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Anna Rowland

(b Basle, Nov 18, 1889; d Savosa, Ticino, July 19, 1954).

Swiss architect, theorist and designer. He was born into a family of architects and studied building at the Gewerbeschule, Basle (1905–9). In Berlin he continued his training at the Kunstgewerbeschule and attended classes in urban planning at the Landwirtschafts-Akademie (1909–12). He became increasingly concerned about housing conditions in the modern industrial city and developed a strong interest in urban planning and land reform. In 1912 he went to England where he studied the Co-operative movement and the garden cities of Letchworth, Bourneville and Port Sunlight for a year. After two years’ military service in Switzerland (1914–16), he worked for Krupps Housing Welfare Office and became increasingly interested in using standardized components in the construction of housing estates. In 1919 he set up his own practice in Basle, where he designed and supervised the foundation of the Siedlung Freidorf (Freihof) (1919–24) at Muttenz, near Basle, the first full-scale cooperative housing estate in Switzerland. The client (Verband Schweizerische Konsumvereine) rejected the Constructivist approach that Meyer favoured, so he developed a style based on local Jura building types. In ...


Gary Schwartz


(b Paris, Oct 3, 1928; d Branford, CT, July 26, 2005).

French art historian and economist, active in the USA. Montias was a specialist in Eastern European command economies who in mid-career changed fields and became a historian of Dutch painting. His interest in the subject was threefold. Before he began writing on Dutch art, he collected it, with the advice of a leading specialist in the field, Egbert Haverkamp-Begemann, a fellow professor at Yale University. This led him to pursue knowledge concerning the minor masters he could afford, which brought him closer to the basics of the Dutch art world. It was an approach diametrically opposed to how most students learn about this material, which is from the iconic masterworks down. His second focus of interest was economic. Three-quarters of a century after the appearance of the last, largely anecdotal survey of the economics of Dutch art, by Hanns Floerke, Montias applied the techniques of neo-classical economics to the field in a way that was accessible to art historians. Entirely on his own, he opened up new perspectives that inspired art historians, economists, and economic historians alike to revisit the subject of Dutch art. Thirdly, Montias was entranced by the ...


Jiří Bureš

(b Prague, June 26, 1900; d Prague, Nov 1, 1974).

Czech painter, draughtsman, typographer, stage designer, writer and teacher. He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Prague from 1919 to 1924, under Jakub Obrovský (1882–1949), Karel Krattner (1862–1926) and, later on, Jan Štursa. In 1921 he became a member of the important group of avant-garde artists Devětsil, and in 1922 he participated in their Spring exhibition with a group of 12 paintings. In 1923 he also joined the Mánes Union of Artists. After graduating from the Academy he spent a year at the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He attended lectures by František Kupka and was in contact with Josef Šíma and Jan Zrzavý. In 1927 he started working with the Prague publishing house Aventinum as a book designer, typographer, caricaturist and art critic. At the same time he began to work for the theatre, and from 1927 to 1947 he created 107 stage designs. He took part in the international ...


Peg Weiss

(b Kilchberg, Switzerland, May 23, 1862; d Munich, Feb 26, 1927).

Swiss artist, craftsman and teacher. After studying science and medicine at the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg (1885–7), he travelled in England and Scotland in 1887. There the Arts and Crafts Movement influenced his decision to turn his attentions to the applied arts. Following brief studies at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Karlsruhe and an apprenticeship as a potter, his ceramics and furniture won gold medals at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1889. In 1890 he studied at the Académie Julian in Paris, before visiting Berlin and Florence, where he experimented in marble sculpture and established an embroidery studio in which his own designs could be carried out; he moved his studio to Munich in 1894.

In April 1896 an exhibition in Munich at the Galerie Littauer of 35 embroideries designed by Obrist and executed by Berthe Ruchet attracted considerable critical acclaim, with commentators referring to the birth of a new applied art. To further his artistic ideals Obrist founded the ...


