage of Baroness ...


Boris Vižintin

(b Karlovac, May 19, 1821; d July 5, 1858).

Croatian painter. He was apprenticed to the furniture trade, which he soon abandoned to join the workshop of the painter F. Hamerlitz. Apart from learning his craft, he was employed painting houses and churches. His first patron, Colonel Franjo Kos von Kossen, along with other Karlovac notables, raised enough money to send him on a scholarship to Italy. In 1838 he arrived in Florence, where he was first taught by A. Corsi and subsequently by G. Meli. He became associated with the painter Francesco Salghetti-Drioli and copied Old Masters such as Fra Angelico and Ghirlandaio. In 1841 he left Florence and travelled to Rome via Siena. In Rome he fell under the influence of the Nazarenes and in particular of their ideological leader, Friedrich Overbeck, as can be seen in his Moses at the Riverbank (Karlovac, City Mus.) and other religious paintings of that period. After a short visit home Karas returned to Rome in ...


Ksenija Rozman

(b Ljubljana, Nov 23, 1829; d Ljubljana, March 14, 1870).

Slovenian painter. He trained in landscape painting at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna from 1845 to 1847, in portrait painting at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Munich (1848), and in architectural painting at the private school of Albert Emil Kirchner. In 1849 Karinger joined the Austrian army and started to draw and paint views and military and folk subjects from northern Italy, Dalmatia, Montenegro and Albania. He retired from military service in 1861 and lived in Ljubljana, where he became a member (1862), and later president, of the Österreichischer Künstlerverein, and its organizer of exhibitions for Ljubljana. He travelled through Slovenia, Carinthia, Bavaria and the Tyrol, painting Romantic landscapes such as the Triglav from Bohinj (1861; Ljubljana, N.G.). He was a distinguished watercolourist and took part in many exhibitions in central Europe.

Anton Karinger, 1829–1870 (exh. cat. by P. Vrhunc and F. Zupan...


Hans Joachim Neidhardt

(b Güstrow, Mecklenburg, Oct 22, 1785; d Meissen, July 1, 1847).

German painter. He trained at the academy of art in Copenhagen from 1805 to 1808, adopting the clarity and brilliance characteristic of the Danish school. In 1808 he went to Dresden, where he met and associated with Caspar David Friedrich and his circle. With Friedrich, Kersting went on a walking tour through the Zittau Mountains and the Riesengebirge in July 1810. Kersting was also a close friend of the painter Gerhard von Kügelgen, at whose house he was a frequent guest. His first two portraits in individual interiors (a genre he was to make his own), Caspar David Friedrich in his Studio (Hamburg, Ksthalle) and Gerhard von Kügelgen in his Studio (Karlsruhe, Staatl. Ksthalle), attracted much attention on their exhibition at the Dresden Kunstakademie in 1811. Kersting continued to produce works of this very appealing type, linking the sitter with his surroundings: they are an epitome of early Romantic interest in the spirit of the individual and point beyond the ephemeral, genre-like aspects of the subject to a symbol of the interaction between man and the space in which he works or lives. In ...


G. A. Printseva


(b Oranienbaum district, Petersburg province, March 24, 1782; d Rome, Oct 24, 1836).

Russian painter and draughtsman. The leading Russian portrait painter of the Romantic period, he was the illegitimate son of the landowner A. D’yakonov and was adopted by his serf, Adam Shval’b and granted his freedom at birth. His surname is unconnected with that of either his real or his adoptive father, and its origin is uncertain. In 1798 he was sent to the St Petersburg Academy of Arts, eventually studying history painting under Gabriel-François Doyen and Grigory Ugryumov. In 1805 he received an important gold medal for his painting Dmitry Donskoy on the Field of Kulikovo (St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.) and won the right to travel to Italy on a scholarship. He did not, however, do so immediately, because of the tense political situation in Europe. Kiprensky’s history painting was in keeping with the patriotic mood of Russian society during the years of the war against Napoleon. Although this is the only example of history painting in the artist’s oeuvre, Kiprensky continued to consider himself a history painter....


David Rodgers

(b Wormsley Grange, Hereford & Worcs, Feb 11, 1751; d London, April 23, 1824).

