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Article

Leland M. Roth

(b Detroit, MI, July 7, 1869; d Southampton, NY, Oct 18, 1956).

American architect, urban planner and writer. Atterbury studied at Yale University, New Haven, CT, and travelled in Europe. He studied architecture at Columbia University, New York and worked in the office of McKim, Mead & White before completing his architecture studies at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Atterbury’s early work consisted of suburban and weekend houses for wealthy industrialists, such as the Henry W. de Forest House (1898) in Cold Springs Harbor on Long Island, NY. De Forest was a leader in the philanthropic movement to improve workers’ housing, an interest that Atterbury shared; through him Atterbury was given the commission for the model housing community of Forest Hills Gardens, NY, begun in 1909 under the sponsorship of the Russell Sage Foundation; the co-planners and landscape designers were the brothers John Charles Olmsted (1852–1920) and Frederick Law Olmsted Jr (1870–1957), the sons of Frederick Law Olmsted. Atterbury developed a system of precast concrete panels to build a varied group of multiple units and town houses suggesting an English country hamlet. He continued his research into prefabrication largely at his own expense throughout his life....

Article

Molly K. Dorkin

Prior to the 20th century, the attribution of works of art was not governed by rigid regulations, and art dealers and auctioneers assigned attributions based purely on aesthetic grounds. Works were attributed to the artist whose manner they most closely resembled, but they were not further distinguished on the basis of quality; as a result, many paintings purchased as Renaissance masterpieces in the 18th or 19th century have since been downgraded to studio works or even much later pastiches.

Historically, the patrons who commissioned Old Masters placed a premium on subject-matter rather than originality, and popular narratives were requested by multiple patrons, creating conditions in which the demand for copies could flourish (see Copy). Popular compositions were often reproduced many times: by the master himself, an apprentice in his workshop, or even a later follower or imitator. A master trained his apprentices to approximate his manner as closely as possible, and sold the finished work under his own name. In some cases a master would paint the most important part of a work (such as the faces of the central figures) before delegating the rest to apprentices. Through the 19th century, pupils at prestigious institutions were taught by making copies of works by acknowledged masters. Many pieces, particularly drawings (which for much of their history were working tools, rather than art objects), were unsigned. Damaged or incomplete works of art were subjected to extensive restoration or reworking by later artists, a process that can cloud the question of attribution....

Article

Laure de Margerie

(b Longwy, Meurthe et Moselle, July 3, 1837; d Capbreton, Landes, Aug 23, 1916).

French sculptor. In 1851 he entered the Ecole Gratuite de Dessin, Paris, also studying with Antoine-Laurent Dantan, and in 1854 moved to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. A grant from his native département enabled him to travel to Italy in 1866–7, though he was evidently little influenced by antique or Renaissance works of art. Apart from his bronze monument to Dante Alighieri (1879–80; Paris, Square Monge), his work is in a neo-Rococo style, as exemplified in his terracotta bust of his daughter Marcelle Aubé (1910; Paris, Mus. d’Orsay). Besides many portrait busts he also executed public monuments to notable Frenchmen, several of which were destroyed on the orders of the Vichy government in 1941. The most important, and most controversial, was that to Léon Gambetta (bronze, 1884–8), built in collaboration with the architect Louis-Charles Boileau in the courtyard of the Louvre in Paris; it was damaged during World War II and dismantled from ...

Article

Anne Pastori Zumbach

(b Lausanne, Aug 18, 1872; d Lausanne, Oct 11, 1957).

Swiss draughtsman, painter and illustrator. He began his career as an apprentice banker but abandoned this to study music and languages in Dresden, and then painting at the South Kensington School of Art, London (1895). In 1896 he went to Paris where he took courses in anatomy and became the pupil of Luc Olivier Merson and possibly of Whistler. In 1897 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts but continued to frequent Merson’s studio. At the end of 1899, after a short stay in Bavaria, Auberjonois went to Florence, where he passed several months studying and copying the paintings of the Old Masters and painting the Tuscan landscape. Returning to Paris in 1901, he began to work independently, exhibiting for the first time at the Salon in Paris and at the Exposition Nationale Suisse des Beaux-Arts in Vevey. From 1901 to World War I he lived alternately in Paris and in Switzerland....

Article

Molly K. Dorkin

An expert with a specialization in a distinct category of fine or decorative arts or other collectables at an auction house, responsible for researching Attributions and setting pre-sale estimates. Specialized auctions of works of art were recorded in Amsterdam as early as 1608, when they emerged as a subcategory of after-death estate sales. It remains unclear whether or not items were appraised for value by dedicated appraisers, forerunners of modern-day auction house specialists, in order to set estimates prior to the sales.

