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Philippe Rouillard and Claude Schaefer

French family of artists. They worked principally in the region of Bourges and Tours. (1) Michel Colombe and (2) Jean Colombe were the sons of Philippe Colombe (d 1457), a sculptor in Bourges. Michel Colombe was the most celebrated sculptor of his period in France, while the workshop established by Jean Colombe was one of the most widely patronized in France, producing some 70 known manuscripts between 1465 and 1512. It was continued by Jean’s son Philibert Colombe (d 1505) and by his grandson (3) François Colombe, whose death in 1512 seems to have brought the workshop’s activity to an end.

Philippe Rouillard

(b ?Bourges, c. 1430; d Tours, ?1514).

Sculptor. He may have trained with his father. In 1462 he was in the service of Jean de Bar (fl from 1420; d 1470), the royal Chamberlain, who commissioned from him statues (unexecuted) of ...


(b Arras; fl c. 1595; d c. before 1660).

English sculptor of French birth. He was probably a Huguenot refugee. He came to England via Utrecht and settled in London c. 1595, close to where his brother John (d 1637), who was also a sculptor, was already living. He assumed the English surname Colt, a literal translation of his own French name, and in 1607 he became an English citizen.

In 1604 he married a niece of the King’s Deputy Serjeant Painter John de Critz (?1552/3–1642), an association that brought him into a tightly knit group of Anglo-Netherlandish artists living in London and which may have helped to secure his first important commission, the tomb of Elizabeth I (1605–7; London, Westminster Abbey). This work followed medieval tradition in type, the recumbent effigy being placed under an arched canopy; while it conforms to the style of the Elizabethan Southwark school, the Queen’s face is remarkably naturalistic and unflattering for its date. Colt also made the tombs of the daughters of ...


S. Pressouyre

[Niccolò da Lorena; il Franciosino]

(b Saint-Mihiel, Meuse, c. 1567; d Rome, Nov 24, 1612).

French sculptor and ?painter, active also in Italy. He trained at Saint-Mihiel in the workshop of the Richier family, where he learnt the late Mannerist style current in Lorraine and much of northern Europe at the end of the 16th century. By c. 1590 he was working for Duke Charles III of Lorraine at Nancy, where he executed sculpture in wood (untraced). Late in 1592, at the expense of Charles III, he left for Rome, where he remained for the rest of his life.

Baglione reported that Cordier worked in wood in Rome, but by 1600 he had acquired sufficient reputation as a sculptor in marble to take part in Clement VIII’s decoration of the interior of S Giovanni in Laterano, for which he carved a marble high relief of an angel for the south transept. Stylistically it shares the traits of debased Mannerism common to many northern sculptors working in Rome. His first important works were a seated marble statue of ...


Hanno-Walter Kruft

(b before 1507; d Granada, before Jan 16, 1552).

Italian sculptor and mason, active also in Spain. His father was from Lake Lugano and da Corte probably received his training in the circle of Agostino Busti in Milan. It was no doubt here that he met Gian Giacomo della Porta, who was active in the Milan Cathedral stone masons’ lodge. In 1528–9 da Corte was in Genoa and Savona. His first known work, the inscribed plaque and surrounding sculptural decoration above the portal of the Palazzo Andrea Doria, Genoa, was executed in 1528. From 1532 da Corte collaborated with della Porta on numerous commissions, such as the marble decoration in the Sala Grande of the Palazzo Ducale in Genoa. In 1534 he contracted a formal partnership with della Porta and his son Guglielmo della Porta, which lasted until 1537. The two most important pieces from this workshop are in Genoa Cathedral: the baldacchino in the chapel of S Giovanni Battista, which was commissioned by ...


Kathryn A. Charles

[Silvio da Fiesole; Silvio di fu Giovanni di Neri de’ Ceparelli]

(b Poggibonsi, c. 1495; d Milan, after 1547).

Italian sculptor and stuccoist. Noted for his decorative work, trophies, masks and stucco ornaments, he was trained in the style of Michelangelo by Andrea Ferrucci in Florence. His first independent commission, the tomb of Raffaelle Maffei (il Volterrano) in S Lino at Volterra (1522), was arranged by Ferrucci. He usually worked with other artists, including his brother Vincenzo (b c. 1505). In 1524 Ferrucci was commissioned to execute the monument to Antonio Strozzi in S Maria Novella, Florence, for which Cosini carved a relief of the Virgin and Child. His execution of the face recalls Ferrucci’s technique, derived from Leonardo da Vinci. Also in this period Cosini executed the monument to Ruggero Minerbetti for the same church, in which Michelangelo’s influence is especially apparent. Cosini’s approach was elegant as well as humorous, and his skill as a carver enabled him to give marble a tender, flesh-like quality. His ability was recognized by ...


