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Andrzej Rottermund

(b c. 1700; d Wilno (now Vilnius), March 30, 1767).

Lithuanian architect. Sources show that he lived in Vilnius from 1738. Glaubitz’s first works were the reconstruction (1738–43) of the Protestant church in Vilnius and the rebuilding (1738–62) of the Jesuit church of St John, the latter with an elegant four-storey façade in which the play of light is dramatized by the contrast between projecting clusters of columns and recessed windows. In 1740–46 he completed the church of the Knights Hospitaller in Stołowicze, while in 1741–2 he rebuilt the church of St Catherine, Vilnius, giving it the type of two-tower façade with delicate detailing that became his hallmark. In 1748–9 he built a palace (destr.) in Struń near Połock for Metropolitan Florian Hrebnicki, and in the same year he began the reconstruction (completed 1765) of the Basilians’ church of St Sophia in Połock and the Dominican church (completed 1766) in Zabiały-Wołyńce. Other churches usually attributed to Glaubitz include those of the Carmelites in Mścisław, the Missionaries in Vilnius (...


Helena Bussers

(b Brussels, Dec 2, 1750; d Brussels, Feb 24, 1835).

Flemish sculptor. Until 1770 or 1771 he was apprenticed to Laurent Delvaux. His master’s influence with Charles of Lorraine, the Austrian Governor of the Netherlands, secured for him in 1769 an allowance during his whole period of training. Having moved to Paris and been accepted (agrée) by the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, Godecharle met the best French sculptors, such as Jean-Antoine Houdon, and enjoyed the protection of Jean-Baptiste Pigalle and of Jean-Pierre-Antoine Tassaert, who took him on as an apprentice. In 1775, when Tassaert was appointed court sculptor to Frederick the Great, Godecharle accompanied him to Berlin, where until 1777 he worked with his master on official commissions, mainly portraits of Prussian generals.

In 1778 Godecharle was in London; from there he travelled to Rome. In the same year he was awarded first prize for sculpture by the Accademia di S Luca; and in 1779...


(b Mannheim, Jan 13, 1731; d Breslau [now Wrocław, Poland], Sept 23, 1791).

German architect. He entered the court building office in Bayreuth as a clerk of works in 1749 and from 1750 to 1752 studied with Jacques-François Blondel in Paris. From 1754 he was a building inspector and head of the court building office, and in 1754–5 he accompanied Markgraf Friedrich of Bayreuth (reg 1735–63) on a trip to southern France and Italy. After the Markgraf’s death, Gontard was summoned by Frederick II, King of Prussia, to Potsdam. As head of the building office from 1764—first in Potsdam, then, after 1779, in Berlin—he was in charge of all royal building projects, and he was ennobled in 1767. Gontard’s modest early works in Bayreuth show the influence of Blondel. After his trip to Italy he built the south wing (1757–64) of the Neues Schloss and the Palais Reitzenstein (1761), both in Bayreuth, which already show Neo-classical tendencies in forms still bound to the Rococo. This trend is continued in the extension (...


(b Velehrad, Moravia, Aug 10, 1708; d Augsburg, Nov 23, 1774).

Moravian painter and engraver, active in southern Germany. After studies at a Jesuit school, from 1726–7 he was apprenticed in Brünn [Brno] to Franz Gregor Ignaz Eckstein, whose frescoes transmitted to him some of the ideas of Annibale Carracci, Giovanni Lanfranco and Andrea Pozzo. In 1729–30 Göz worked with Johann Georg Bergmüller, and from 1730 he continued his training with Johann Georg Rothbletz (fl 1719–33), finally qualifying as a painter in 1733.

After relatively small-scale frescoes (1739; Augsburg, Köpf-Haus), at the Hofkapelle in Meersburg (1741), the audience chamber of the Benediktinerabtei at Weingarten (1742), the Klosterkirche in Habsthal (1748), and the Dompropstei (deanery) in Konstanz (1749), Göz’s first major work was ceiling paintings for the Wallfahrtskirche at Birnau (c. 1749). These paintings on Marian themes, including Mary gravida, Mary as the sedes sapentiae, as the mother of piety, knowledge and hope, and also as the ...


A. Buschow Oeschlin

(b Rome, Aug 21, 1692; d Rome, Feb 2, 1777).

Italian architect. He trained under his father, Ludovico Gregorini (c. 1661–1723), also an architect; in the latter’s workshop was a nephew of Filippo Juvarra, Pietro Passalacqua (fl 1706–48), with whom Gregorini collaborated throughout his career. In 1713 he won first prize in a competition of the Accademia di S Luca, Rome, of which he later became a member, and in 1722 he joined the Congregazione dei Virtuosi al Pantheon. A year later he took over his father’s workshop and in 1725 completed the restoration of the Palazzo Sforza-Cesarini in Genzano. In 1726, together with Passalacqua, he entered the service of Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni, for whom he may have enlarged the Palazzo Episcopale in Magliano Sabino (1726) and altered the church and convent of S Maria in Monterone. His work also included designs for festival architecture in the Piazza della Cancelleria (engraved by Filippo Vasconi (...


