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Article

Miles Lewis

(b Launceston, Tasmania, 1845; d Melbourne, Nov 25, 1917).

Australian architect. He served articles with the Tasmanian architect Henry Hunter, then undertook unspecified studies in London and worked for Matthew Digby Wyatt, before returning to Australia in 1868. He established a practice in Ballarat, where he was appointed Borough Architect in 1870. He won a competition for the design of the Congregational Church in Victoria Parade, Melbourne (1871–2; destr.), and then designed the Wesleyan Church in Brunswick (1872). It was the first important example of his High Victorian polychrome style characterized by the brown brickwork with dressings and patterns of cream and warm red, serrated around the heads of openings. In common with his work in stone, it used paired and multiple Gothic lights, decorated tracery, stone corbels to widen the bases of gables in porches and bellcotes, heavily moulded arches carried on slim shafts, octagonal towers and spires, and pierced quatrefoil parapets.

Having moved to Melbourne, Oakden entered into partnership with ...

Article

(b Ballarat, Victoria, 1870; d Rome, Feb 8, 1948).

Australian sculptor and medallist, also active in Italy. Ohlfsen-Bagge came from a well-connected family, attending Sydney Girls’ High School (1884–6) and studying piano under French pianist Henri Kowalski (1841–1916). In 1886 she left Australia to continue musical studies in Berlin at Kullak’s Neue Akademie der Tonkunst under Moritz Moszkowski (1854–1925). She performed for the Kaiser, but was forced to abandon the piano due to neuritis. Her father’s ruin in the 1890 depression forced her to earn a living teaching musical theory. By 1896 she had moved to St Petersburg where she became secretary to the American Consul-General. She turned to sketching and caricature and her talent was so impressive that her Russian friends took her to Rome around 1900. There she learnt the art of modelling and engraving under Camille Alaphillipe and Pierre Dautel. Already mature, she began her artistic career in the tradition of the expatriate American women sculptors living bohemian lives in Rome....

Article

Don Watson

(b London, 1853; d Brisbane, Dec 4, 1916).

Australian architect of English birth. He trained as an architect in London and emigrated to Australia c. 1888. While working for Loweish & Moorhouse in Sydney, he was largely responsible for their winning entry in the competition for the Royal Bank of Queensland (1890) and successfully claimed a share of the premium. His reputation as a skilful draughtsman and original designer was confirmed by his success in other competitions: the Commercial Bank of Australia (1890), Melbourne; the Australian Club (1890), Melbourne; City Avenue (1890; with A. L. and G. McCredie), Sydney; and a hospital for the mentally ill (1892) at Rossville. Among three alternative elevations proposed for the Commercial Bank was one in American Romanesque, reputed to be the first expression of this style in Australia. In 1898 Payne joined the Queensland Works Department in Brisbane as a ‘first-class classic draughtsman’ to document the Rockhampton Customs House (...

Article

Ian J. Lochhead

(b Lower Hutt, Sept 26, 1847; d Dunedin, Dec 10, 1918).

New Zealand architect. He was educated at Roman Catholic schools in England and France and was articled (1864–9) to the shipbuilder and engineer Joseph Samuda (1813–85) in London, after which he worked for Daniel Cubitt Nichols (fl 1856–91). In 1872 he returned to New Zealand as an engineer on railway construction, establishing his own practice in Dunedin in 1875. He carried out a wide range of commercial, domestic and engineering works, but his major architectural commissions came from the Roman Catholic Church. His first important work was the Dominican Priory (1877), Dunedin. Its simplified, angular Gothic forms reveal its monolithic concrete construction. More conventional in form, St Joseph’s Cathedral (begun 1879), Dunedin, is French 13th-century Gothic in style. Petre employed the Gothic style for small parish churches but increasingly favoured classical basilican plans for larger churches. The basilica of the Sacred Heart (...