Germán Ramello Asensio

[Juan Domingo]

(b Carrara, Feb 12, 1708; d Madrid, March 15, 1762).

Italian sculptor, active in Spain. He studied with the Genoese Francisco Maria Schiaffino and showed an early talent for sculpture. Entering the service of the King of Sardinia in Turin, he worked at the Royal Palace there and carried out various works that are documented but untraced. In 1739 he went to Madrid through the intermediary of the Marqués de Villarías. There in 1740 he was appointed sculptor to Philip V (primer escultor del rey); his studio in the Arco de Palacio, where he established a school of drawing, became a centre of instruction for young Spanish sculptors. It is probable that it also contributed to the idea of creating the formal Academia de Bellas Artes, a plan that had been promoted by Juan de Villanueva in 1709 and by Francisco Antonio Meléndez in 1726. With the support of the Marqués de Villarías and other members of the nobility, the plan was approved by Philip V in ...


John Rothenstein

(Newenham Montague)

(b Oriel, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Nov 27, 1878; d London, Sept 29, 1931).

Irish painter. He attended the Metropolitan School of Art, Dublin (1891–7), and the Slade School of Art, London (1897–9), there winning the composition prize of 1899 with The Play Scene from Hamlet (Houghton Hall, Norfolk). He became a friend of Augustus John and joined the New English Art Club. From very early years he had been an impassioned student of the Old Masters, and he went to Paris with John in 1899 to see Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa (Paris, Louvre). In the following years his perception of their works—in particular those of Rembrandt, Goya, Velázquez, Chardin, Hogarth and Watteau—became sophisticated. Orpen learnt much from the Old Masters without losing the personal character of his own work. The influence of Velázquez, in particular, is apparent in such early genre subjects as The Mirror (1900; London, Tate). His bravura portrait style was probably also indebted to Manet: his ...


(b Doetinchem, bapt Nov 16, 1738; d Osterholt, nr Kampen, bur Jan 11, 1796).

Dutch architect, teacher, stuccoist and sculptor. He moved to Amsterdam at a young age, possibly with the help of his uncles Hans Jacob Husly and Hendrik Husly (both fl c. 1730–70), who were stuccoists in that city, and he probably trained as a stuccoist in their studio. In 1758 he co-founded an art appreciation society and in 1765 the Amsterdam Academy of Drawing, which, in the absence of an academy of fine art in the city, played an important educational role during the Neo-classical period. He was a director of the academy, where he presented lectures, for example on the use of architecture in painting, which were later printed. He also taught architecture and organized the library. He probably travelled to Paris in 1768, where he is thought to have familiarized himself with contemporary French ideas on architecture. One of his earliest works is the Town Hall (1772...


Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. Wiesbaden, 1908; d. Heidelberg, 4 April, 1999).

Art historian of Viennese birth. She studied at Vienna University with Josef Strzygoswki, submitting her thesis on Sasanian silver in 1933. The following year she volunteered at the Islamic department of the State Museum in Berlin under Ernst Kühnel, who had succeeded Friedrich Sarre as director three years earlier. In the spring of 1935 Otto-Dorn went to Turkey, working with the German Archaeological Institute on the ceramics of Iznik and excavating at Kahta in southeast Anatolia. World War II forced her to return to Europe, and in 1948 she began teaching at Heidelberg University, while also excavating at Rusafa in northeastern Syria and then at Kubadabad on Lake Beyşehir. In 1954 she returned to Turkey, where she established the chair of Islamic art and archaeology at Ankara and trained many Turkish students. In 1964 she returned to Heidelberg, but unable to find a position in Germany, she took up the position of professor of Islamic Art at the University of California at Los Angeles, where she taught from ...


Stephen Bann

(b Chelsham, Surrey, Dec 3, 1908; d Gudja, Malta, Jan 23, 1998).