English writer, connoisseur and collector (see fig.). He was the son of a clergyman from a wealthy dynasty of iron-masters. His father died in 1764, and shortly afterwards he inherited a considerable estate from his uncle, which ensured his financial independence. He was a sickly child and was educated at home, becoming well versed in Classical history, Latin and Greek. In 1772 he travelled in France and Italy and was abroad again in 1776, touring Switzerland with the landscape painter John Robert Cozens. The following year he travelled to Sicily on an archaeological expedition taking with him the painters Philipp Hackert and his pupil, the amateur artist Charles Gore (1729–1807). Knight kept a detailed journal (Weimar, Goethe- & Schiller-Archv) illustrated by his companions and on his return to England commissioned Cozens and Thomas Hearne to paint watercolours (London, BM) from Hackert’s and Gore’s sketches (London, BM). It seems probable that the journal was intended for publication and that the expedition may have had an entrepreneurial aspect, as archaeology was a fashionable subject and the Sicilian sites largely unexplored....


Neil Kent

(Schjellerup )

(b Copenhagen, May 26, 1810; d Copenhagen, Feb 7, 1848).

Danish painter. He is the most internationally renowned Danish painter and, with his teacher, C(hristoffer) W(ilhelm) Eckersberg, was one of the leading artists of the Danish ‘golden age’ of painting in the 1830s and 1840s. He is most famous for his intimate depictions of familiar landmarks in Copenhagen and North Zealand, notably Frederiksborg Castle, near Hillerød. The skill with which he rendered architectural silhouettes and the light of the Danish sky has won him great acclaim. His charming and intimate portraits of family, fellow artists and friends are among the best examples of Nordic portrait painting.

Købke entered the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen in 1822 at the age of 11. He was taught by the landscape and portrait painter Christian August Lorentzen (1746–1828), until the latter’s death, and subsequently by C. W. Eckersberg. Købke left the Academy in 1832 but continued to receive private teaching from Eckersberg for several years. One of Købke’s earliest works, the ...


Annemieke Hoogenboom

(b Middelburg, Oct 11, 1803; d Cleve, April 5, 1862).

Dutch painter. He received his first lessons from his father, Johannes Hermanus Koekkoek (1778–1851), and also studied at the Tekenacademie in Middelburg. Subsequently he became a pupil at the Amsterdam Rijksakademie under Jean Augustin Daiwaille (1786–1850). He first participated in an exhibition in 1820. Between 1826 and 1834 he travelled constantly, visiting the Harz Mountains, the Rhine and the Ruhr. His first great success came in 1829 when he won the gold medal of the Amsterdam society Felix Meritis with Landscape with a Rainstorm Threatening (Amsterdam, Rijksmus.). The painting is notable for its accurate and sober study of nature; it marked Koekkoek’s commitment to a style of landscape divorced both from the predominantly topographical approach of the 18th century and from the flat and decorative manner of contemporary mural painting. In 1834 he moved permanently to Cleve in Germany, where he developed into one of the most important landscape painters of his generation and achieved international fame....


Torsten Gunnarsson

(b Kalmar, Oct 11, 1858; d Stockholm, May 11, 1930).

Swedish painter, draughtsman and illustrator. From 1874 he studied at the Konstakademi in Stockholm, where he soon became a friend of Richard Bergh and Karl Nordström, both of whom were later prominent exponents of the more advanced Swedish painting of the 1880s and 1890s. After being forced to interrupt his studies because of illness, Kreuger trained from 1878 at the art school of Edvard Perséus (1841–90) in Stockholm before he travelled to Paris, where he stayed for the most part until 1887. He made his début at the Paris Salon in 1882, and he also resided in the artists’ colony in Grez-sur-Loing. During this period he painted such works as Old Country House (1887; Stockholm, Nmus.) with a free brushwork and sense of light that owed much to Jules Bastien-Lepage. In 1885 Kreuger was active in organizing the Opponenterna, a protest movement led by Ernst Josephson against the conservative establishment of the Konstakademi in Stockholm, and the following year he helped to found the ...


S. Träger

(b Piesting, Lower Austria, Oct 17, 1796; d Vienna, Nov 17, 1862).

Austrian painter. In 1809 he began his studies at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna under Heinrich Füger, remaining there until 1823. His early works were entirely within the tradition of academic classicism and centred on the field of portrait painting. He was a member of the circle of friends of the composer Franz Schubert who in 1819 had gathered around the Redemptionist priest Franz von Bruchmann (1798–1867). He recorded their features in numerous individual and group portraits (e.g. Charade of the Schubert-Friends in Atzenbrugg: Expulsion from Paradise, 1821; Vienna, Hist. Mus.). In 1823–5 he was in Italy as the companion to the Russian Baron Alexander von Beresin, who had commissioned from him illustrations for a planned travel book on Italy (never published). While in Italy he adopted the Nazarene aesthetic, and this was decisive for his future work, although he preserved his artistic independence. He modelled his style on the works of Fra Angelico and executed drawings (Vienna, Niederösterreich. Landesmus.) after ...


