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Yoshikazu Iwasaki

[Aoki, Tomitarō]

(b Gifu Prefect., Aug 23, 1868; d Yokohama, Aug 16, 1939).

Japanese collector. He changed his name when he was adopted by his father-in-law, a silk merchant in Yokohama, who made him his heir. He began collecting after c. 1897, and his large collection contained a number of National Treasures. To exhibit it, he opened the Sankei’en in a new park in Yokohama. He encouraged and gave financial support to such artists as Yukihiko Yasuda and Gyoshū Hayami, prominent figures in the Japan Art Institute. He was a highly respected tea master in later life....


Diane Tepfer, Mary L. Levkoff and Laura E. Leaper

revised by Carolyn H. Miner

(b San Francisco, April 29, 1863; d Beverly Hills, Aug 14, 1951).

American newspaper tycoon, media mogul, politician, and collector. Hearst was not only one of the most influential and controversial forces in the history of journalism, but also one of the most remarkable art collectors in American history. Hearst was educated in art and antiquities in Europe by his mother, the philanthropist and architectural patron Phoebe Apperson Hearst (1842–1919); after Harvard he transformed a floundering San Francisco newspaper into a sensationally successful media empire and acquired wealth and political influence, becoming the subject of the renowned film Citizen Kane (1939) by Orson Welles, and Aldous Huxley’s novel, After Many a Summer Dies the Swan (1939).

The sole heir to a colossal fortune that stemmed from the Gold Rush of 1849, Hearst was the son of a brilliant miner, Senator George Hearst (1820–1891), and Phoebe Apperson Hearst, a renowned philanthropist whose collections, travels, and support of archeological expeditions inspired her child to build an empire in publishing from a single newspaper. Hearst promoted the development of the newsreel, revolutionized the technology of news media, and transformed the graphic design of newspapers. He also became a conspicuous movie producer. Through his art director, the Viennese designer Joseph Urban (...


(b Elberfeld, 1851; d Bonn, 1929).

German banker and collector. He became a partner in his family’s banking firm in Elberfeld in 1878. He was married to Selma (née) Haarhaus, with whom he had two sons, August von der Heydt (b 1881) and Eduard von der Heydt (b 1882). He was a founder-member of the Elberfeld Museumsverein, and, after its campaigning led to the establishment of a permanent municipal art gallery (the Städtisches Museum, Elberfeld) in 1902, he and his wife lent and donated numerous works of art to it. They also funded various public monuments in the town, including the imposing Fountain of Justice by Bernhard Hoetger (1910). In 1918 their collection consisted of over 250 works. It combined modern French art from Courbet onwards with contemporary German art, including ‘expressionist’ works by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Emil Nolde and Franz Marc, and 28 paintings by Paula Modersohn-Becker. This choice reflected the belief that a new, vital, German art, commensurate with the country’s economic and political importance, was emerging through free interaction with other currents in European culture, notably the French. The von der Heydts’ fortune was badly affected after ...


Jacqueline Colliss Harvey

(b New York, March 10, 1839; d London, Sept 22, 1909).

American collector. He was the grandson of Robert Hoe, the manufacturer of printing machines and presses, who had made a fortune after emigrating to America. Hoe entered the family firm in 1856 and became its director in 1886. His thorough understanding of the printing business was allied to a love of books and an expert knowledge of the history of printing, on which he wrote and published various works.

Hoe’s collection included illuminated manuscripts, among them a 13th-century Book of Hours, and a large number of early printed books, including a first edition of the Works of Ben Jonson (1616) and of the Comedies and Tragedies of Francis Beaumont (1647) and a folio first edition of the works of John Donne, which had belonged to Samuel Johnson. He was also a collector of fine bindings and owned a Procopius of 1509 from the library of Thomas Maioli, 11 examples of bindings from the library of ...


Rudolf E. O. Ekkart

(b Dwingeloo, nr Assen, Nov 9, 1863; d The Hague, April 14, 1930).

Dutch art historian and collector. He was, with his older contemporaries, Wilhelm van Bode and Abraham Bredius, one of the founders of the study of 17th-century Dutch art. Hofstede de Groot studied art history at Leipzig under Anton Springer and took his degree there in 1891. From 1891 to 1896 he was the assistant director of the Mauritshuis in The Hague under Bredius, and from 1896 to 1898 he was the director of the Rijksprentenkabinet in Amsterdam. Following a dispute, he resigned and established himself in The Hague as a freelance art historian. From his student days, Hofstede de Groot had assembled extensive photographic documentation as well as excerpts from catalogues concerned with Dutch paintings, which subsequently proved very useful to him. He produced various books and numerous articles and contributed to Thieme and Becker’s dictionary. However, his magnum opus was the complete reworking of the Dutch section of John Smith’s ...


