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Joellen Secondo

(b Norwich, 1827; d Norwich, 1881).

English designer and architect. He began his career as an architect, designing and restoring parish churches in the Gothic Revival style. In 1859 he entered into a close association with the iron and brass foundry of Barnard, Bishop & Barnard of Norwich. Jeckyll pioneered the use of the Anglo-Japanese style for furnishings. His fireplace surrounds, grates, chairs, tables and benches often incorporate roundels containing Japanese-inspired floral and geometric ornament. Jeckyll’s foliate-patterned ironwork was featured in Barnard, Bishop & Barnard’s pavilion at the International Exhibition of 1862 in London, and he designed the foundry’s cast- and wrought-iron pavilion for the Centennial Exhibition of 1876 in Philadelphia. This two-storey structure was supported by bracketed columns elaborately decorated with a variety of birds and flowers and was surrounded by railings in the form of sunflowers, a motif that was later adapted to firedogs.

During the 1870s Jeckyll was one of several Aesthetic Movement architects and artists responsible for the interiors of 1 Holland Park, London, the home of the collector ...


Cornelia Bauer

(b Baden, Nov 11, 1811; d Baden, Aug 24, 1895).

Swiss architect. He studied in Munich (1829–35) under Friedrich von Gärtner and visited southern Germany and Vienna (1834–5) and Italy (1836). From 1837 he worked in Baden, becoming city building administrator in 1840, then a member of the Aargau building commission and later a town councillor (1856). He worked with simple classical structures, varying the style of ornamentation, either restrained or emphatic, with the type of commission. After some simple Biedermeier houses, such as the Wohnhaus Rohr (1837–8), he produced after 1845 a number of larger buildings, including hotels and spas, such as the Italian Renaissance-style Verenahof (1845–7) in Baden, and a barracks (1847–9) in Aarau, inspired by the Munich Rundbogenstil. In 1851–2 he built the synagogue at Endingen, Germany, in a classical-Moorish style. Jeuch’s Roman Catholic church (1851–3) at Leuggern had considerable influence, being one of the first Gothic Revival sacred buildings in Switzerland. It is a hall church with a façade incorporating a single spire. Jeuch produced several variations on this type, such as the Roman Catholic church (...


Hans-Christoph Dittscheid

(b Kassel, Dec 9, 1754; d Kassel, July 26, 1825).

German architect. He studied architecture from 1778 at the Collegium Carolinum in Kassel under Simon Louis Du Ry. His earliest surviving designs show a close allegiance to the architecture of the Prussian court in Berlin and Potsdam. At about this time he taught architecture under Du Ry. In 1783 Jussow received a bursary from Landgrave Frederick II of Hesse-Kassel (reg 1760–85), which enabled him to stay in Paris until 1785. There he was a pupil of Charles de Wailly, who had produced various designs for a new residential palace and a pleasure palace, both at Weissenstein (later Wilhelmshöhe), for the Kassel court. In de Wailly’s studio Jussow drew up his first scheme for Schloss Wilhelmshöhe, which exhibits the direct influence of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, who was also working on projects for Landgrave Frederick at the time. Jussow also spent a year in Italy (1785–6) and was one of the first German architects to study and draw the ancient temples at Paestum. Landgrave ...


Janet Adams

(b Kilkenny, Aug 9, 1816; d Brooklyn, NY, Aug 11, 1896).

American architect of Irish birth. He was the son of a builder and received no formal training. He emigrated to the USA and settled in Brooklyn, NY, where, in 1847, he designed his first church, the imposing church of SS Peter and Paul in the Gothic Revival style. Over 600 churches are popularly attributed to Keely, and although the total appears exaggerated (only 150 commissions have been documented), it reflects his reputation as the pre-eminent Roman Catholic architect. He earned the sobriquet the ‘American Pugin’ and won the Roman Catholic Laetare Medal for distinguished service. He was hampered throughout his career by demands for commodious but inexpensive churches, leading him to design large, simple structures, frequently with galleries and plain lath and plaster ceilings. When given greater freedom, he showed skill and refinement in his interpretation of English Gothic, supplemented after 1870 by Romanesque and French Empire designs. Of his few Greek Revival works, the best is the robust domed church of St Francis Xavier in Manhattan (...


