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Dinos  

Article

Dimitris Plantzos

Greek city situated at the foothills of Mt Olympus in northern Greece (district of Pieria), 14 km south of modern city of Katerini. It was an important Macedonian political and cultural centre from the Classical to the Roman periods (6th century bc–4th century ad). By the 6th century bc it seems that the Macedonians were gathering at Dion in order to honour the Olympian gods, chiefly Zeus; according to myth, Deukalion, the only man to survive the flood at the beginning of time, built an altar to Zeus as a sign of his salvation. His sons, Macedon and Magnes, lived in Pieria, near Olympus, and became the mythical ancestors of the Macedonians. The altar allegedly erected by Deukalion remained the centre of the cult life at Dion throughout its history.

King Archelaos of Macedon (c. 413–399 bc) organized athletic and dramatic contests in the framework of the religious celebrations, following the practice of the Greeks in the south, such as at the great sanctuaries of Olympia and Delphi. Philip II (...

Article

Mark D. Fullerton

(fl ?later 2nd century bc).

Greek sculptor. He was the son of Timarchides family and a member of a family of Athenian sculptors that included Polykles and Timokles. Dionysios signed (together with Timarchides, son of Polykles) a portrait of C. Ofellius Ferus on Delos (c. 100 bc; Delos, Archaeol. Mus.), its Classicizing style recalling works of the 4th century bc associated with Praxiteles. Dionysios’ signature is first in this inscription, and it is believed that the Timarchides with whom he collaborated was Timarchides the younger, probably his nephew, rather than Timarchides the elder, Dionysios’ father. Dionysios also worked at Rome with Polykles (possibly his brother; Pliny (Natural History XXXVI. iv.35) attributed to them the possible cult statue of Jupiter Stator in Metellus Macedonicus’ temple, built c. 146 bc in the Campus Martius. The same two sculptors were also responsible for one or more statues of Juno in the adjacent Temple of Juno Regina (ded. ...

Article

Dimitris Plantzos

(fl late 1st century bc).

Roman gem-engraver active in Rome at the time of Augustus (27 bcad 14). According to Pliny, Dioskourides made ‘an excellent likeness’ of the Augustus emperor on the emperor's personal seal, which was also used as a state seal by successive emperors (Natural History 37.8). The story is repeated by Suetonius, who adds that Augustus ‘at first used the figure of a sphinx, afterwards the head of Alexander the Great, and at last his own, engraved by the hand of Dioskourides’ (Life of Caesar Augustus 50).

No fewer than 11 intaglios and cameos signed by Dioskourides survive (Richter, nos 664–72; Plantzos, 96–7), and many more have been attributed to him and his workshop. Dioskourides signed his name in Greek, with his name in the genitive case, as was customary for gem-engravers in the Greek world. Although several Roman artists of the Augustan period assumed a Greek professional name to enhance their business prospects, or signed their Italian names in Hellenized form and script, it seems that Dioskourides was actually of Greek origin. He belonged, therefore, to the wave of artists and craftsmen who came to Italy in the ...

Article

Term applied to a building, usually a temple, with two rows of columns flanking the long walls of the cella externally (see Greece, ancient, fig. f). The term ‘pseudo-dipteral’ is applied to a building that appears to have an arrangement of surrounding columns like a dipteral temple, but with only a single outer row of columns, the inner row being omitted and thus leaving a wide space around the inner cella....

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Article

Distyle  

Article

Dodona  

R. A. Tomlinson

Site of ancient sanctuary in Epiros, north-west Greece. It is in many ways the remotest of Greek sanctuaries: Epiros was largely uninfluenced by the main developments of the Archaic and Classical periods, retaining its tribal organization at a time when more progressive regions were forming city states. The sanctuary was dedicated to Zeus, probably because the high mountains surrounding it attract spectacular thunderstorms. Despite the site’s remoteness, the Greeks were aware of Zeus of Dodona from early times; for example he is invoked in the Iliad (XIV.233) as Achilles prepares to allow Patroklos to lead his Myrmidons once more into battle. The cult was oracular, and the oracles were associated with a sacred oak tree in the sanctuary, whose prophecies (the whispering of its leaves) were interpreted by a hereditary family of priests, the Selloi. The sanctuary offers a good example of an important cult that flourished without the need for a temple. For a long time it had no architectural embellishment, consisting simply of the precinct containing the sacred oak tree surrounded by tripods, though a simple shrine was added at the beginning of the ...

Article

(b London, Oct 17, 1795; d London, Aug 1, 1885).