Helmut Börsch-Supan, Jarl Kremeier and Rand Carter

German dynasty of rulers, patrons and collectors (see fig.). Members of the family ruled as electors of Brandenburg (1415–1806), kings of Prussia (1701–1918) and emperors of Germany (1871–1918). Minor branches of the dynasty ruled small territories in southern Germany and members of the Sigmarigen line became kings of Romania (see Carol I, King of Romania). In 1415 Frederick VI, Burgrave of Nuremberg, was invested as Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg (reg 1415–40). Thereafter the House of Hohenzollern was largely responsible for guiding the difficult development of art and culture in that area, as neither the nobility nor the bourgeoisie proved desirous or capable of doing so until the late 18th century. The first member of the family to emerge clearly as a patron was (1) Albert of Brandenburg, who employed Albrecht Dürer, Matthias Grünewald and Lucas Cranach the elder. His patronage affected Brandenburg only indirectly, in that his nephew, ...


Luisa Morozzi


(b London, Feb 18, 1864; d Florence, April 14, 1916).

English collector, art historian, designer and architect. He joined the architectural practice of A(rthur) H(eygate) Mackmurdo as an associate in 1883 and was a partner from 1885 to 1890. Together they were leading members of the Century Guild of Artists (c. 1883–92). At this time he developed his skills as a graphic artist, creating designs for textiles, furniture and objects (e.g. London, William Morris Gal.), as well as decorative initial letters and elegant foliar and zoomorphic motifs that appeared in the Century Guild Hobby Horse magazine. The Horne–Mackmurdo partnership produced plans for Brewhouse Yard at Eton College and also for a series of houses in Uxbridge Road, London (both unexecuted). In 1889 Mrs Russell Gurney commissioned Horne to design the Chapel of the Ascension in Bayswater Road, London, decorated by Frederic Shields (destr. World War II).

The turning-point in Horne’s life and artistic development came when he was commissioned by the London publisher George Bell to write a monograph on Botticelli; for this reason he began making sporadic visits to Florence in ...


Robert R. Wark

revised by Margaret Barlow

American family of railway magnates and collectors. Four members of the family collected art: Collis P(otter) Huntington (1821–1900), Arabella D(uval) Huntington (?1850–1924), Henry E(dwards) Huntington (1850–1927), and Archer M(ilton) Huntington (1870–1955). While Henry assembled the best-known collection, it was Arabella who was the impetus behind the artistic interests of the family; she was married to Collis from 1884 until his death, and to Henry, Collis’s nephew, from 1913 until her own death. Archer was her illegitimate son, probably by Collis.

Collis’s art collection is known through inventories and photographs. An inventory of paintings of 1899 in his San Francisco house (lost in the 1906 earthquake) lists 85; the majority were Barbizon school and related works. Another inventory of his home in 57th Street, New York (undated, but made for Arabella shortly after Collis’s death), lists 180 pictures similar to those in San Francisco. During the first decade of the 20th century ...


Grethe Kusk

(Christian Hillmann)

(b Copenhagen, March 2, 1842; d Copenhagen, Jan 11, 1914).

Danish brewer and collector. In 1879 he founded the Ny Carlsberg Bryggeri and later became the director of both the Gammel Carlsberg and Ny Carlsberg breweries. With money from his inheritance and with revenues from the brewery, he established such trust funds for art as the Albertinalegat in 1879 and the Museumslegat in 1883. In 1878 he had begun to assemble his own large art collection, acquiring such works as Eugène Delaplanche’s marble figure of a woman, Music (1878; Copenhagen, Ny Carlsberg Glyp.). In 1882, encouraged by the sculptor Rasmus Secher Malthe (1829–93), Jacobsen obtained a major collection of plaster models by Hermann Wilhelm Bissen. In the same year he established the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek and opened it to the public in his home in Valby, Copenhagen. In 1888 his collection of contemporary sculpture was also donated to the public. For the next ten years he continued to make large purchases of French and antique sculpture and, through his association with the German archaeologist Wolfgang Helbig, acquired several Roman portrait busts. These also formed part of his collection at Valby. In ...






Lillian B. Miller

(b Chestnut Hill, PA, April 4, 1841; d Philadelphia, April 14, 1917).

American lawyer and collector. He was the son of a village blacksmith whose life emphasized the middle-class virtues of industriousness and self-reliance. Johnson was admitted to the bar before completing his formal schooling at the University of Pennsylvania. In Philadelphia he built a reputation in the developing area of corporate law; eventually he represented most of the major trusts of America’s ‘gilded age’, in the process accumulating a fortune sufficient to allow him to create a large and historically important collection of paintings. He also represented several other leading US collectors, including J. Pierpont Morgan and Henry Clay Frick.

Johnson’s interest in collecting was sparked by the art exhibition at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition of 1876 and was encouraged by the establishment of the Pennsylvania Museum in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia. His marriage to the socially prominent widow Ida Powel Morrell and biennial trips to Europe beginning in the 1880s strengthened these earlier propensities, as did his appointment as Commissioner of Fairmount Park. By ...



Viviane Huchard

(b Angers, Jan 28, 1841; d Hermainville, Calvados, Aug 11, 1913).