[Thabaud, Hyacinthe-Joseph-Alexandre]

(b La Châtre, Indre, Feb 3, 1785; d Aulnay, nr Paris, Feb 27, 1851).

French writer and critic. He was a pioneer of literary romanticism and an influential literary figure, whose paid work as a government official allowed him to produce novels, verse and essays. He also wrote art criticism, and the Salon of 1817 prompted no less than seven articles to Le Constitutionnel. The first (3 May) gave a general and favourable survey of the exhibition and commended as best the works by Pierre Guérin, Antoine-Jean Gros and Abel de Pujol (1785–1861). In his second article (8 May) he suggested that aspiring artists should emulate the draughtsmanship of Gros and the composition of Guérin. In 1819 an anonymous book entitled Lettres à David sur le salon de 1819 was published, consisting of 34 initialled letters, most, if not all, of which are thought to have been written by Latouche. Their object was to draw attention to Jacques-Louis David, then in self-imposed exile, and to align the young generation of Romantics with the Davidian tradition. The eighth letter is devoted to ...


Marie-Claude Chaudonneret

(b Baccarat, Oct 31, 1763; d Epinal, Feb 11, 1832).

French painter. A pupil of Jean-François Durand (1731–after 1778) in Nancy and later of the miniature painter J.-B. Augustin in Paris (c. 1785–6), he began his career as a porcelain and miniature painter. In the latter capacity he exhibited in the Salon between 1791 and 1800, after which he gave up miniatures in favour of small genre paintings, which he exhibited regularly until 1831. In 1806 he received a Prix d’Encouragement and in 1808 a first-class medal. In 1804, when he showed Woman Playing the Lute (acquired by the Empress Josephine; now Arenenberg, Napoleonmus.), he was hailed by Vivant Denon as a painter of ‘very delicate and very distinguished talent’ and as worthy of comparison with Gerrit Dou, Willem van Mieris and Gerard ter Borch (ii) (Paris, Archv. N., AF. IV 1050). He was highly regarded by Josephine, who bought six paintings from him between 1804 and ...


Leonée Ormond

(b Bristol, April 13, 1769; d London, Jan 7, 1830).

English painter and collector. He was the finest portrait painter of his generation in Europe and the last English inheritor of the legacy of van Dyck. His technical facility and rapid and enormous public success should not obscure the originality and self-consciousness of his imagination. He also formed a superb collection of Old Master drawings.

An attractive child, he was one of the youngest of a large family. His early life was dominated by the personality of his lazy and improvident father, who was innkeeper from 1772 of the Black Bear at Devizes, Wilts, an inn popular with travellers to the fashionable spa at Bath. He was encouraged to entertain his father’s customers, first by giving recitations, and then, when an aptitude for drawing declared itself, by sketching pencil portraits. Those of Lloyd Kenyon and Mary Kenyon, later 1st Baron and Lady Kenyon (both Lord Kenyon priv. col., see 1979...


Marie-Claude Chaudonneret

(b Puiseaux, nr Fontainebleau, Dec 28, 1781; d Paris, July 25, 1857).

French painter and lithographer. He was a pupil of Jean-Baptiste Regnault and Pierre-Antoine Mongin (1761–1827). He exhibited regularly at the Salon between 1804 and 1847 and received a first class medal as a genre painter in 1808. His reputation was based above all on his historical landscapes. Apart from a few contemporary subjects, for example the View of Lake Garda (exh. Salon 1806; Malmaison, Château N.), which shows the Empress Josephine abandoning her carriage in the face of enemy artillery, his subjects were taken from an idealized view of the Middle Ages. With Alexandre Millin-Duperreux (1764–1843) he formed a connection between historical landscape and the Troubadour style. His works combine landscape and contrived light effects with the trappings of chivalry fashionable under the Consulate and the Empire (e.g. Joan of Arc Receiving a Sword from the Hands of Charles VII, exh. Salon 1808; Blois, Mus. Mun.; ...


Sibylle Valcke

(b Antwerp, Feb 18, 1815; d Antwerp, Aug 26, 1869).