Howard Colvin

(b Nov 15, 1726; d London, Jan 8, 1776).

English architect. He was the son of a master carpenter. Nothing is known of his training, but he is said to have been ‘bred to the profession of architecture’. In 1746 he was appointed surveyor of the estates of the Dean and Chapter of Westminster and in 1752 Surveyor of Westminster Abbey, with responsibility for its fabric. He had connections with Ireland that began in the 1750s when he and John Sanderson made the working drawings for the west front of Trinity College, Dublin, designed by the amateur architect Theodore Jacobsen. From 1763 to 1766 Keene is mentioned in Irish records as ‘Architect to the Barrack Board’ in Dublin. Through the patronage of Sir Roger Newdigate (1719–1806), MP for the University of Oxford, Keene obtained a number of commissions there, notably the remodelling of the hall (1766) at University College, the Fisher Building (1768–9) at Balliol College, the Provost’s Lodgings (...


Catherine H. Cruft

(b ?Hillrig, Biggar, Strathclyde, 1795; d Edinburgh, 1844).

Scottish architect. He was apprenticed to a carpenter in the Borders in 1809–13, later working as a millwright in Galashiels, Borders. He was a superb draughtsman and his early interest in ecclesiastical architecture is recorded in his drawings of the Borders abbeys of Dryburgh, Jedburgh and Melrose. He moved to Edinburgh for work and to advance his architectural studies, and then moved to London in 1824 and to France, continuing his recording of Gothic monuments. Returning to Scotland, he was employed as a draughtsman by William Burn in 1831–2. In 1834 he made detailed drawings of St Mungo’s Cathedral, Glasgow, including a perspective showing a proposed restoration. These drawings were later plagiarized by James Gillespie Graham and published in 1836; only in 1840 did Kemp prove that Graham had knowingly used his proposals.

After the death of Sir Walter Scott in 1832, plans were made for a commemorative monument in Edinburgh and several architects were asked to submit designs. Kemp submitted his design under the pseudonym of John Morow, the medieval master mason of Melrose Abbey, and was placed third but subsequently won the competition with a revised design. His Gothic monument was built in ...


Cinzia Maria Sicca

(b Bridlington, bapt Jan 1, 1685; d London, April 12, 1748).

English architect, painter, landscape gardener and designer. He was the most exuberant and innovative architect and designer active in England in the first half of the 18th century. He was trained as a painter but was not particularly successful or remarkable in this work, showing greater skill as a draughtsman. As an architect he was highly versatile, practising in both the Palladian and Gothick styles, and this versatility extended to his work as a designer, which included interior decoration, furniture and silverware, book illustration, stage sets and gardens.

Kent was born into a poor family in the East Riding of Yorkshire. Nothing is known of his early education, nor of the circumstances that led to his apprenticeship to a coach-painter in Hull at about the age of 15. Kent is first recorded in London in 1709, when he applied for a passport to go to Italy. He was then 24 and, according to ...


Jean van Cleven

(bapt London, Nov 22, 1822; d Teignmouth, Devon, Jan 14, 1892).

English architect, writer and designer, mainly active in Belgium. From 1840 he studied at Exeter College, Oxford; he became a Catholic and a devoted follower of A. W. N. Pugin (see Pugin family, §2), leader of the Gothic Revival movement. About 1849 he moved to Bruges, where the publication of his Lettre sur la renaissance de l’art chrétien and Lettre (…) à M. l’abbé Carton immediately established him as a passionate advocate of the Gothic Revival movement. In 1850, still in Bruges, he published Les Vrais Principes de l’architecture ogivale ou chrétienne, a highly influential compilation and edited version of Pugin’s writings intended for an international readership.

In the following years King tried to promote the Gothic Revival both through his own architecture and publications and through teaching and supporting other artists. According to King’s notes, the plans for the Magdalenakerk in Bruges were adjusted (1853–6); he designed part of the interior decoration. He also did work for two other churches in Bruges—the church of Our Lady and the chapel of the Holy Blood in the basilica of the Holy Blood (Heilig Bloedbaziliek). In most of these designs the influence of Pugin is noticeable. King was also commissioned by Bishop Malou of Bruges to prepare for the building of the church of Our Lady, Dadizele (...


