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Julius Bryant

(b Rome, July 4, 1751; d Paris, Jan 30, 1801).

Italian sculptor, active also in England and the USA. Ceracchi is best known for his portrait busts of the heroes of the American Revolution, executed during his two visits to the USA (1791–2 and 1794–5), where he made a significant contribution to the introduction of Neo-classicism. The son of a goldsmith, he studied in Rome with Tommaso Righi (1727–1802) and at the Accademia di S Luca. Following his arrival in London in 1773, Ceracchi worked for Agostino Carlini and modelled architectural ornament for Adam family, §3 (ii). He also taught Anne Seymour Damer to model in clay, and c. 1777 he produced a life-size terracotta statue of her as the Muse of Sculpture (marble version, London, BM) holding one of her own works, a Genius of the Thames. His bust of Admiral Keppel (marble version, 1779; Mausoleum, Wentworth Woodhouse, S. Yorks) was considered ‘extremely like’ by Horace Walpole when the terracotta model (...


Lucia Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli

Italian family of gem-engravers and medallists. Giuseppe Cerbara (b Rome, 15 July 1770; d Rome, 6 April 1856) was the son of Giovanni Battista Cerbara (b Rome, 1748; d Rome, 1811) and was one of the best-known gem-engravers and medallists working in Rome in the 18th century and the early 19th. His artistic achievements brought him many honours: in 1812 he was elected Fellow of the Accademia di S Luca, in 1815 Fellow of the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna and in 1825 Fellow of the Royal Academy of Fine Art of Antwerp. In 1831 he was elected to the Congregazione dei Virtuosi del Pantheon and in 1834 to the Accademia Fiorentina di Belle Arti. From 1822 he held the post of Incisore Camerale to the papal mint with Giuseppe Girometti; the artists were responsible for producing a medal on alternate years. Appointed Incisore Particolare dei Sommi Pontefici by ...


(b Valpiana, Oct 1, 1842; d Milan, May 25, 1907).

Italian architect and engineer. He studied in Pavia and then at the Politecnico in Turin, where he qualified as an engineer (1867). He also studied architecture under Camillo Boito at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera, Milan. Among his early designs were the classical octagonal marble fountain (1870), known as ‘La Bollente’, in the spa town of Acqui Terme, and buildings including the four entrance gateways at the Esposizione Italiana (1881), Milan, his first major project. His two most important works are completely dissimilar in style. The Museo Civico di Storia Naturale (1888–93; damaged 1943; restored) on the Corso Venezia, Milan, is in a powerful Romanesque and Gothic style with a hint of Moorish architecture and, though much influenced by the ideas of Camillo Boito, it also has close international parallels in style with other natural history museums, such as that in London (...


(b Paris, 1739; d Paris, Jan 20, 1811).

French architect. Although he was of humble origins, Chalgrin’s success as an architect was due in large part to conspicuous aristocratic patronage. As a young man he studied with Louis-Adam Loriot (fl 1737–69) and Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni until the latter’s death. He then became a pupil of Etienne-Louis Boullée, under whose guidance he participated in the student competitions at the Académie d’Architecture in Paris. In 1758 he received the Prix de Rome with a design for a small pavilion, and he left for Italy the following year. His correspondence from Italy with Jacques-Germain Soufflot indicates that he was already moving in the most advanced Neo-classical circles of his day, and soon after his return to Paris in 1763 he became Inspecteur des Travaux de la Ville de Paris under Pierre-Louis Moreau-Desproux. Chalgrin became a member of the Académie Royale d’Architecture in 1770 but was not elected to the first class until ...


John Harris

(b Göteborg, Sweden, Feb 23, 1723; d London, March 8, 1796).

English architect and writer, of Scottish descent.