Kim W. Woods

(fl c. 1513).

Netherlandish sculptor or dealer. His name appears in the records of the Abbey of Averbode in connection with the acquisition of three carved and polychromed wooden altarpieces for the abbey church in 1513 and 1514. He is not referred to specifically as a painter or carver in the Averbode accounts, and it is possible that he acted in the capacity of dealer in altarpieces to be sold on the open market.

The third altarpiece mentioned in the Averbode records has been tentatively identified with a small Lamentation altarpiece (1.61×1.70 m; Antwerp, Mus. Vleeshuis) that is stamped with the Antwerp carvers’ mark of quality and bears the arms and device of Gerard van der Scaeft, abbot of Averbode in the early 16th century; it also has a painted figure of a donor, identified in an inscription as Nicolaas Huybs, the porter of the abbey. The painted wings and the costumes of the carved figures show the impact of ...


Henri Zerner

French family of painters, draughtsmen and designers. From the 17th century, when André Félibien (in his Entretiens) wrote the first important critical appraisal of Jean Cousin, until the 20th century, historians had fused two artists, father and son, into one personality that had become almost entirely mythical, with a career that spanned virtually the entire 16th century. The archival researches of Roy demonstrated that there had been an elder Jean Cousin, born probably no earlier than 1490 and surely not much after 1505, who died in 1560 or possibly 1561, and a younger Jean Cousin, his son, also an artist, who was a student at the University of Paris in 1542 and died around 1595. A seemingly unrelated sculptor of the same name was active in Paris in the 1540s but was dead by 1549. No work by him has been identified, but he was commissioned in 1541 to execute six statues for the cloisters of the convent of the Célestins in Paris. Although few paintings can be securely attributed to (1) Jean Cousin (i), he was a major figure in the classicizing trend of French art in the 1540s and 1550s. (2) Jean Cousin (ii) is a more shadowy figure, who carried on his father’s workshop and style into the second half of the 16th century....


Fernando Marías

(b Torrijos, Toledo, 1488; d Toledo, May 11, 1570).

Spanish architect and sculptor. Recognized as an innovator by his contemporaries, he was one of the most important members of the first generation of Spanish Renaissance architects, who proved able to develop from the Gothic and plateresque styles prevalent in the first decades of the 16th century to the purest unornamented style ultimately inspired by Sebastiano Serlio. His artistic evolution was not the result of a direct knowledge of Italian art but was acquired from the treatise literature and from the suggestions of other Spanish architects who, unlike him, had travelled to Italy.

He probably trained in Torrijos with Antón Egas, to whose niece he was married; he was first documented with Egas in Salamanca in 1510. Later, as a master mason, Covarrubias attended, as did Egas, the Expertise in Salamanca (1512) to plan the new cathedral. He collaborated on the execution of tombs for Toledo Cathedral and for the church of S Andrés, Toledo (...



Andrea S. Norris

(b Rome, c. 1465; d Loreto, May 31, 1512).

Italian sculptor and medallist. He was the son of Isaia da Pisa. Some scholars have followed Vasari in suggesting that he was trained by his father or by Paolo Romano, but Isaia stopped work and Paolo died too early to have had any significant influence on him. It is likely that he studied with Andrea Bregno, who worked in Rome from 1446 to 1506. He may have been in Urbino before 1482, working at the Palazzo Ducale with the Lombard master Ambrogio d’Antonio Barocci. Several doorframes in the palazzo have been attributed to him. He then probably went to the Este court at Ferrara. In 1490 he carved a portrait bust of Beatrice d’Este (Paris, Louvre), the daughter of Ercole I d’Este, Duke of Ferrara, for her betrothal to Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan. The attribution of this bust derives from a letter of 12 June 1491 from Isabella d’Este, requesting that Ludovico send Gian Cristoforo, who had done Beatrice’s portrait, to Mantua to work for her. The bust is inscribed with the imprese of a sieve surrounded by a diamond ring. The sieve was a symbol of Ludovico, the diamond of Ercole; entwined they suggest marriage and the hope of fertility. This bust is the sculpture most securely attributed to Gian Cristoforo and, with his medals, provides the basis for the assessment of his style....


Caroline Elam

[Bartolommeo d’Agnolo di Donato Baglione]

(b Florence, May 19, 1462; d Florence, May 6, 1543).

Italian wood-carver and architect. He was the son of a hosier turned woodworker, and he trained as a wood-carver, becoming the foremost Florentine craftsman of his day for picture frames, intarsia inlay, ceilings and all manner of wooden ornament. In his architectural work he helped import the forms of Bramante and Raphael from Rome to Florence.