English painter and printmaker. He developed an interest in painting as a schoolboy at Harrow, but the early death of his father prevented him from carrying on his studies at this stage. From 1927 to 1937 he worked as a clerk at the Head Office of the London County Council, painting in his spare time and paying frequent visits to the Tate Gallery and the National Gallery; he became a member of the London Artists’ Association in 1932 and of the London Group in 1934. His early paintings, such as The Window (1933; London, Dept Environment), were reminiscent of Matisse and the Fauvists in their free handling and their subject-matter of still-life and views through open windows, though he also took part in the Objective Abstractions exhibition (1934; London, Zwemmer Gal.), at which Geoffrey Tibble (1909–52), Rodrigo Moynihan, Graham Bell and others displayed fully abstract work. Pasmore himself made a number of abstract pictures shortly after this exhibition but later decided to destroy them....


Linda Wylleman

(b Ghent, Feb 29, 1820; d Cologne, March 19, 1895).

Belgian architect and teacher. He studied architecture and engineering at Ghent University, graduating in 1841, and completed his studies in Munich and in Italy. He worked mainly in Ghent, where he was town architect (1856–67), an early work being the pavilions (1851; destr. 1904) for the zoological gardens, designed in a style that combined Romanesque Revival with picturesque cottage characteristics. Other works in the Romanesque Revival style, designed by Pauli before 1865, include two large welfare institutions, the Dr Jozef Guislain psychiatric institute (1853–76) at Jozef Guislainstraat 43 and the Lousberg home for retired workmen (1862–5) at Lousbergkaai 89, as well as many schools (1858–66). His extension (1864–84) of the Bijlokehospital was in the Gothic Revival style in order to match the existing buildings. From 1865 he favoured the Renaissance Revival style, evident, for example, in the orphanage for boys (...


Michael Spens

(b Vienna, March 18, 1928).

Austrian architect, writer, teacher and draughtsman. He studied (1949–53) under Clemens Holzmeister at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna. After establishing his own practice in Vienna in 1953, he designed buildings in a pure form inherited from the Modernism of the 1930s. The Krim Elementary School (1961) in Vienna was followed by school buildings (1963–5), including dormitories, a refectory and gymnasium, for the Dominican convent, Vienna, where facilities for varied activities are integrated harmoniously in one complex. In the late 1960s Peichl’s work became more expressive, while still maintaining absolutely rational planning principles. The Rehabilitationszentrum (1965–7) in Meidling, Vienna, demonstrated a growing interest in the expression of service functions at roof-level, whereby the building’s inherent characteristics are made more explicit to the onlooker. This tendency became more recognizable in the series of radio stations he designed for the ORF network across Austria from ...


Bernard Aikema


(b Venice, April 29, 1675; d Venice, Nov 5, 1741).

Italian painter. With Sebastiano Ricci and Jacopo Amigoni he was the most important Venetian history painter of the early 18th century. By uniting the High Renaissance style of Paolo Veronese with the Baroque of Pietro da Cortona and Luca Giordano, he created graceful decorations that were particularly successful with the aristocracy of central and northern Europe. He travelled widely, working in Austria, England, the Netherlands, Germany and France.

His father, a glover, came from Padua. At an early age Pellegrini was apprenticed to the Milanese Paolo Pagani (1661–1716), with whom he travelled to Moravia and Vienna in 1690. In 1696 Pellegrini was back in Venice, where he painted his first surviving work, a fresco cycle in the Palazzetto Corner on Murano, with scenes from the life of Alexander the Great and allegorical themes on the ceiling. Here his figure style is clearly derived from Pagani, but the effects of light and the free handling suggest the art of Giordano or even Cortona, whose work Pellegrini could not then have known. By contrast, brushwork in a series of paintings of the ...


David Rodgers

(b Knutsford, Ches, Aug 1, 1714; d Chiswick, London, Nov 15, 1791).