The son of a Scottish merchant trading in Sweden, Chambers was educated in Ripon, Yorkshire, and returned to Sweden at the age of 16 to train as a merchant in that country’s East India Company. Between 1740 and 1749 he made three voyages to the East, passing away the tedium of the journeys by studying ‘modern languages, mathematics and the fine arts, but chiefly civil architecture’. This background placed Chambers in a unique situation as far as his future career in England was concerned. By inclination he was a continental, and in 1749 he went to Paris, as any Swedish architect would have done, and sought instruction in architecture. He entered Jacques-François Blondel’s influential Ecole des Arts, a progressive educational body that trained the finest Parisian architects of the first generation of Neo-classicists. Late in 1750 Chambers moved on to Rome, where he set himself up as a privately funded student. There he seems to have maintained contacts with the Académie de France, and for a while he lived in the same studio as Giovanni Battista Piranesi, who befriended those artists whose work was in the vanguard of Neo-classicism. Nevertheless, Chambers was too astute to ignore the visiting coteries of English travellers and ...


Marie-Claude Chaudonneret

(b Paris, 1767; d Paris, Aug 3, 1849).

French painter. She was a pupil of François Gérard and Jacques-Louis David, and in 1788 she received a Prix d’Encouragement. She exhibited at the Salon from 1795 until 1819, when she received a gold medal. Like other female painters of her period, she specialized in sentimental genre scenes and portraits of women and children. Although she was considered by contemporary critics to be one of the finest portrait painters of the age, few works by her have been traced. One of the first known works is Scene of Family Life (1796; exh. Paris, Gal. Pardo, 1980), a genre scene closer to Elisabeth Vigée Le Brun than to David. Among her portraits shown in the Salon of 1801 may have been that of Charlotte du Val d’Ognes (New York, Met.), previously attributed to David, showing a young girl drawing, posed against the sunlight. The painting reflects the influence of Gérard and is close in style to a portrait of ...


(b Lyon, March 4, 1787; d Lyon, Dec 29, 1883).

French architect and writer. He was taught in Lyon (c. 1802) by Claude-Pierre Durand and then went to Paris, where he joined the studio of the Lyon architect Bartelémy Vignon (1762–1846), for whom he worked intermittently in Paris between 1804 and 1816 and from whom he acquired a taste for Greek art. Chenavard was admitted to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in 1809. In 1816 he travelled to Italy, and after a short stay in Rome (April 1817) he spent the rest of the year on extensive travels (to Naples, Paestum, Calabria and Sicily) in the company of his friend, the architect Augustin Nicolas Caristie (1783–1862). Afterwards he returned to Rome for two years and studied the monuments of antiquity, made surveys and frequented French artistic circles. In August 1819, having returned to Lyon, he was appointed departmental architect for the Rhône and architect of the commune of Croix-Rousse (Rhône) and of the dioceses of Lyon and Belley (Ain). In ...


Richard Cleary

(b Paris, Dec 14, 1736; d Paris, Nov 13, 1809).

French architect. He began his architectural career as a draughtsman in the Bâtiments du Roi and studied at the private school of Jacques-François Blondel. In 1758 Cherpitel was awarded the Prix de Rome and travelled in Italy from 1759 to 1765, receiving praise for his drawings of ancient monuments.

Cherpitel’s first independent commissions were for clients outside Paris and included plans for a Vienna town house for Miklós (Jószef), Prince Esterházy. His success in Paris was assured by the patronage of Marie-Florent, Comte du Châtelet, whose family commissioned three Parisian town houses from Cherpitel: the Hôtel du Châtelet (1770; now the Ministère du Travail), the Hôtel de Damas (1776; now the Korean Embassy) and the Hôtel de Rochechouart (1776; altered, now the Ministère de l’Education). The Hôtel du Châtelet combined the newly fashionable Neo-classical style with traditional forms. Initially the massing recalls the town houses of the Regency (...


Madeleine Rocher-Jauneau

(b Lyon, Feb 12, 1756; d Lyon, June 20, 1813).