English architect, archaeologist and teacher. He was the son of an architect, James Donaldson (c. 1756–1843), and great-nephew of Thomas Leverton. Trained in his father’s office and at the Royal Academy, London, Donaldson travelled in Italy, Greece and Asia Minor from 1818 to 1823 and on his return set up in practice. His first sizeable commission (won in competition) was for the church of the Holy Trinity, Brompton Road, London (1826–9), constructed in the non-archaeological Commissioners’ Gothic style, which was typical of those churches built as a result of the 1818 Act. Other works include the library (1848–9) of University College, Gower Street, London, in a classical style, and University Hall (1848–9; formerly Dr Williams’s Library), Gordon Square, London, in a Tudor Gothic style.

Donaldson’s principal achievements were not as an architect but in his other roles and in his wide range of publications. He was the leader of the ...

Article

Douris  

Reinhard Stupperich

In 

Article

Malcolm A. R. Colledge, Joseph Gutmann and Andrew R. Seager

[now Qal‛at as Sāliḩīyah.]

Site of a Hellenistic and Roman walled city in eastern Syria, on a plateau between two gorges on the west bank of the middle Euphrates. The name combines elements that are Semitic (Dura) and Macedonian Greek (Europos). Dura Europos was founded by the Seleucids in the late 4th century bc at the intersection of east–west caravan routes and the trade route along the Euphrates. It was later a frontier fortress of the Parthian empire and after its capture in ad 165 fulfilled the same role for the Roman empire. After the Sasanian siege in ad 256–7 the city was abandoned. The results of excavations by French and American archaeologists in the 1920s and 1930s threw light on the process of synthesis between Classical and indigenous populations and cultures in Syria-Palestine during Hellenistic and Imperial Roman times. The excavated remains include a synagogue (see §3) with an important cycle of biblical paintings and an Early Christian meeting-house (...

Article

T. F. C. Blagg

[anc. Gr. Epidamnos, Lat. Dyrrachium; It. Durrazzo; now Durrës, Albania.]

Site on the Adriatic coast, approximately 30 km west of Tiranë, Albania. It was founded as Epidamnos, as a colony of Corinth and Corfu, in 627 bc, and when the name Dyrrhachion first appeared in the 5th century bc it may have referred only to the port, 5 km north of the walled city. In 437 bc a violent uprising led indirectly, through the involvement of Corfu and Athens, to the Peloponnesian War. In the late 3rd century bc the city became part of the Illyrian kingdom of Glaukias. As Dyrrachium, it remained a free city after the Roman conquests of Macedonia and Epiros (167 bc); as the starting-point for the Via Egnatia (ad 148), the Roman road from the Adriatic to Byzantium, it developed as an important trade and communications centre. The cosmopolitan character of its medieval history reflects its continued strategic significance. It remained a Byzantine stronghold from the 4th century ...

Article

Eleusis  

Demosthenis G. Giraud

Site on the eastern edge of a row of rocky hills extending along the coast of north-west Attica, to the north of the straits of Salamis and about 20 km from Athens. The town flourished throughout antiquity. Due to its strategic position controlling one of the principal access routes to Attica, it was developed as a stronghold by the Athenians as early as Mycenaean times. However, it was chiefly famous in later eras as the venue for the Eleusinian Mysteries, secret annual rituals held in honour of Demeter and Persephone and open only to initiates of their cult. According to tradition the Mysteries were first celebrated by Eumolpos during the reign of the mythical king Erechtheus. Eleusis was given the status of a panhellenic sanctuary in about 750 bc by a Delphic oracle, and Solon included the Mysteries in his list of official Athenian rites around 700 bc. The sanctuary reached the height of its religious influence and architectural development in Roman times under Hadrian and the Antonines (2nd century ...

Article

Dimitris Plantzos

[Satra]

Greek city situated on the island of Crete, by the north-west foothills of mount Psiloritis (anc. Ida), 30 km south-east of the present-day city of Rethymnon. It was a centre for Aegean and Greek culture from the Prehistoric to the Byzantine periods (4th millennium bc–7th century bc).

Ancient Eleutherna is a typical example of a Cretan polis (city) inhabited continuously from at least from the 9th century bc (the so-called ‘Dark Age’ of Greek history) to the late Roman and Byzantine period (6th–7th century bc). Even before that, archaeological finds suggest the existence of a continuous presence on the site from the late Neolithic (4th millennium bc) through to a flourishing Minoan site of the 3rd to 2nd millennia bc. Although later construction all but eliminated traces of prehistoric architecture, there is still significant evidence to confirm unbroken habitation. In historical times (9th century...

Article

Emborio  

Sinclair Hood

[Emporio.]