English painter. He was one of the twin sons of Robert Penny, a surgeon, and was trained in London by the eminent portrait painter Thomas Hudson. In the early 1740s he travelled to Rome, where he worked in the studio of the Neo-classical decorative painter Marco Benefial. On returning to England in 1743 he first practised in Cheshire as a portrait painter; his somewhat stiff and formal manner was reminiscent of Hudson’s. He signed these early works Pennee, a practice he abandoned when he went to London. His arrival there is unrecorded, but by 1748 he had established a sufficient reputation to be described as an eminent painter by the Universal Magazine. He specialized in small full-length portraits, the best of which, such as Capt. Philip Affleck (London, N. Mar. Mus.), have considerable charm and elegance.

In 1762 Penny exhibited at the recently founded Society of Artists, becoming Vice-president in ...


Yuka Kadoi

(b. London, 17 Jan. 1919).

British art historian and archaeologist. After serving in the Indian Army, Pinder-Wilson read Persian and Arabic at Oxford, taking an MA in 1947. He joined the Oriental Department of the British Museum as Assistant Keeper in 1949 and was appointed Deputy Keeper in 1969. In 1976 he was appointed Director of the British Institute of Afghan Studies in Kabul. There he supervised preservation work, excavations and fieldwork and made major contributions to the field of Afghan studies. He participated in archaeological excavations at Harran and Siraf and was also an active member of the British Institute of Persian Studies for many years. After the British Institute in Kabul was closed in 1982 following the Soviet invasion, he returned to London and became involved in several research projects as a consultant. His expertise covers Islamic decorative arts from Persian painting to Islamic glass and rock crystal.

R. Pinder-Wilson: Persian Painting of the Fifteenth Century...


Michael Spens

(b Berlin, April 30, 1869; d Berlin, June 14, 1936).

German architect, designer and teacher. He was the father-figure of the Expressionist group of the Deutscher Werkbund, his vision and practical genius representing a link between the English Arts and Crafts Movement and later stages of Jugendstil and the fervour of the emerging Modern Movement after World War I. Poelzig studied architecture (1889–94) at the Technische Hochschule, Berlin, under Carl Schäfer, a neo-Gothicist. After military service and a period in the Prussian Office of Works, he left Berlin in 1900 to take a teaching post in the Königliche Kunst- und Kunstgewerbeschule, Breslau (now Wrocław), becoming its director from 1903 to 1916. There he introduced workshop-based courses that influenced the later teaching policy of Walter Gropius at the Bauhaus. Poelzig’s early buildings included two houses, one at an exhibition of applied art (1904) in Breslau and his own house (1906) at Leerbeutel, near Breslau. Both are examples of the influence in Germany at that time of English Arts and Crafts houses. Rough-cast rendering divided into rectilinear panels by smooth bands characterized his own house and also appeared in his evangelical church (...


Christina Lodder


(b Ivanovskoye, nr Moscow, April 24, 1889; d Moscow, May 25, 1924).

Russian painter and designer. She was born into a wealthy family and trained as a teacher before beginning her artistic studies with Stanislav Zhukovsky (1873–1944) and Konstantin Yuon. Their influence, particularly through their interest in luminous tonalities reminiscent of Impressionism, can be seen in early works by Popova such as Still-life with Basket of Fruit (1907–8; Athens, George Costakis Col.; see Rudenstine, pl. 725). Popova travelled extensively: in Kiev (1909) she was very impressed by the religious works of Mikhail Vrubel’; in Italy (1910) she admired Renaissance art, especially the paintings of Giotto. Between 1910 and 1911 she toured many parts of Russia, including Suzdal’, Novgorod, Yaroslavl’ and Pskov. Inspired by Russian architecture, frescoes and icons, she developed a less naturalistic approach. A more crucial influence was the first-hand knowledge of Cubism that she gained in Paris, which she visited with Nadezhda Udal’tsova during the winter of ...


(b Vilvoorde, nr Brussels, May 1, 1818; d Brussels, Feb 8, 1895).