Article

Helen Ennis

Photography in Australia has many parallels with that in other countries but it also has many significant differences that are the result of specific historical conditions and circumstances. Features in common include the rapid acceptance of photographic technologies, the importance of portraiture and the view of trade in the 19th century, the engagement with international styles such as Pictorialism, the prominent role of illustrative and advertising photography from the 1920s onwards, and the impact of modernism, Post-modernism, and post-colonialism. These features are not unique to Australia—they can be seen as manifestations of photography’s globalizing impulses—but nonetheless they do have a particular local or national inflection. Equally important are the aspects of Australian photographic practice that are different to photography elsewhere. Chief among these is the photography associated with relations between indigenous and settler Australians. Photographs of Aboriginal people were prominent in the 19th century and photographs by Aboriginal people have been central to Australian photographic practice and the broader visual arts since the early 1980s. Also conspicuous is an orientation towards the external world and the prevalence of realist approaches, which can be related to materialist preoccupations and anti-intellectual traditions that have underpinned national life in some periods....

Article

John B. Turner

The pattern of development in photography in New Zealand was similar to other colonies in the Victorian era. Progress was slow because of the country’s geographical remoteness and small population. Difficulties of overseas supply and local demand—the very traffic of equipment, materials, ideas, and pictures—have shaped all levels of achievement. Pioneer photographers were participant-observers in the process of nation building who could not but see the world according to the values of their upbringing. For instance, after the wars over land ceased in the 1880s, defeated Maori were imagined as a dying race and their culture was studied with fresh urgency. Maori subjects were common among photographers; the treatments ranging from nostalgic romanticism to abject realism.

Pictorial photography, photography’s first international art movement, dominated the camera club movement throughout the first half of the 20th century, and effectively muted the radical social precepts of modernism to the point of portraying it as an essentially anti-Pictorialist movement. In a society where art practice tends more towards the experiential than cerebral, the influence of Post-modernism, generally perceived as an anti-modernist movement, in its turn seems largely academic....

Article

(b Hobart, Aug 27, 1836; d Sydney, July 17, 1914).

Australian painter, printmaker and photographer of French descent. He studied painting at Cambridge House in Hobart, where he won the prize for drawing in 1849. Between 1850 and 1872 he worked as a draughtsman for the Tasmanian Survey Office, receiving additional instruction in art from Frank Dunnett (1822–91), a retired Scottish painter and engraver. In the mid-1860s he began exhibiting his paintings and made his first lithographed views, mostly of the River Derwent and its environs. In 1870 he received a bronze medal for his photographs at the Intercolonial Exhibition in Sydney. In 1872 he left his job and became Australia’s first native-born professional painter and a major artist working in the 19th-century Romantic landscape tradition, capturing the form and spirit of the vast Australian landscape. He spent much of the 1870s accompanying organized expeditions into the central and south-western wilderness of Tasmania in search of compelling subjects to paint. In ...

Article

Janda Gooding

(b Melbourne, Aug 31, 1861; d Melbourne, Sept 4, 1946).

Australian painter, printmaker and curator, who worked mostly in Western Australia. While working in the photographic trade, Pitt Morison studied part time (1881–9) at the National Gallery School in Melbourne. He formed a friendship with the artist Tom Humphrey (1858–1922) and soon after he became associated with, and exhibited with, a group that included Tom Roberts and Arthur Streeton. The group, later known as the Heidelberg school, painted en plein air in the outer suburbs of Melbourne, around Box Hill and Heidelberg, experimenting with new theories of light and colour derived from the French Impressionists. Pitt Morison travelled to Europe in 1890 and studied at the Académie Julian in Paris under Jules Lefebvre and William Bouguereau..

Pitt Morison was forced to return to Australia in 1893, due to the collapse of Victorian banks and the subsequent loss of his income. A job in the photographic trade in Bunbury offered him an opportunity to move and he arrived in Western Australia in ...

Article

George Tibbits

(b Melbourne, June 4, 1855; d Melbourne, May 25, 1918).