Modern and perhaps ancient name of a site on the south coast of Chios. It was excavated by the British School at Athens in 1952–5. The first settlement, at the foot of a rocky hill by the harbour, revealed an occupation sequence with ten periods (X–I) from Neolithic (before c. 4000 bc) to Early Bronze Age (Troy I–II; c. 3000–c. 2000 bc); traces of Middle and Late Bronze Age habitation (c. 2000–c. 1050 bc) were noted on the hill above. Settlers using Late Helladic iiic (c. 1180–c. 1050 bc) pottery occupied the site at the end of the Bronze Age (c. 1200 bc): they may have been Abantes from Euboia. In the 8th century bc, Ionian Greeks founded a Sanctuary of Apollo on the edge of the former Mycenaean settlement but built their town on the slopes of Prophitis Elias Hill north of the harbour, below a walled acropolis with a ruler’s house and Sanctuary of Athena. The town was abandoned by the end of the ...

Article

William E. Mierse

revised by Gordon Campbell

[Gr. Emporion; now Catalan Empúries, Spanish Ampurias.]

City on the Gulf of Rosas on the Catalan coast of Spain, founded in the 6th century bc by Greek settlers from the Phokaian colony of Massalia (Marseille). The site may have been occupied earlier by the native Indiketes, but the only evidence is furnished by graves at Parralli and Muralli. The first Greek settlement was on a small island off the coast now covered by the village of San Martín. Early excavators claimed to have found architectural remains on its beach, but these have vanished. The 4th-century ad antiquary Avienus, however, mentioned that there was both a city and a temple on the island, and a section of an Archaic frieze showing two opposed sphinxes (Ampurias, Mus. Monográf. Excav.) may come from the temple. By the time the Romans occupied the region in 218 bc, a new city, Neapolis, had been established on the mainland. This may have been the ...

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Ephyra  

Sanctuary in Thesprotia, north-western Greece, near the mouth of the River Acheron. It includes an acropolis with the remains of a Late Bronze Age settlement and cemetery, but it was chiefly important in Classical and Hellenistic times for its Nekyomanteion (‘oracle of the dead’) dedicated to Persephone and Hades. This was situated at the confluence of the Acheron and Kokytos, where Odysseus was supposed to have entered the underworld to meet the shade of Teiresias (Odyssey X.513–15), and though the sanctuary’s remains date to the 3rd century bc they provide evidence for a ritual strikingly similar to that followed by Odysseus himself. They comprise a large irregular enclosure containing a series of rooms round a courtyard on the west side of the hill, and the main sanctuary building to the east, on the very top of the hill. The shrine building, with massive side walls, was approached by a corridor running along its north and east sides before turning along the south side through a maze-like sequence of arched doorways. Consultation of the oracle was preceded by ritual incubation and bathing in rooms off the north corridor, burnt sacrifices in the east corridor and offerings of white barley in the maze. From here the suppliant entered the central hall, which is flanked by three rooms on each side containing storage jars, wheat, barley and other foodstuffs. Under the central hall was a vaulted crypt representing the underworld. The sanctuary was destroyed in ...

Article

R. A. Tomlinson and Ann Thomas Wilkins

Site on the south side of the Saronic Gulf in Greece that flourished especially in the 4th and 3rd centuries bc. Though traces of the ancient city exist, its fame derives from the Sanctuary of Asklepios c. 10 km inland from Epidauros town, which was the principal cult-centre of the healing god in mainland Greece (see fig.). Here there are remains of a Bronze Age settlement, later abandoned, and an early sanctuary of Apollo. Until the end of the 5th century bc the place was of little importance and architecturally undistinguished. The cult of Asklepios began to develop significantly only at this time, perhaps because of the plague that devastated Athens and adjacent regions in the early 420s bc and the general malaise that resulted from the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta (431–404 bc). With the exception of the theatre, the sanctuary buildings are badly ruined. The site was excavated principally by the Greek archaeologist ...

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Diana Buitron-Oliver

In 

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Eretria  

John R. Lenz

Greek city on the south-west coast of Euboia, east of Lefkandi and Chalkis and facing north-eastern Attica. Eretria was important in two periods: the Late Geometric and Archaic (c. 750 bc until its sack by the Persians in 490 bc) and the Late Classical and Hellenistic (from c. 400 bc until the Roman sack in 198 bc). Greek and Swiss excavations have uncovered many finds from these periods.

On a site of Bronze Age settlement, Eretria in the first half of the 8th century bc grew into a leading Greek city with active overseas connections, surpassing most in its architecture, urban development and metalworking. Having inherited certain architectural and artistic traditions and perhaps population from Lefkandi, Eretria and Chalkis traded from Italy to Al-Mina and jointly founded the first Greek overseas colony at Pithekoussai in Italy. They were key intermediaries in the interaction of Greece, Italy and the Near East. Some of the earliest Greek alphabetic inscriptions come from Euboia and its colonies....