Belgian painter. He trained with Mathieu Ignace Van Brée at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp and then with Ferdinand De Braekeleer. His earliest pictures drew on the Romantic works of Gustaf Wappers, with whom he painted a Spanish Battle Scene (1832–6; Brussels, Mus. A. Mod.). He subseqently treated other typically Romantic subjects, ranging from heroic scenes of war and brigandage to scenes of daily life such as weddings and country festivals. The influence of Paul Delaroche, whom he met in Paris in 1835, is occasionally evident. From 1839 he distanced himself from the Romantic school, whose authority in Antwerp was diminishing. His painting Flemish Nuptials in the 17th Century (1839; Antwerp, Kon. Mus. S. Kst.) seems to herald a more sober style, an approach that more accurately reflected the national heritage. From that time onwards the desire for historical and psychological truthfulness replaced the tendency towards pathos and sentimental anecdote. In his reconstructions of 16th-century Antwerp, Leys sought to convey the spirit and atmosphere of the time. These compositions, whether of historical events—for example the ...


S. G. Fyodorov and B. M. Kirikov

(Ivanovich) [Lidval, Johann-Friedrich]

(b St Petersburg, June 1, 1870; d Stockholm, March 14, 1945).

Swedish architect, active in Russia. He studied at the Academy of Arts, St Petersburg, from 1890 to 1896, where he spent his final years in the studio of Leonty Benois. He subsequently established a reputation as one of the most important architects in St Petersburg in the early 20th century. In his early works there he created an original version of northern European Art Nouveau (Rus. modern), related to Swedish and Finnish National Romantic architecture but distinguished by its strict restraint and elegant forms. In the block of flats on Kamennoostrovsky Prospect 1–3 that belonged to his mother (1899–1904), he used a deep cour d’honneur to form a spacious nucleus to the well-equipped and comfortable complex. The sophisticated plastic quality of the buildings, which are of various heights, the free design and textural variety of the façades and the stylized motifs of flora and fauna all distinguish this as northern ...


Alain Jacobs


(b Antwerp, June 14, 1821; d Antwerp, Jan 3, 1865).

Belgian painter and etcher. A pupil of Nicaise De Keyser at the Antwerp Academie, he swiftly became successful. From his very first works (e.g. Alms, 1838; untraced), he determinedly allied himself with his friend Henri Leys in attempting to restore the traditional values of Flemish painting. In 1849 he was appointed Secretary of the Vereniging van Antwerpse Kunsternaars.

Lies’s vast knowledge of literature and philosophy emerges strongly in his work, characterized by warm and vigorous colours. A Romantic painter, he produced history paintings (e.g. Albrecht Dürer going down the Rhine, 1855; Antwerp, Kon. Mus. S. Kst.), imaginative genre scenes (e.g. The Landing Stage; Brussels, Mus. A. Mod.) and portraits (e.g. Baroness Henri Leys; Antwerp, Kon. Mus. S. Kst.). In 1859–60 a lung disease forced him to travel south, giving him the opportunity to visit France, Italy, Switzerland and the Rhine. He was subsequently appointed Professor at the Antwerp Academie, where his pupils included ...


Paula Kivinen

(b Tampere, May 20, 1872; d Helsinki, Dec 27, 1966).

Finnish architect. She qualified as an architect in 1896, and in 1898 she travelled on a scholarship in central Europe, England and Scotland studying stone and brick construction, as well as school architecture. Lönn was based in Tampere between 1898 and 1911. Her first projects were houses and schools in various parts of Finland—for which she adapted the innovations she had seen in Britain. The Tampere Central Fire Station (1908), her best building, is still in use: its picturesque, loose massing reflects a ground-plan that enhances the building’s efficiency. It also suits the castle-like character lent by such details as the turrets, characteristic of National Romanticism in Finland—of which this station is a good example. She was in Jyväskylä from 1911 to 1918 and was invited to design buildings for Johannes Parviainen Factories Ltd in Säynätsalo. She in fact designed them all. Estonia Theatre in Tallinn (1913...


James Stevens Curl

(b Cambuslang, Lanark [now Strathclyde], April 8, 1783; d London, December 14, 1843).

Scottish garden designer and writer. The son of a farmer, he was first apprenticed to a nurseryman and landscape gardener, moving to London in 1803 to set himself up as a garden designer. That year he published his ‘Hints…[on] Laying Out the Grounds of the Public Squares in London’ in the Literary Journal (ii/12, 31 Dec 1803, cols 739–42), advocating a judicious mixture of deciduous and evergreen plants. He also carried out work for the Duchess of Brunswick at Brunswick House, Blackheath, London, and the following year spent some time in his native Scotland, improving the estates of several aristocratic clients. The same year he exhibited three drawings at the Royal Academy and published his first book, Observations on…Ornamental Plantations. In it he emphasized his adherence to Picturesque principles and those of Uvedale Price in particular. From this time on, and in addition to several forays into architectural design, Loudon’s career as a garden designer was inseparable from his vast publishing enterprises, by which he disseminated his advice and ideas....