Australian architect and politician. He began his architectural practice in 1879, having served articles from 1875 with George Browne in Melbourne. His early success came from competitions for commercial buildings in prestigious locations. A well-known design from this early period is Gordon House (1883), Little Bourke Street, Melbourne, created for the Improved Dwellings and Lodging House Company. His interest in theatre, matched with his skill in design, also drew important commissions of which the most notable surviving example is the decorative French Second Empire style Princess Theatre (1886), Melbourne. In the later 1880s his practice flourished, during which time Pitt created a collection of striking Gothic Revival office buildings in Melbourne: Stock Exchange (1888), Collins Street; Coin Exchange (1889), Queens Street; Olderfleet (1889), Collins Street; Rialto (1890–91), Collins Street. As a testament to his inventive skill as a designer, his Federal Coffee Palace (...

Article

(Rose)

(b Port Adelaide, April 29, 1875; d Mosman, Sydney, May 28, 1963).

Australian painter and printmaker. The family moved to Sydney in 1885 and in 1888 Margaret Macpherson began taking classes with the Australian painter William Lister-Lister (1859–1943). She moved to Melbourne in 1892 and the following year enrolled at the School of Design of the National Gallery, where she studied under Frederick McCubbin. She lived in Adelaide from 1894 to 1896 and on her return to Melbourne attended the National Gallery Painting School. In 1898 she studied at the Adelaide School of Design under the Australian artist Harry Pelling Gill (1855–1916). Her work of this period, mainly still-lifes such as Onions—Still Life (1895; Adelaide, A.G. S. Australia) and The Aeroplane (c. 1925; Canberra, N.G.), showed the influence of her academic training. She sailed in 1904 to Genoa, from where she travelled all over Europe, exhibiting at the Salon in Paris in 1905 before returning to Adelaide in ...

Article

Christine Clark

(b Glasgow, May 25, 1877; d Melbourne, March 5, 1906).

Australian painter of Scottish birth. His family migrated to Melbourne, Australia, when he was one. From 1894 to 1899 he studied at the National Gallery of Victoria Art School, Melbourne, under Frederick McCubbin and L. Bernard Hall (1859–1935), in 1899 coming second to Max Meldrum for the National Gallery of Victoria Travelling Scholarship. In 1900 he travelled to Paris, where he studied at the Académie Colarossi and copied Old Masters in the Louvre, responding particularly to Velázquez’s work: he was influenced by Velázquez’s composition, lighting and tonal values, and by Sargent’s bold and vigorous brushwork. He also admired the work of Manet and Whistler. In 1902 four of the five paintings he submitted were hung by the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and he also exhibited four paintings at the British Colonial Art Exhibition at the Royal Institute Galleries, London. Diagnosed with tuberculosis, Ramsay was forced to return to Australia in ...

Article

George Tibbits

(b Cornwall, bapt Feb 23, 1823; d Hawthorn, nr Melbourne, April 29, 1890).

Australian architect of English birth. After his arrival in Melbourne in 1853 he set up a large practice. His office produced high-quality designs in many styles including important civic and ecclesiastical buildings. They show great skill in planning, spatial organization and massing. A long battle engaged Reed against William Wilkinson Wardell over open competitions for public buildings and the importance of individualism, utility and variety in architecture. In 1854 Reed won the competition for the Public Library (now the State Library of Victoria), and for the Bank of New South Wales, Collins Street, both Melbourne. After the bank was demolished its façade was re-erected at the University of Melbourne in 1938. Other early designs include the Geelong Town Hall (1854; unfinished), the Royal Society of Victoria (1858), the Collins Street Baptist Church (1862), all in the classical idiom, and the Wesley Church (1858), Lonsdale Street, in a free Gothic Revival manner....

Article

Jane Clark

[Thomas] (William)

(b Dorchester, March 9, 1856; d Kallista, Victoria, Sept 14, 1931).