Belgian painter. He studied from 1836 to 1840 at the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Brussels under François-Joseph Navez, whose daughter he later married. He worked under Paul Delaroche in Paris, winning the Prix de Rome in 1842. After this Portaels travelled to Italy with the painter Alexandre Robert (1817–90) and then to Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Judea, Spain, Hungary and Norway. His experiences in North Africa resulted in a number of works in an oriental style, innovative at the time in Belgium, such as The Simoom (1847; Brussels, Mus. A. Anc.). On his return to Belgium, Portaels was appointed Director of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Ghent in 1847, a post he held until 1850. He received a state commission to paint a fresco for the exterior of the church of St Jacques sur Coudenberg in Brussels, and this he executed in the early 1850s. He ran a studio in Brussels from ...


Sonja Weih-Krüger


German family of painters and engravers, of Bohemian origin, also active in Denmark. Daniel Preissler (b Prague, 8 March 1627; d Nuremberg, 19 June 1665), a pupil in Dresden of Christian Schiebling (1603–63), lived from 1652 in Nuremberg, becoming a master in 1654 and being nominated to the city’s Greater Council in 1662. He painted altarpieces and numerous portraits, including a Self-portrait of the Artist with his Family (1665; Nuremberg, Ger. Nmus.)

Daniel’s son, Johann Daniel Preissler (b Nuremberg, 17 January 1666; d Nuremberg, 13 October 1737), was born after the death of his father; ten years later his mother married her husband’s pupil, Heinrich Popp (1637–82), who became Johann Daniel’s first teacher. On Popp’s death in 1682 Johann Daniel was apprenticed to the painter Johann Murrer (1644–1713). He spent the period 1688–96 in Venice and Rome, returning in ...


Simon Lee

Term applied to the premier student prize awarded by the successive state-sponsored academies in Paris. The successful painter, sculptor or architect was able to study at the Académie de France in Rome for three to five years. The Prix de Rome originated in two competitions for drawing held in 1663 at the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture to stimulate rivalry between pupils and thereby invigorate the Académie’s ailing teaching system. In 1664 Jean-Baptiste Colbert (see Colbert family §(1)) overhauled the Académie’s statutes. Article XXIV stipulated that an annual prize was to be awarded for representations of ‘the heroic actions of the King’: the initial ‘Prix Royal’ was won by Pierre Mosnier with Jason Capturing the Golden Fleece (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.), in which Louis XIV is shown as Jason.

There was no connection between the prize and the city of Rome until 1666, when the ‘Académie de France à Rome’ was established so that students might study approved examples of Classical and Renaissance art and produce high-quality copies of paintings and sculpture to be sent back to France to decorate the royal palaces (...


Mikhail Guerman

[from Rus. Proletarskaya kul’tura: ‘proletarian culture’]

Russian mass cultural and educational organization dealing with amateur activity in various forms of art and study for the proletariat. It was founded in Petrograd (now St Petersburg) in September 1917. By the early 1920s it had around 150 sections, with up to 400,000 members, and it published over 20 magazines. The theorists behind Proletkul’t included Aleksandr Bogdanov, Pavel Lebedev-Polyansky (1881/2–1948) and V. F. Pletnyov, who affirmed the dominant role and separate nature of ‘proletarian culture’ and rejected cultural heritage. Members of Proletkul’t incorporated in their work a complex of sociological dogma mixed with fanatical political ideas and often with downright demagogy. The Bolshevik government subjected Proletkul’t to severe criticism both for its aggressively limited approach and for its ideological dissension from party policy. From the end of 1920 Proletkul’t was mainly occupied with study and teaching programmes, bringing in well-known artists such as Pavel Kuznetsov and Sergey Konyonkov to teach in its studios. With time, the organization’s efforts in the sphere of fine art tended more towards design. By the second half of the 1920s Proletkul’t had lost its mass character, and in ...