Mark Alan Hewitt

(b Philadelphia, PA, Feb 9, 1872; d Philadelphia, PA, Oct 30, 1938).

American architect and campus planner. Klauder was the son of Louis Klauder, a German-born furniture manufacturer, and Anna Caroline Koehler. He trained as an apprentice under the architect Theophilus P. Chandler from the age of 15, furthering his studies at the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art in Philadelphia. Between 1893 and 1900 he worked at a number of prominent Philadelphia firms before attaining the position of chief draftsman at Frank Miles Day & Brother (see under Frank Miles Day). He became a partner in 1910 and continued the firm under his own name after Day’s death in 1918.

Klauder teamed with the English-born Day to design some of the nation’s most influential and distinguished campus buildings during the heyday of university expansion in the early 20th century. Along with Cope & Stewardson, Day & Klauder may be credited with the invention of the Collegiate Gothic idiom in American architecture. Their early work at Princeton and Cornell universities set the standard for dormitory and classroom designs in the Ivy League. Klauder extended the Gothic idiom during the 1920s to incorporate elements of Art Deco abstraction and modern building technology. Klauder created campus plans for the University of Colorado (...


David Prout

(b London, 1806; d London, Aug 30, 1869).

English architect. He was the son of James Lamb, a senior government official and amateur artist. He was articled to Lewis Nockalls Cottingham and in the 1830s worked as a draughtsman for John Claudius Loudon. Many of the designs in Loudon’s Encyclopaedia of Cottage, Farm and Villa Architecture and Furniture (London, 1833) were by Lamb. Lamb was an early member of the RIBA.

One of the most original and wilful architects of his day, Lamb designed churches that were singled out for particularly vitriolic criticism by the Ecclesiologist. In the 20th century he became known as ‘Rogue Architect’ (Goodhart-Rendel, 1949). Unlike many architects criticized by the Ecclesiologist, he did not stray from their preferred 14th-century models out of ignorance. In 1830 he demonstrated his erudition by publishing Etchings of Gothic Ornament and produced an early study of the vernacular style in his Studies of Ancient Domestic Architecture (...


Andrzej Rottermund

(b Fano, nr Pesaro, 1799; d Warsaw, Nov 27, 1875).

Polish architect of Italian birth. He studied at the Accademia di S Luca in Rome, where he won a gold medal for a draft design for the restoration of S Maria in Aracoeli. In 1825 Stanisław Małachowski brought him to Poland to design a church and other buildings at Końskie, near Opoczno, where Lanci’s work already reveals his closeness to Karl Friederich Schinkel, both in the use of medieval and Renaissance forms and in the stress on the main elements of construction. During the 1830s Lanci was employed not only in designing new buildings but also in remodelling old ones, such as the Tarnowski family palace at Dzików (now Tarnobrzeg), remodelled in the Gothic Revival style in 1831–5. He was also active in the conservation of historical monuments. His new designs included a church at Pępowo near Poznań (1830) for Edward Raczyński and the castle for the Skrzyński family at Zagórzany, near Gorlice (...


Roger White

(b Twickenham, bapt Sept 14, 1696; d London, March 3, 1751).

English architect and writer. The son of a gardener, he first tried his hand as a landscape gardener in Twickenham and published several books that reveal his practical knowledge of the subject, notably New Principles of Gardening (1728) and Pomona (1729). He deplored the rigid formality of continental horticulture and followed Stephen Switzer in advocating the introduction of the serpentine line into layout and planting. By 1731 he had moved to London, where at different times he ran a drawing school in Soho, manufactured artificial stone ornaments, engaged in polemical journalism and produced a succession of architectural publications.

Langley’s classical pattern books plagiarized an astonishing variety of sources, both Baroque and Palladian, although it is clear from their tone and that of his newspaper articles that he had little sympathy for the prevailing Palladian orthodoxy of Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, and his followers. This may explain why, despite energetic self-publicity, he never managed to establish himself as a practising architect—his unsuccessful design (...


Paul Larmour

(b Eastbourne, Sussex, Jan 6, 1813; d Whiteabbey, Co. Antrim, May 31, 1889).