António Filipe Pimentel


(b Milan, 1719; d Lisbon, 1781).

Italian sculptor and stuccoist, active in Portugal. Sometime between 1740 and 1750 he served Ferdinand VI of Spain as a military designer but fled to Portugal after being involved in a murder. His first commission was for the plaster decoration (before 1755; destr. 1755) of the ceiling of the church of the Mártires (Martyrs), Lisbon, which involved using moulds for the Rococo motifs. He was skilled in modelling stucco, wax and clay, and his lively use of Rococo ornament includes shell forms, flowers and asymmetrical motifs.

Grossi benefited from the patronage of Sebastian Carvalho e Mello, 1st Marquês de Pombal, and among projects commissioned by the Marquês were the stucco ceilings of his palace at Oeiras (c. 1770), now the property of the Gulbenkian Foundation. In 1755 Grossi carried out decorative work in the houses of the Machadinho family in Lisbon, with the assistance of Pedro Chantoforo and of his cousin ...


Ivo Kořán

(b Prague, bapt Dec 4, 1717; d Prague, June 17, 1767).

Bohemian painter. He was the son of the painter Kristián Grund (c. 1686–1751) and brother to the painters František Karel Grund (1721–43), Petr Pavel Christian Grund (1722–84)—also a violin virtuoso—and the harpist Jan Eustach Grund. He learnt painting with his father, who released him from his apprenticeship in 1737. Subsequently he lived in Vienna and then perhaps in Germany; he probably knew his great models, Watteau, Nicolas Lancret and Francesco Guardi, only from engravings.

Grund’s work consists of a rather confused range of small pictures, embodying almost all genres in which landscapes or dwellings include figures. He painted scenes from myths, the Bible, legends and battles; he depicted love scenes, the theatre, storms at sea, visits to ruins, studios etc. Although the human figures always endow his pictures with a light touch, often there is an implicitly deeper allegorical meaning. His paintings from the 1740s are marked by a heavy Late Baroque colour scheme, in the 1750s by fragile Rococo shades; later he accomplished a smooth transition to a classicist realism. The popularity of his works in aristocratic and bourgeois circles is underlined by reproductions by ...


Peter Volk

(b Altmannstein, Oberpfalz, Nov 22, 1725; d Munich, June 26, 1775).

German sculptor. He first trained with his father, Johann Georg Günther (1704–83), a cabinetmaker who produced occasional wood sculptures. In 1743 he travelled to Munich, where he is thought to have worked for seven years with Johann Baptist Straub, whose sculpture workshop was the leading one in the region. Günther’s earliest known works are study drawings of historical monuments and sculptures that he made while apprenticed to Straub, and exercises in technical drawing that were mainly variations on material in Andrea Pozzo’s Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum (Rome, 1693–1702). Probably c. 1750 he set off on his journeyman’s travels and is documented in Salzburg in that year. In 1751–2 he was in Mannheim, in Paul Egell’s workshop, where he drew works by Egell and made a copy in lime-wood (1751; Munich, Bayer. Nmus.) of Egell’s relief of St John the Baptist.

Günther then travelled to Moravia, where, probably working in the workshop of ...


Wolfgang Holler

(b Tritschengreith [now Trischenreuth], Bavaria, Sept 7, 1705; d Haid, Bavaria, Sept 30, 1788).

German painter and etcher. He completed his apprenticeship in Murnau with Simon Bernhardt and subsequently worked under the leading south German painter Cosmas Damian Asam from 1723 to 1728. In 1730 Günther moved to Augsburg, and a year later, after marrying the widow of the fresco painter Ferdinand Magg (b 1679), he obtained his master’s licence. From this point onwards Günther’s work developed swiftly in both style and range, and records exist of his activity far beyond the frontiers of Bavaria. Günther generally spent the winter months in Augsburg, painting panel pictures and etching. In 1740 he acquired the artistic estate of the deceased Johann Evangelist Holzer, a prodigiously gifted rival, and this material became of great artistic importance to him as a source of motifs and ideas. The 1750s were very prolific years for Günther, with secular commissions through the Duke of Württemberg and religious commissions in Würzburg, Wilten or Indersdorf. In ...


Ebba Krull

(b Habelschwerdt, Silesia [now Bystryca Kłodzka, nr Wrocław, Poland], 1721; d Augsburg, 1796).