French sculptor. He was the son of a silk merchant and trained under the painter Donat Nonotte at the Ecole Royale de Dessin in Lyon. He then worked with the local sculptor Barthélemy Blaise (1738–1819). In 1772 he assisted Blaise with the restoration of the sculptures on the façade of the Hôtel de Ville. By 1780 he was working independently and received a commission from the canons of St Paul for chalk statues of St Paul, St Sacerdos and the Four Evangelists (all destr. 1793–4). He subsequently made stone statues of St Bruno and St John the Baptist (partially destr.) for the Charterhouse at Selignac, near Bourg-en-Bresse. In 1784, thanks to the patronage of the Lyonnais official Jean-Marie Delafont de Juis, Chinard was able to go to Rome, where he remained until 1787. There he studied the art of antiquity but seems not to have had any contact with Antonio Canova, the most influential Neo-classical sculptor in the city. In ...


James Yorke

English family of cabinetmakers. (1) Thomas Chippendale (i) probably learnt his craft in Yorkshire before establishing a cabinetmaking firm in London in the mid-18th century. His fame rests on his designs for Rococo and Neo-classical furniture. His son (2) Thomas Chippendale (ii) continued to run the family firm into the 19th century.

G. Beard and C. Gilbert, eds: Dictionary of English Furniture Makers, 1660–1840 (Leeds, 1986)

James Yorke

(bapt Otley, W. Yorks, June 5, 1718; bur London, Nov 13, 1779).

His father, John Chippendale (1690–1768), was a joiner. Little is known about Thomas’s early life, but he probably received some training from his father and later from Richard Wood (c. 1707–72), a York cabinetmaker. In his twenties Thomas moved to London; the earliest recorded reference to his presence there is his marriage to Catherine Redshaw at St George’s Chapel, Mayfair, on 19 May 1749...


Shearer West

(b Florence, 1727; d London, Dec 14, 1785).

Italian painter, draughtsman and designer, active in England.

Cipriani trained in Florence under the direction of the Anglo-Florentine artist Ignazio Enrico Hugford; in his early works he was also influenced by the Baroque style of Anton Domenico Gabbiani. His first commissions, for the organ screen in S Maddalena dei Pazzi, Florence, and for two altarpieces in Pistoia (both now in S Bartolomeo), are undistinguished and tentative works that still show traces of the Baroque style. His modest Self-portrait (c. 1750; Florence, Uffizi) demonstrates Cipriani’s incipient ability as a draughtsman. In 1750 he went to Rome, where he came into contact with English artists on the Grand Tour. He became friendly with William Chambers and Joseph Wilton—proponents of a Neo-classical style of architecture and sculpture respectively. In 1755 Chambers and Wilton took him to London; he settled there, marrying an Englishwoman in 1761.

In London, Cipriani was immediately in demand as one of the first exponents of a developing Neo-classical decorative style. He was an instructor with Wilton at the Duke of Richmond’s gallery in Whitehall and a member of the St Martin’s Lane Academy. He was a founder-member of the Royal Academy, where he exhibited pictures and drawings, primarily of Classical and religious subjects, between ...


Thomas J. McCormick

(b Paris, baptAug 28, 1721; d Auteuil, Jan 19, 1820).

French architect, archaeologist and painter. He was an important if controversial figure associated with the development of the Neo-classical style of architecture and interior design and its dissemination throughout Europe and the USA. He studied at the Académie Royale d’Architecture, Paris, under Germain Boffrand and won the Grand Prix in 1746. He spent the years 1749 to 1754 at the Académie Française in Rome but left after an argument with the director Charles-Joseph Natoire over his refusal to make his Easter Communion; this may have been due to his Jansenist sympathies. He nevertheless remained in Italy until 1767. During these years he became a close friend of Piranesi, Winckelmann, Cardinal Alessandro Albani and other members of the international circle interested in the Antique.

In his early student days in Rome, Clérisseau became acquainted in particular with English travellers and began to sell them his attractive topographical drawings of Roman architecture. Initially these were influenced by his studies with ...