The Auction as a sale process reached England from Holland in 1676, and the first auction of paintings in London took place in 1682. It was widely accepted that the paintings offered at auctions were luxury goods rather than masterpieces, and the ‘specialists’ in charge of sales bestowed attributions with a generous hand. By the end of the 17th century more educated and discerning specialists had begun to emerge, including Edward Davis and Parry Walton (...

Article

(b Elgin, 1838; d New York, 1925).

Scottish architect, designer and writer. Trained as an architect, he moved to Liverpool, Lancs, in 1856 and set up an architectural practice with his brother William James Audsley (b 1833) in 1863. With him he wrote Handbook of Christian Symbolism (1865), and together they designed a number of buildings in and around Liverpool, among them the Welsh Presbyterian Church, Prince’s Road, Toxteth (1865–7), Christ Church, Kensington (1870), and the church of St Margaret, Belmont Road, Anfield (1873). For the merchant William Preston they designed the church of St Mary (1873) in the grounds of his house, Ellel Grange, Lancs. Other commissions were for a synagogue and a tennis club. He was among the earliest publishers to exploit the graphic potential of chromolithography, and, contrary to other major books on ornament, he made a case for classifying designs by their basic motif rather than by nationality. He was an expert on Japanese art, lecturing on the subject and between ...

Article

Cornelia Bauer

(b Wädenswil, April 16, 1847; d Konstanz, Aug 30, 1906).

Swiss architect, teacher and writer. In Zurich he was trained (1863–4) by a master carpenter called Brunner and he then studied (1865–8) under Gottfried Semper at the Polytechnikum. He moved to Vienna to study (1869–70) at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste with Theophilus Hansen. From 1870 to 1884 he was Hansen’s pupil and later chief collaborator. He was a professor at the Staatsgewerbeschule, Vienna (1884–8), and at Berne University (from 1890), from which time he was a member of almost every competition jury in Switzerland. In Vienna, Auer made major contributions to Hansen’s buildings, including the Börse (1871–7) and the Reichsrat (1873–88). In his architecture as well as in his teaching he was centrally concerned with the Renaissance, two examples in this style being Dr Eder’s Sanatorium (1886–7), Vienna, which has a domed vestibule, and the post office (...

Article

Article

Phillip Dennis Cate

[Georges] (Hulot)

(b Beauvais, April 26, 1863; d Paris, Feb 6, 1938).

French illustrator, typographical designer, writer and printmaker . He went to Paris in 1883 to pursue a literary career. His first humorous essays were published that year in the Chat Noir journal. He was introduced to the many avant-garde artists and writers who frequented the Chat Noir cabaret in Montmartre and contributed to the journal. Of these Henri Rivière and Eugène Grasset were especially important to his artistic development, Rivière coaching Auriol in drawing while Grasset introduced him to typographical design. Auriol’s close association with Rivière culminated in the latter’s album of lithographs, Les Trente-six Vues de la Tour Eiffel (1902; for illustration see Japonisme), for which Auriol designed the decorative cover, end-papers and typography.

Auriol served as writer, illustrator and editor of the Chat Noir for ten years (1883–93). He produced book covers for the Chat-Noir Guide (1888) and the two-volume Les Contes du Chat Noir...

Article

Fiona Dejardin

(b Rose Bank, Staten Island, NY, March 17, 1866; d New York, June 9, 1952).

American photographer. She was introduced to photography by a friend, Oswall Muller, sometime around 1876, and quickly learnt the complexities of working with a variety of cumbersome cameras, dry-plate negatives and contact printing. As an avid amateur photographer, she documented a social history of a bygone era. Her work, dating between the 1880s and 1930s, recorded a charming portrait of the genteel activities of upper middle-class society on Staten Island. Although her photographs primarily documented the everyday life of the wealthy inhabitants and friends of her home, Clear Comfort, which overlooked New York’s Upper Bay, she also produced a challenging series of images of New York’s Lower East Side. These ‘street types’ were published as a portfolio by the Albertype Company in 1896.

Unlike those of Jacob A. Riis and Lewis W. Hine, Austen’s images of immigrants revealed no concern for social reform, but evidenced a hesitancy and curiosity experienced by both photographer and subject. Her life of stability was abruptly ended by the Stock Market Crash of ...

Article

Oxana Cleminson

(Vlas’yevich)

(b Mariupol’, Feb 20, 1862; d Leningrad [now St Petersburg], Dec 12, 1939).

Russian art historian of Ukrainian birth. He studied first in Odessa at the Novorossiysky University under Professor N. P. Kondakov and in 1888 followed Kondakov to St Petersburg, where he completed his education. During his university years, together with his fellow student E. Redin Aynalov, he researched the mosaics and mural paintings of St Sophia in Kiev, where his main interest was devoted to their iconography. He received his master’s degree in 1901. In 1903 Aynalov was appointed to a chair at Kazan’ University.