German draughtsman, engraver and sculptor. After an apprenticeship as a sculptor and a journey to Italy in 1746, he obtained rights of citizenship and the right to practise as a sculptor in Augsburg by marrying Maria Catharina Wörle, widow of the miniature painter. He was president of the guild of sculptors and painters from 1756–7 and was a drawing tutor at the Kunstakademie in Augsburg from 1781 until his death. Although he generally signed himself statuarius, his only known surviving sculptural work (until its destruction in the Second World War) was the front of the organ by the instrument maker Johann Andreas Stein in the Barfüsserkirche in Augsburg (1755–7; destr. 1944). The dearth of commissions for sculptors in Augsburg in the mid-18th century led him to turn to ornamental engraving. The c. 600 surviving engravings by him cover a wide range of ornamental subject-matter. Their success probably depended primarily, despite Habermann’s effervescent imagination, on their practical applicability by any artistic craftsman of the period. The engravings were published, mostly in series of four sheets, by the Augsburg publishers ...


Maria Pötzl-Malíková

(b Strass, nr Salzburg, June 14, 1732; d Vienna, Sept 11, 1810).

Austrian sculptor. He was apprenticed to Johann Georg Itzlfeldner (?1705–90) in Tittmoning. From 1754 to 1759 he studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna, where he produced sculptures in the Bavarian Rococo style (e.g. Christ at the Martyr’s Pillar, gilded bronze, 1756; Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.). The Archbishop of Salzburg, Sigismund, Graf von Schrattenbach, enabled him to continue his studies in Bologna, Florence and Rome. He returned to Salzburg to become official sculptor to von Schrattenbach, and collaborated closely with his brother, the architect Wolfgang Hagenauer (1726–1801), who was also working for the Archbishop. In 1764 he married the Italian painter Rosa Barducci (1743–86). His most important commission in Salzburg was the Mariensäule on the Domplatz (lead, 1766–71; in situ). In 1773 he moved to Vienna and until 1779 worked with Christian Friedrich Wilhelm Beyer on the sculptural decoration of the park at ...


(b Stockholm, 1700; d Stockholm, 1753).

Swedish architect. His father, Johan Hårleman (1662–1707), was a landscape gardener who collaborated with Nicodemus Tessin the younger at Steninge Manor and on the garden at Drottningholm, near Stockholm. Carl Hårleman first trained as a draughtsman and architect at the palace works in Stockholm under Tessin and G. J. Adelcrantz (1668–1739). On Tessin’s recommendation he was sent to study in Paris and Italy (1721–6); he also visited Britain. In 1727 he was recalled to Stockholm to direct work on the Royal Palace as Tessin’s successor, and in 1741 he was appointed Superintendent. He visited France in 1731–2 and 1744–5 to recruit artists and craftsmen to work on the interiors of the Royal Palace and Drottningholm in Stockholm. Such visits also enabled him to remain in touch with French stylistic developments.

There are close connections between Hårleman’s designs for town and country houses and those of such French architects as Charles-Etienne Briseux and Jean-Baptiste Bullet. Svartsjö (...


(b Peuerbach, nr Grieskirchen, April 28, 1695; d Steyr, March 7, 1764).

Austrian architect. He was probably taught by his father, who was a master mason; in 1720 he described himself as a qualified mason. Also in 1720 he moved to Steyr, becoming a citizen in the following year. He was subsequently entrusted with various municipal commissions there, including the renovation of the town wall (1731). In 1741 he succeeded Joseph Munggenast at Seitenstetten Abbey, where, even though the building was well under way, his designs for the staircase and entrance pavilion made his mark as an independent architect. His scheme for Kremsmünster Abbey, including plans for the observatory and library (before 1743), was not executed, nor were his huge plans for rebuilding Admont Abbey (1742) carried out in their entirety for financial reasons; the library in the east wing is his main work there and is in the artistic tradition of the Hofbibliothek in Vienna. The interesting interior design was probably strongly influenced by ...


Pál Voit

(b Kaltenbrunn, Tyrol, Jan 11, 1716; d Steinamanger [now Szombathely, Hungary], April 17, 1794).

Austrian architect. From 1734 he helped with the drawings for the famous ornamental railings (destr. 1821) erected by Johann Georg Oegg (1703–80) in front of the Residenz at Würzburg. He then studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna, and later taught architecture in the city. In 1756 he was commissioned to erect an altarpiece and pulpit in the pilgrimage church at Sonntagberg, the design for which secured him election to the Akademie in 1757. In 1763 he began the reconstruction of the archbishop’s palace at Passau (completed 1771) in the Rococo style. His duties as drawing master to the Life Guard of Hungarian Nobles probably brought him into contact with the Captain General of the Guards, Prince Miklós Esterházy, who commissioned him in 1764 to carry out huge extensions to the family palace at Esterháza (now Fertőd) in Hungary. Only the central block, however, was completed to Hefele’s designs, the wings being added by the estate architect ...