Australian painter of English birth. A leader of the Heidelberg school and pioneer of plein-air Impressionism in Australia, he has been described as ‘the father of Australian landscape painting’. Having moved to Melbourne in 1869, he studied at the East Collingwood and Carlton Schools of Design and the National Gallery of Victoria’s School of Art (1874–81) while working as a photographic assistant. He led sketching expeditions with Frederick McCubbin and initiated student requests for reforms at the school. Returning to England, he enrolled in the Royal Academy Schools, London, on 6 December 1881, officially recommended by Edwin Long. In the summer of 1883 he toured Spain with the painter John Peter Russell. He learnt something of French Impressionism from Spanish art students Ramon Casas and Loreano Barrau (b 1864), and then followed the latter’s advice to visit the Académie Julian in Paris. He returned to Melbourne in ...

Article

Bernard Kernot and Ngarino Ellis

[Lazarus ]

(b Turanga [now Poverty Bay], NZ, c. 1800; d Turanga, Sept 29, 1873).

New Zealand Maori wood-carver, builder, and tribal leader. Rukupo belonged to the Rongowhakaata tribe and was educated in the tribal school of learning called Tokitoki. In 1831, after shore-based trading was established in Turanga, metal tools replaced stone ones, and thus all Rukupo’s extant works are carved with metal tools. He is said to have helped carve the war canoe Te Toki a Tapiri (Auckland, Inst. & Mus.) at Turanga in 1836. In about 1840 he adopted Christianity, taking the biblical name Raharuhi (Lazarus). Rukupo’s masterpiece is the carved meeting-house Te Hau ki Turanga, erected at Orakaiapu pa (now Manutuke), Turanga, to honour his recently deceased brother from whom he inherited the mantle of tribal leadership. It opened in either 1843 or 1845. It is now housed in the Museum of New Zealand, Te Papa Tongarewa, Wellington, but is to be repatriated to Rongowhakaata some time before 2019. Rukupo is also renowned for leading carvers in their work on a new Anglican church at Whakato Marae, Turanga in ...

Article

Ann Galbally

(b Sydney, June 16, 1858; d Sydney, April 30, 1930).

Australian painter. He was sent to England in 1879 as an apprentice engineer in Lincoln, where he began painting in watercolour. The inheritance that followed his father’s death enabled him to become a student at the Slade School of Fine Art, London (1881–3). He then trained at the Atelier Cormon, Paris (1885–7), where he formed one of the most important artistic friendships of his life with Vincent van Gogh, commemorated by the portrait of Vincent van Gogh (1886; Amsterdam, Van Gogh Mus.).

In Paris, Russell’s style and subject-matter changed from rather literary works in the manner of G. F. Watts and Frederic Leighton to encompass a new interest in landscape, peasant subject-matter, Japanese prints and, above all, colour. Through van Gogh he became acquainted with Louis Anquetin and Emile Bernard: he met Claude Monet working on Belle-Ile in 1886 and remained strongly influenced by him for a number of years. After a lengthy painting journey through Italy to Sicily he decided in ...

Article

Harley Preston

(b Sydney, Aug 15, 1835; d London, Dec 12, 1909).

British collector of Australian birth. He was the younger son of Danish immigrants to New South Wales, his father being a wealthy Sydney business man with agricultural interests. He was educated at Sydney Grammar School and, from 1848, at Eton College, Berks, returning to Sydney in 1853 where he studied classics at Sydney University (1854–7). The family returned to London, and after one term at Balliol College, Oxford University, George travelled with his father to Italy. He visited Rome in 1858 and the following year Florence and Naples, photographing archaeological monuments and visiting museums and galleries. After his father’s death in 1865 he devoted his life and inheritance of some £30,000 per annum to the dedicated collection of art of the highest quality and finest condition while living a life of noted austerity at the Thatched House Club in St James’s, London. Often using expert advice, he acquired Classical antiquities, small-scale sculpture and carvings in various media, Eastern and Western ivories, West Asian and European ceramics (including Italian maiolica, Hispano-Moresque wares, work by ...

Article

Ron Radford

(b Berlin, 1814; d Adelaide, Nov 6, 1864).