In one of his first works, Mosaics of the Fourth and Fifth Centuries (1895), Aynalov not only gave a very complete survey of the material, but replaced the prevailing theory held by Western scholars concerning a Roman school that was said to have determined the initial history of Byzantine art. Aynalov considered that it was not the West but the East that had been responsible for its stylistic development. He dealt with another of the most fundamental problems of Byzantine art in his monograph ...

Article

Madeleine Rocher-Jauneau

(b Lyon, Jan 1, 1837; d Paris, June 25, 1913).

French collector . He was the son of a banker and was educated at the Institution d’Oullins in Lyon and at the Jesuit Ecole de Brugelette in Belgium; in 1859–60 he lived in England. He was apprenticed to a silk weaver at the Croix-Rousse in Lyon and visited America in 1861. After his father’s death he became a banker; he married in 1862 and had 12 children. In 1870 he established the Assistance Mutuelle Lyonnaise, which later became an institution issuing loans to working people. In 1871 he founded Le Journal de Lyon, which closed for lack of capital in 1874. In 1882 Aynard became a member of the Chamber of Commerce, of the Board of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and of the Museum Council. In the latter capacity, he arranged for the great staircase of the museum to be decorated by Puvis de Chavannes. In 1889 he organized Lyon’s contribution to the Universal Exhibition. He became a member of the fine arts’ department of the Académie de Lyon in ...

Article

Ksenija Rozman

(b Dolenčice, nr Škofja Loka, May 30, 1862; d Munich, Aug 5, 1905).

Slovenian painter and teacher, active in Germany . He trained in Ljubljana with the Slovenian painter Janez Wolf (1825–84), who taught him in a style derived from Anselm Feuerbach and the work of the Nazarenes and emphasized the ethical ideals and role of art. Ažbe studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna (1882–4), and at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Munich (1884–91), where he became an excellent draughtsman, especially with nudes and portrait heads. In the spring of 1891 he opened his own private school, the Ažbè-Schule, which established a reputation. From 1898 to 1901 Igor’ Grabar’ joined him as a teacher there. Its students included the Slovenian Impressionists Matija Jama (b 1872), Rihard Jakopič and Matej Sternen (b 1870), the Serbian Nadežda Petrović, the Croatian Josip Račić (1885–1909) and the Czech Ludvík Kuba, as well as Vasily Kandinsky and ...

Article

Carlos A. C. Lemos

(b São Paulo, Dec 8, 1851; d Guarujá, June 13, 1928).

Brazilian architect. He studied at the Escola Militar in Rio de Janeiro (1869–72) and then trained as an engineer–architect, graduating in 1878 from the University of Ghent, Belgium, under the patronage of the Visconde de Parnaíba, who subsequently provided him with his first commissions in Rio. His architectural education was based on the classicism of the Beaux-Arts tradition, and one of his designs represented his school at the Exposition Internationale (1878) in Paris. He began his career in 1883 in Campinas, where his family had originated, when he completed some unfinished work on the 18th-century parish church; this project became well known for his use of the taipa de pilão (Port.: ‘pounded gravel wall’) construction techniques of the earlier builders, a considerable engineering feat.

In 1886 Azevedo began to work in São Paulo and designed for the government two neo-Renaissance buildings, the Tesouraria da Fazenda Nacional (...

Article

Mosette Glaser Broderick and Walter Smith

American architectural partnership formed in 1884 by George Fletcher Babb (b New York, 1836; d Holden, MA, 1915), Walter Cook (b Buffalo, NY, 22 July 1846; d New York, 25 March 1916) and Daniel Wheelock Willard (b Brookline, MA, 1849; d California, after 1902). Babb trained in the office of T. R. Jackson in the late 1850s before going into partnership (1859–65) with Nathaniel G. Foster. He then joined the office of Russell Sturgis, becoming senior draughtsman in 1868. Cook graduated from Harvard in 1869, then studied architecture at the Polytechnikum (1871–3) in Munich and the Ecole de Beaux-Arts (1873–6), Paris, where he joined the atelier of Emile Vaudremer. He returned to America in 1877, when he went into partnership with Babb, their first major commission being a warehouse (or loft; 1877–80) on Duane Street, New York. This had a brick façade of deeply cut arcades, an arcuated parapet and cast terracotta details, suggesting 15th-century Italian influences. Willard, who had trained as an engineer, joined the firm in ...

Article

W. Iain Mackay

(b Islay, Arequipa, 1867; d Neuilly-sur-Seine, Feb 20, 1941).