Alison Kelly

(b Exeter, June 3, 1733; d London, Nov 18, 1821).

English manufacturer of ceramic Artificial stone. From 1769 ‘Mrs’ Coade (adopting a courtesy title extended to unmarried women in business; she is not to be confused with her mother, also Mrs Eleanor Coade) manufactured a ceramic artificial stone at Lambeth in London. It so closely resembled a natural stone that ever since it has been mistaken for it; as a result the extent of her influential business has been greatly underestimated. It survives at more than 650 sites, and hundreds more examples of its use have been recorded. The Coade Artificial Stone Manufactory produced every kind of architectural detail: capitals, friezes, quoins, voussoirs; garden ornaments, including fountains, statues and vases; and Coade stone ornaments and furnishings for interiors, extending from chimney-pieces, candelabra and pedestals to clocks and thrones. The company made many funerary monuments and a number of commemorative pieces, such as those for George III’s Jubilee and for Admiral Lord Nelson. The latter included the 12 m Nelson Pediment (...


James Yorke

(b c. 1715; d ?London, Aug 1778).

English cabinetmaker and upholsterer. Little is known about him before 1751, when he formed a partnership with William Vile, but it is assumed that he was the John Cobb apprenticed in 1729 to Timothy Money (fl 1724–59), a Norwich upholsterer. In 1755 he married Sukey, a daughter of the cabinetmaker Giles Grendey, and is said to have acquired a ‘singularly haughty character’, strutting ‘in full dress of the most superb and costly kind…through his workshops giving orders to his men’, and on one occasion earning a rebuke from George III. When Vile retired in 1764, Cobb carried on in business with the assistance of his foreman, Samuel Reynolds (fl 1751–85). He made furniture to very high standards and earned a reputation for exquisite marquetry: Hester Thrale, the writer and friend of Dr Johnson, compared the inlaid floors at Sceaux, France, to ‘the most high prized Cabinet which Mr Cobb can produce to captivate the Eyes of his Customers’. Inlay in tropical woods, particularly satinwood, was an important element of Neo-classical furniture. In ...


Ana Maria Rybko

(b Foligno, July 23, 1739; d Rome, March 18, 1816).

Italian painter and decorator. Active in Umbria and the Lazio region, he worked initially in a Rococo language that revealed his links with the art of Rome in the first half of the 18th century, especially with Sebastiano Conca. Later he moved closer to the Neo-classical taste, always tempered by an exquisitely decorative flair. During his initial period of activity in Umbria, he produced the Virgin and Child with SS Peter and Paul (signed and dated 1775) at S Pietro in Foligno and decorated some rooms in the Palazzo Benedetti di Montevecchio (signed) and in the Palazzo Morelli at Spoleto (signed and dated 1773–5). After moving to Rome, where he was highly esteemed by Pope Pius VI, he produced decorations with grotesques and landscapes as well as biblical and mythological scenes in some of the most notable palaces of the city: at the Palazzo Chigi (1780–86; in collaboration with ...


(b Bergamo, July 12, 1804; d Rome, April 20, 1875).

Italian painter and teacher. From about 1816 to 1820 he studied with the Lombard Neo-classical painter Giuseppe Diotti at the Accademia Carrara di Belle Arti in Bergamo, and in 1821 he went to Rome to study under Vincenzo Camuccini. Like his fellow pupils Francesco Podesti and Luigi Cochetti (1802–84), Coghetti combined a formal Neo-classical training with the influence of Tommaso Minardi and the Puristi. He acquired a studio in Rome in 1825, although he returned to Bergamo for his first commissions: Presentation of Christ at the Temple (1825; S Bartolomeo) and St Michael (1828; S Michele dell’Arco). These static compositions are relieved only by a bold use of colour (as also practised by Diotti). In Bergamo he also executed a grandiose portrait of Cardinal Nembrini (1831; Pal. Comunale). He became a member of the Accademia Nazionale di San Luca in Rome in 1834. Between 1837...