Australian painter and printmaker of German birth. He was the most important artist working in the colony of South Australia in the second half of the 19th century. He trained at the Akademie der Künste in Berlin, where his portraits and genre subjects were shown in most of the biennial exhibitions from 1834 to 1848. He travelled for three years in Italy before working in Warsaw between 1838 and 1844. His painting Boating Party of Berlin Artists near Treptow (1838; Berlin, Märk. Mus.) reveals his interest in outdoor genre subjects, which continued in Australia in his Aboriginal paintings.

Like thousands of other Germans at this period, Schramm moved to South Australia, arriving in Adelaide on 7 August 1849. He worked there until his death 15 years later. Schramm’s fascination with the Aborigines, at a time when their tribal life was being disrupted by white settlement, is evident in his oil paintings and less frequent watercolours, drawings and lithographs. His work is distinctive in colonial art for his sympathetic, yet unsentimental, portrayal of Aboriginal Australians, as, for example, in ...

Article

Ian J. Lochhead

(b London, July 26, 1855; d Turramurra, NSW, Oct 5, 1933).

New Zealand architect of English birth. He emigrated to New Zealand in 1870, settling in Christchurch, where he attended Canterbury University College and worked in the offices of the architects Benjamin Mountfort and A. W. Simpson. In 1882 he travelled to England, studying architecture at University College, the Architectural Association and the Royal Academy School (1882–3), London. He returned to Christchurch in 1884, and, apart from a period of activity in Sydney, Australia, between 1890 and 1895, he practised in Christchurch for the next 30 years. His first major public commission, the Municipal Offices (1885–6), Christchurch, a picturesque design in brick and terracotta, introduced the Queen Anne Revival to New Zealand. Although he designed a wide range of building types his practice was principally in private houses. Strongly influenced by the new English ideas on domestic architecture, his large houses, notably Daresbury (1900), 67 Fendalton Road, Christchurch, and Clarisford (...

Article

Roger Blackley

(b Birkenhead, bapt Sept 30, 1836; d Newcastle, NSW, Dec 12, 1908).

New Zealand painter of English birth, active also in Australia. He arrived in New Zealand in 1859, initially farming north of Auckland. The surviving paintings he made in Auckland from about 1870 to 1887 all depict landscapes of the Auckland Province (e.g. The Environs of Auckland). Such large exhibition watercolours as Taupiri Village and Plain (1876; Auckland, C.A.G.) unite intense realism with a meticulous technique that some contemporary critics described as ‘Pre-Raphaelite’ or ‘painfully elaborate’, but which set his work apart from the more romantic efforts of such contemporary watercolourists as John Gully or J. C. Hoyte. Sharpe’s series of articles ‘Hints for Landscape Students in Water Colour’, published in the New Zealand Herald and the Auckland Weekly News between 1880 and 1882, is a passionate appeal for a specifically New Zealand school of landscape art, and with his many other writings on art made Sharpe the most vocal of 19th-century New Zealand artists. After moving to Newcastle, NSW, in late ...

Article

Jane Clark

(b Kyneton, Victoria, Oct 3, 1860; d Warrandyte, Victoria, Dec 15, 1940).

Australian painter. One of the first generation of progressive, professionally educated Australian women artists, she began her training as a pupil of Mme Mouchette, painter, schoolmistress and founder of the Alliance Française in Melbourne; and later took lessons from Walter Withers. As a student at the National Gallery of Victoria (1883–7) she was nicknamed ‘Panther’ for her lithe beauty. From mid-1888 she shared a teaching studio with Jane Sutherland in the new purpose-built Grosvenor Chambers, where Tom Roberts was a neighbour. She had ‘caught the “Impressionist” fever’, reported Table Talk (2 Aug 1889), and showed ‘a great variety of charming little sketches, which however are not intended for exhibition’. She showed with the Victorian Artists’ Society (1889–1917): mainly subjects around Kyneton and Melbourne’s outer suburbs, painted in the fresh, quasi-Impressionist style characteristic of the Heidelberg school. An Old Bee Farm (c. 1900...