Gordon Campbell

English family of silversmiths, active in London. David Hennell (1712–85) registered his first mark in 1736; he made modest domestic plate with restrained Rococo decoration. David was joined by his son Robert Hennell (1741–1811) in 1763; Robert fashioned Neo-classical silver in the style of Robert Adam’s designs. The company now trades as Hennell of Bond Street Ltd....


Wolfgang Holler

(b Burgeis (now Burgusio, Italy), South Tyrol, Dec 24, 1709; d Clemenswerth, Westphalia, July 21, 1740).

German painter. His artistic talents first became apparent while he was at the monastery school of Marienberg (now Monte Maria Abbey), where he made many drawings from copper engravings after the work of Sir Peter Paul Rubens. At this time he produced an oil portrait of Johann Baptist Murr, Abbot of Marienberg (destr.). In autumn 1724 Murr secured for Holzer a place as apprentice with the painter Nicolaus Auer (1690–1753), in Sankt Martin, near Passau. After four years, Holzer went to Lower Bavaria to become an apprentice to Joseph Anton Merz (1681–1750). To complete his education, Holzer next moved to Augsburg. Under the guidance of Johann Georg Bergmüller, head of the Akademie in Augsburg, Holzer produced altarpieces and devotional pictures, and he took part in commissions for façade frescoes. After a return visit to the South Tyrol, where he applied unsuccessfully for a place in the monastery of Marienberg, Holzer returned to Augsburg in ...


(b Vocklabruck; bapt Sept 7, 1691; d St Florian, March 14, 1775).

Austrian stuccoist. He came from a family of stuccoists and began his earliest documented work, the decoration (1718–22) of the pilgrimage church of the Holy Trinity at Stadl-Paura, near Lambach, with his father, Johann Georg Holzinger (d 1738), although he finished it alone. At the same time he was working at the abbeys of Lambach and St Florian (from 1719). The stuccowork (1719) in the abbot’s antechamber at St Florian is typical of Holzinger’s early work, in which the ribbon work usually flows out in C-shaped loops ending in scrolled acanthus leaves. The angular shape of the loops, producing squares, is also typical. From 1722 to 1724 he made the splendid atlantids in the library at Metten Abbey. The striding figures seem to carry the ceiling with ease: their fluttering garments typify south German Rococo art. Holzinger moved to St Florian in 1724...


Gordon Campbell

German faience factory founded in Saxony in 1770 by Johann Samuel Friedrich Tännich. The factory initially produced tableware in a Rococo style and later made creamware based on Wedgwood wares, which are sometimes marked as Wedgwood. The factory closed in 1848.


Ellen G. Miles

(b Devonshire, ?1701; d Twickenham, Jan 26, 1779).

English painter and collector. He was one of the foremost portrait painters in England in the mid-18th century. His work combines the high-keyed colours of the Rococo with poses derived from such artists as van Dyck, Kneller and his own teacher and father-in-law, Jonathan Richardson. He painted at least 400 portraits, about 80 of which were engraved. Among his many pupils were Joseph Wright of Derby, John Hamilton Mortimer and Joshua Reynolds. Hudson was a member of the group of artists including Hogarth, Allan Ramsay, Francis Hayman and the sculptor John Michael Rysbrack who met at Old Slaughter’s Coffee House in the mid-1740s and who promoted Thomas Coram’s Foundling Hospital, of which they were governors, as the first public exhibiting space for artists in London.

The earliest record of Hudson as a painter is in the accounts of the Courtenay family of Devon, where he is described in 1728 as ‘Mr. Hudson ye Limner’. Among his earliest recorded works were three portraits of the Courtenays (untraced) and a ...


James Yorke

[Mayhew and Ince]

English partnership of cabinetmakers formed in 1758 by William Ince (b ?London, c. 1738; d London, 6 Jan 1804) and John Mayhew (b 1736; d London, May 1811). Ince was apprenticed to John West (fl 1743–58) of Covent Garden, London, from 1752 until West’s death. As the usual age to begin an apprenticeship was 14, he was probably born towards the end of the 1730s. In 1758 Ince formed a partnership with Mayhew. They operated from Broad Street, Carnaby Market, an address formerly occupied by Charles Smith (fl 1746–59), whose premises they had purchased. In Mortimer’s Universal Director (1763) they were described as ‘cabinet-makers, carvers and upholders’, and by 1778 they were styling themselves ‘manufacturers of plate glass’ (Ince’s father and brother were glass-grinders).

In 1759 the partners began to issue in serial form The Universal System of Household Furniture...