Irish architect and engineer of English birth. He was the most important architect of his generation in Ireland and in many ways the father of the architectural profession in Ulster. The son of a Royal Naval purser, he was articled to Jacob Owen (1778–1870), Clerk of Works to the Royal Engineers Department in Portsmouth, and in 1832 he moved to Dublin with Owen when the latter was appointed as principal engineer and architect to the Board of Public Works in Ireland. After serving his articles to Owen, Lanyon was appointed Surveyor of Co. Kildare in 1834; in 1836, however, he was transferred at his own request to Belfast, where he became County Surveyor of Antrim until 1860. Road-making and bridge-building formed a great part of his responsibilities, and one of his great achievements was the execution by 1842 of William Bald’s scheme for the Antrim coast road from Larne to Ballycastle. Another was his own design for the tall, triple-arched viaduct at Glendun (...


(b Koblenz, March 27, 1781; d Koblenz, Oct 14, 1848).

German architect. His family came from Lorraine but moved to Koblenz, where his father was syndic to the Elector of Trier. He studied law and then medicine at Würzburg but had not qualified by the time he returned to Koblenz (1803) and married. He worked as a vinegar manufacturer while studying the building trade as a hobby, encouraged by such friends as the poet Clemens Brentano (1778–1842) and the political philosopher Johann Joseph von Görres. He was appointed Kreisbaumeister by the French administration in Koblenz (1812), and after the annexation of the city by Prussia he became city and regional inspector of buildings. His first major work was a commission from Freiherr vom Stein to add an octagonal Gothic tower (1815–16) to Schloss Nassau (see Germany, Federal Republic of §V 4.). Brentano recommended Lassaulx to Karl Friedrich Schinkel and a lifelong friendship developed between the two men. Schinkel often altered the designs of the civil service architects but apparently never did so to those of Lassaulx. Lassaulx’s official work included many schools with simple plans, built of local stone. The Rhine Valley offered a variety of stone in different colours, which he often used to decorative effect. He designed 14 churches, of which the most notable are at Valwig (...


Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Paris, March 19, 1807; d Vichy, July 15, 1857).

French architect, designer, architectural historian and restorer. He began his studies at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, but interrupted them to enter the studio of Henri Labrouste. He was among the first of his generation to oppose the hegemony of the Académie and the teaching curriculum based on Greco-Roman tradition. Having become known through the exhibition of several of his projects at the Salon, including a reconstruction (1833) of the Palais des Tuileries as intended by Philibert de L’Orme, and proposed restorations of the Sainte-Chapelle (1835) and the refectory of St Martin-des-Champs (1836), all in Paris, Lassus began his career as an architectural historian, architect and restorer. One of his earliest works was the restoration (1835) of St-Séverin, Paris. In direct contrast with the committed classicists epitomized by Antoine Quatremère de Quincy, Lassus developed a programme based on the assumption that the Early Gothic period produced a rational and functional architecture that marked the high point of national architecture; that later Gothic represented a decline and that the Renaissance introduced foreign and pagan influences; that restoration of Gothic buildings should respect their formal and structural authenticity; and that architects of the 19th century should apply the precepts of Early Gothic in order to find the way towards a new architecture....


Carola Hicks

English firm of stained-glass manufacturers. Nathaniel Wood Lavers (1828–1911), a craftsman and glassmaker, and Francis Phillip Barraud (1824–1900), a designer and painter of stained-glass windows, were employed by James Powell & Sons. In 1855 Lavers left to found his own firm, employing freelance designers, including Alfred Bell (1832–95), Henry Stacy Marks and Barraud, whom he took into partnership in 1858, when the firm became known as Lavers & Barraud. Barraud worked in a conventional Gothic Revival manner, but a more distinctive style was established by Nathaniel Westlake (1833–1921), a protégé of the architect William Burges. Westlake began to design for the firm in 1858 and became a partner in 1868 after which the firm was called Lavers, Barraud & Westlake; he retained this name after he became sole partner in 1880. It was Westlake’s knowledge of medieval art, Pre-Raphaelite style and simplification of previously over-elaborate drawing that brought the firm fame and success in the 1860s. A good example of this period is the glass (...