French art historian, collector and polemicist. He had ambitions to join the priesthood but was turned down on account of his physical frailty, his legs having been crippled when he was very young. Instead he began a career as a journalist, contributing articles on art and social economy to the Angers press, and he continued to write polemically on social and political issues, always from a Catholic viewpoint, throughout his life. In 1874 he joined the Département des Beaux-Arts in Paris, as secretary of the Commission de l’Inventaire des Richesses Artistiques de la France, and until 1906 he supervised the publication of its pioneering volumes cataloguing the holdings in French public collections. He was secretary of the Comité des Sociétés des Beaux-Arts des Départements and from 1891 secretary of the Ecole Nationale des Beaux-Arts. In April 1893 he was named Chevalier of the Légion d’honneur.

Jouin’s principal interests were in the field of sculpture, and his two monographs on ...


Kevin Halliwell


(b Selezna, Tambov province, July 16, 1837; d Nizhny Novgorod, July 31, 1906).

Russian photographer, collector, painter and draughtsman. He was born into a peasant family, and he studied briefly as an icon painter before entering the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg in 1857. After graduating in 1864, he stayed in St Petersburg to learn photography, and he opened a portrait studio in Nizhny Novgorod in 1869. Like many of his colleagues at the Academy, he had worked as a retoucher of photographs for the sake of employment, and initially he regarded photography merely as material support. He gradually became more interested in the medium, however, especially in the decade 1875–85, when it supplanted his painting.

Karelin made many photographic portraits and genre studies, and he is important in both the technical and the aesthetic sense. His studio was larger than usual, with numerous windows, top lighting and glazed walls. He disdained the use of painted props, preferring instead to use real domestic furnishings. He was especially concerned to achieve a sharp focus in all fields in the photograph, and to this end he studied optics, independently realizing the connection between the focal length of the lens and the size of the aperture for depth of clarity. To achieve his ends he therefore introduced into portrait photography the use of additional diverging and converging lenses. He also managed, through the use of lenses, to overcome the more common distortions. This technical achievement gained him many gold medals at international photographic exhibitions in the 1870s and 1880s....


Darryl Patrick

(b Garvagh, Co. Londonderry, 1849; d New York, Oct 8, 1932).

American art dealer, collector and writer of Irish birth. In 1867 he arrived in Boston, where he was employed in an art business. In 1877 he moved to New York to work for the print dealer Hermann Wunderlich (1839–91), a job that involved frequent travel to negotiate sales. During his annual visits to Europe, he met and became friends with James McNeill Whistler. Following his purchase in 1901 of a large collection of Whistler prints from B. B. Macgeorge of Glasgow, he compiled a catalogue raisonné, published in 1902 by Wunderlich & Co., which was a notable improvement on earlier authors’ attempts. With Whistler’s approval, he then gathered together photographs of all his known prints. The resources of the Grolier Club in New York, of which he was president at that time, financed the publication of The Etched Work of Whistler (1910) and The Lithographs by Whistler...


Laurie A. Stein

(b Cologne, Sept 9, 1860; d Darmstadt, Jan 5, 1939).

German publisher, patron and collector. He was influential in the reform movements in art, in particular Jugendstil, the German version of Art Nouveau. Through his publications he hoped to free art from the constraints of the studio, elevate public taste and encourage the creation of a style that would be in keeping with an ideal modern culture. Trained as a printer, he started a magazine of the carpet trade, Tapetenzeitung, in 1888 and shortly afterwards, with only DM 100 as capital, established Verlagsanstalt Alexander Koch. The highly successful firm published periodicals, including Fachblatt für Innen-Dekoration (first issue 1890; since 1980 Architektur, Innenarchitektur, technischer Ausbau) and Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration (first issue 1897); catalogues, notably Grossherzog Ernst Ludwig und die Ausstellung der Künstler-Kolonie in Darmstadt von Mai bis Oktober 1901; and books, among them Handbuch neuzeitlicher Wohnungskultur (1912). He also published the Meister der Innenkunst, the series of prizewinning designs by Charles Rennie Mackintosh, M. H. Baillie Scott and Leopold Bauer for the competition ‘Haus eines Kunstfreundes’ of ...


Malcolm Gee

(b 1849; d 1927).

German industrialist, collector and patron. He owned a light engineering company in Berlin. In the 1890s he started buying work of the modern Munich school. However, his most active period as a collector occurred between 1907 and 1914, when he played a key role in the promotion of avant-garde art in Germany. This was partly due to a family connection: his niece Elizabeth Gerhardt was married to August Macke. In 1907 Macke came to Berlin and introduced Koehler to modern ideas about painting, including those of Julius Meier-Graefe. Koehler now bought work by the French Impressionists and their German admirers such as Max Liebermann and Max Slevogt. In July 1910, shortly after meeting him, he offered Franz Marc a monthly stipend in return for pictures. This arrangement lasted until Marc’s death in 1914 and led to the acquisition of at least 36 paintings. Koehler was the only buyer at the first ...