Gordon D. Balderston

(b Valenza, Piedmont, 1775; d Milan, Dec 26, 1830).

Italian sculptor. He studied under Giuseppe Franchi (1731–1801) at the Accademia di Brera, Milan, and in Rome c. 1795–8 (possibly under Canova). He visited Grenoble, Paris and London (1799–1801) and was Professor of Sculpture at the Ateneo (Imperial Academy of Arts) in Turin from 1802 to 1814. He worked in various media: plaster, marble and terracotta. His greatest patron was Francesco Melzi-d’Eril (1753–1816), Vice-President of the Italian Republic, who commissioned busts of himself (1803–4) and the poets Giambattista Casti (1804) and Vittorio Alfieri (1806; all at Bellagio, Villa Melzi-d’Eril). During his sojourn in Carrara (1807–10), Princess Elisa Baciocchi ordered busts of herself (untraced), Napoleon (1809; Milan, Mus. Civ. Milano) and Prince Eugène de Beauharnais (1809; Malmaison, Château). Comolli’s monument of Peace, a seated allegorical figure, which was commissioned for Milan in 1810, was completed in ...


(b Paris, Jan 5, 1801; d Paris, July 29, 1871).

French architect and teacher. He studied architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and won the Prix de Rome in 1829. His student work at the Villa Medici in Rome reflected the controversial principles of romantic rationalism being developed at that time by his contemporaries there, Henri Labrouste (see Labrouste family, §2) and Félix-Jacques Duban. Constant-Dufeux’s 5th-year envoi from Rome, a Chambre des Députés, was criticized by the Académie because it lacked references to the Classical models he had been sent to Rome to study. It incorporated simple box forms decorated with brightly coloured emblems and other elements, similar to Labrouste’s Basilica project of 1828 and reflecting the controversy over the use of colour in ancient Greek architecture (see Greek Revival).

In 1836 Constant-Dufeux returned to Paris and established an atelier that attracted some outstanding students, including Victor-Marie-Charles Ruprich-Robert. It later became one of the three ‘official’ ateliers nominated in ...


Term used to describe the continuation in the decorative arts of the Neo-classical style (see Neo-classicism) in France between 1800 and 1805 under Napoleon Bonaparte (First Consul; 1799–1804). His Consulate was an era of renewal in the furniture, porcelain and metalwork industries in France (see France, Republic of, §VI, 4), greatly encouraged by the patronage of Napoleon, who sought a model for his position in the magnificence of ancient Rome. While little actual building took place, the period was important for such changes in interior decoration as the lavish use of draperies—begun during the 1790s—that established the Consulate and the Empire styles (for illustration see Empire style); although these terms were invented by later art historians to denote the change in political systems, in fact the styles to which they refer are virtually indistinguishable. Furniture was similar to that of the preceding Directoire style...


(b Vicenza, ?Sept 18, 1730; d Vicenza, Oct 26, 1803).

Italian architect and writer. He was a pupil of Domenico Cerato, developing an extremely conservative trend of Neo-classicism based on Palladio but assimilating contemporary ideas of prismatic form and functional planning; he was heavily influenced by the contemporary publication of Ottavio Bertotti Scamozzi’s Le fabbriche e i disegni di Andrea Palladio raccolti e illustrati (1776–83). Bertotti Scamozzi regarded him as having ‘appropriated’ rather then ‘imitated’ Palladio; Antoine Quatremère de Quincy called him a ‘rejuvenated Palladio’. He was a prolific architect, building numerous palazzi, villas and churches in the Veneto, and was elected a member of the Institut de France.

Calderari’s unexecuted design (1756) for the façade of the church of Padri Scalzi, Vicenza, exemplifies his manner. The composition followed closely that by Palladio for S Giorgio Maggiore (begun 1566), Venice, but the flat planes and the decoration of the frieze were resolutely Neo-classical. The chapels of the Casa Monza (...