David Walker

(b Glasgow, May 21, 1839; d Helensburgh, May 27, 1916).

Scottish architect and painter. He was apprenticed to Charles Wilson’s pupils James Boucher (1832–1906) and James Cousland (c. 1832–66) in 1855. In 1860 he went to London, where he worked in turn for J. L. Pearson and William White and entered the circle of William Burges, who in 1881 proposed him as an FRIBA. He returned to Scotland in 1862 to work for Andrew Heiton (1823–94) and then entered a short-lived partnership with Robert Grieve Melvin in 1864. Leiper’s reputation was established when he won the competition for Dowanhill Church, Glasgow, in 1864. The spire was derived from Pearson’s design for St Peter’s (1863–4), Vauxhall, London, the 13th-century church spires of Rutland (now Leics) and examples illustrated in W. E. Nesfield’s Specimens of Medieval Architecture (1862). The interior had a wide single-span roof, probably inspired by E. W. Godwin’s Northampton Town Hall (...


George Tibbits


(b London, 1796; d Sydney, March 9, 1879).

Australian architect of English birth. His early experience was in London as a military surveyor and draughtsman in government service and then in private practice. He arrived in Sydney in March 1840 as an assistant surveyor in the office of the Surveyor-General of New South Wales, Thomas L. Mitchell. Under Mitchell he was appointed town surveyor in Sydney, becoming Colonial Architect of New South Wales in 1835. He is particularly admired for his designs for government buildings in the Greek Revival idiom, of which one is extant, though extended, the Darlinghurst Court House (1837). Another surviving government building is the Maitland Gaol (1847–50), New South Wales. As Colonial Architect he is credited as the chief designer of government buildings, although evidence suggests that capable subordinate clerks of works such as James Rattenbury (fl 1839–45) and Henry Ginn (fl 1846–51) also had that duty for projects remote from Sydney. Other surviving designs attributed to Lewis are the Berrima Court House and the Hartley Court House, both in rural New South Wales. He also supervised the construction of the Tudor Gothic Government House in Sydney (begun ...


(b Leipzig, Oct 20, 1832; d Dresden, April 11, 1894).

German architect and teacher. He trained under Albert Geutebrück (1800–68) at the Leipzig Baugewerkeschule and studied at the Dresden Kunstakademie with Georg Hermann Nicolai (1851–4). After study visits to Berlin, Venice and Paris, where he saw the office of Jacques-Ignace Hittorff, he set up as an architect in Leipzig, becoming a State building adviser (1872), director of the Leipzig Baugewerkeschule (1876) and Professor of Architecture at the Dresdner Akademie (1881). An eclectic, showing little independent style of his own, his models were French medieval architecture, the Baroque and the work of contemporary French architects. His first work was the funerary chapel (1855) for Baronesse von Eberstein at Schönfeld, near Leipzig. In restoring (1866–8) the Stadtkirche at Borna he employed a pure French Gothic style. The Johannishospital (1870–71) in Leipzig was also built in medieval French idiom. In his purist restoration (...


Paul Larmour

(b St John’s Point, Co. Down, Sept 27, 1829; d Belfast, Sept 12, 1915).

Irish architect. He was apprenticed to Charles Lanyon in Belfast in 1846, serving as clerk of works on Lanyon’s Queen’s College and County Court House. In 1854 he was taken into partnership by Lanyon and remained with him until 1872 when the firm was dissolved and Lynn set up practice on his own. He was a prolific designer with an eclectic taste and a scholarly interest in historic styles, at first mainly medieval but later also classical.

Early works by Lynn included the Belfast Bank (now Northern Bank) branches at Newtownards (1854) and Dungannon (1855), which are among the earliest examples of Venetian Gothic detailing in Ireland, and the similarly Ruskin-inspired Sinclair Seamen’s Presbyterian Church (1856–7), Belfast, in Lombardic Romanesque style. His most conspicuous warehouse in Belfast, built for Richardson, Sons & Owden in Donegall Square (1865–9), was also Italian Gothic in style. His main interest was in ecclesiastical design, usually English Gothic in style, as at the Church of Ireland St Andrew’s (...