Peruvian painter and draughtsman. His family moved to Chile when he was four, and in 1882 he entered the Escuela de Bellas Artes de Santiago. In recognition of his rejection of an offer of Chilean nationality, the Peruvian government invited him to Lima in 1887 to assist him with his studies. In 1890 he went to Paris, continuing on to Rome where he studied under Francisco Pradilla at the Academia Española de Bellas Artes and again in Paris under Jean-Paul Laurens and Benjamin Constant at the Académie Julien in 1893. In Paris he was commissioned to paint important society and government figures; in 1908 the American banker and collector J. Pierpont Morgan summoned him to New York, where he lived for 20 years, painting 120 portraits. In 1926 he became a member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris and three years later he settled in Paris again. His painting was academically accomplished and realist in style, influenced by Leonardo, Rembrandt and Hans Holbein. He was a careful observer of detail, and he achieved astonishing physical resemblance to his subjects. The prominent figures he portrayed include ...

Article

Liana Paredes-Arend

[Cristallerie de Baccart]

French glassworks. In 1764 Monseigneur de Montmorency-Laval, Bishop of Metz, petitioned Louis XV to have a glassworks built at Baccarat, near Lunéville, in order to make use of his vast forests. The factory was initially directed by Antoine Renault and was called the Verreries de Sainte-Anne because Renault requested permission to build a chapel so that the workers could attend their religious obligations. At first the factory produced soda glass for household and industrial purposes. In 1816 it was purchased by the Belgian manufacturer Aimé-Gabriel D’Artigues (1778–1848), who transferred his Vôneche glassworks near Namur to Baccarat, built a new factory and began the production of lead glass. In 1823 the factory changed its name to the Compagnie des Cristalleries de Baccarat and made plain crystal, opaline, and some alabaster and agate glass. In 1846 Baccarat began producing millefiori glassware and paperweights, followed by paperweights with flowers, fruits or reptiles. From ...

Article

Darryl Patrick

(b New York, Nov 9, 1861; d Palm Beach, FL, March 24, 1944).

American collector and businessman . Having founded a major banking house in New York, Bache continued the interest in collecting that had begun when he was young. While living in Paris before World War I he had bought fine antique furniture for his home. After the war he specialized in collecting paintings of Renaissance and Baroque Italian, Flemish, French, Dutch, German and English artists. He often used the services of art dealers René Gimpel (1881–1945) and Joseph Duveen, through whom he purchased such paintings as Jean-Honoré Fragonard’s Billet-doux, Vermeer’s Young Woman Reading and Rembrandt’s Standard-bearer (all New York, Met.). Bache bought Billet-doux for £250,000 in 1919 from Gimpel and, with the help of Duveen, bought the Standard-bearer in 1924 for £60,000. In 1937 he established a foundation to manage the collection for public viewing in his home at 814 Fifth Avenue in New York. In January 1944 he made a will bequeathing the collection to the ...

Article

Sabine Kehl-Baierle

(b Vienna, Jan 20, 1862; d Vienna, April 16, 1945).

Austrian painter and sculptor . He studied from 1882 to 1888 at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna under the Austrian painter Leopold Carl Müller (1834–92). In 1886 he was awarded the first Hofpreis. His early paintings, religious in content, included Saved (1887; Graz, Neue Gal.), Ave Maria (1899; Brno, Mus. City) and the altarpiece The Heart of Jesus (1912; Linz Cathedral). In 1890 he made a trip to Rome. From 1894 he was a member of the Künstlerhaus in Vienna and was associated with the Hagenbund. In 1896 he won the minor gold medal at the Internationale Kunstausstellung in Berlin, and in the following year he was a founder-member of the Vienna Secession. He participated in many exhibitions, contributing both paintings and sculptures; in 1902, for example, he provided four small bronze free-standing sculptures on pedestals, in the form of female wreath-bearers (see Hilger, p. 38), for Max Klinger’s ...

Article

Marit Lange and Thea Miller

(b Holmestrand, Jan 21, 1845; d Oslo, March 25, 1932).

Norwegian painter . In the 1860s and early 1870s she took lessons in drawing and painting in Christiania (now Oslo) and also travelled extensively in Europe with her sister Agathe, a composer and pianist. She copied works in major museums and took occasional art lessons; she later considered this experience to have been of fundamental importance to her artistic development. Little Red Riding Hood (1872; Oslo, N.G.) is impressive in technique, and the early portrait of her sister, Agathe Backer-Grøndahl (1874; Holmestrand, Komm.), shows a refined colour scheme. At the age of nearly 30 Backer decided to train professionally as a painter and in 1874 went to Munich. She was never attached to a particular institution, but the influence of her friend the artist Eilif Peterssen was crucial to her development. In Munich she made a thorough study of perspective, which formed a secure basis for her later work. The work she did while in Munich reflects a study of the Old Masters in museums and is characterized by a preference for the historical subjects typical of the Munich school, as well as by an interest in the psychological portrait (e.g. ...