Baccio’s first important work in wood was the panelling (c. 1485–90) for the high altar chapel of S Maria Novella, and between 1490 and 1530 he produced frames for many painted altarpieces in Florence, collaborating with such artists as Filippino Lippi, Perugino, Domenico Puligo, Andrea del Sarto and Pontormo. He seems subsequently to have acted as an entrepreneur, negotiating commissions for painters and designing elaborate settings for their work, including the celebrated bedroom (from 1515) of Pierfrancesco Borgherini in the Palazzo Borgherini (now Roselli del Turco), Florence, with its paintings by ...


(fl c. 1496–c. 1543).

Italian sculptor. His father, Domenico Calzetta, was probably a sculptor, and he may have been related to the two painters of the same name working in the circle of Mantegna in Padua: Pietro Calzetta (c. 1455–?86) and Francesco Calzetta (fl 1492–1500). Severo appears to have divided his time between Padua, Ferrara and Ravenna, where he was first recorded in 1496. From 1511, when he made statues for the visit to Ravenna of Pope Julius II, he appears to have remained in that city; the last notice of him there is in 1525. Severo’s only securely documented work is the signed, ascetic marble figure of St John the Baptist, commissioned in 1500 for the entrance to the chapel of S Antonio in Il Santo, Padua (in situ). In his treatise De sculptura (1504), the Neapolitan art theorist Pomponius Gauricus singled out Severo for special mention at the end of his section on bronze sculpture, suggesting that by that date he was an established bronze sculptor, although no specific work is mentioned....


Thomas Martin

(b Canapale, nr Pistoia, 1474; d Vallombrosa, nr Florence, c. 1554).

Italian sculptor, active also in England. The son of Bartolommeo de’ Grazzini, Benedetto took his name from the town outside Florence where he owned a farm. His earliest known works are a marble singing-gallery of 1499 (Genoa, S Stefano) and the figures of Louis, Duke of Orléans, and his wife Valentina Visconti (1502; marble; Paris, St Denis), for the tomb of the Dukes of Orléans, which was commissioned from four artists by Louis XII. In 1505 Benedetto went to Florence and began his most ambitious work, the marble sepulchre of St Giovanni Gualberto for Santa Trìnita. Substantially completed by 1515, the monument was wrecked during the Siege of Florence in 1530; several surviving reliefs (Florence, S Salvi) demonstrate Benedetto’s rather hard, linear figural style. In 1508 he completed (‘rinettato’) Michelangelo’s bronze David (untraced). The tomb of Piero Soderini (marble; Florence, S Maria del Carmine; damaged and rebuilt in the 18th century) was finished by ...


[il giovane]

(b Treviso, c. 1498; d Boulogne-sur-Mer, 1544).

Italian painter, draughtsman, sculptor and military engineer. He is first documented in 1523 in Bologna but had probably arrived there c. 1520. Between 1515 and 1520 he produced an engraving (initialled) of Susanna and the Elders and a series of drawings that were engraved by Francesco de Nanto, depicting scenes from the Life of Christ. A series of paintings, some of them initialled, were attributed to him by Coletti and this attribution is now generally accepted. The group includes two small canvases (transferred from panels that were initialled hirtv) representing Isaac Blessing Jacob and Hagar and the Angel (both Rouen, Mus. B.-A.), the monogrammed Sleeping Venus (c. 1520–29; Rome, Gal. Borghese), which contains an echo of Marcantonio Raimondi’s so-called Dream of Raphael (b. 274, 359), the initialled Female Nude (Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.), derived from a drawing by Raphael (London, BM) that was engraved by Raimondi (b...


Paul Barolsky

[Ricciarelli, Daniele]

(b Volterra, 1509; d Rome, April 4, 1566).

Italian painter, stuccoist and sculptor. Much of the fascination of his career resides in the development of his style from provincial origins to a highly sophisticated manner, combining the most accomplished elements of the art of Michelangelo, Raphael and their Mannerist followers in a distinctive and highly original way. He provided an influential model for numerous later artists in Rome.

The only work to survive from Daniele’s early career is a fresco, a political allegory of Justice, painted shortly after 1530 for the Palazzo dei Priori in Volterra (now detached, Volterra, Pin. Com.). It reflects the pervasive influence of Sodoma, with whom he is presumed to have studied in Siena. Badly damaged and overpainted, it is a generally clumsy work, demonstrating an inadequate grasp of foreshortening; it exhibits the difficultà of manner noted by Vasari.

It is not known exactly when Daniele travelled to Rome, but it is now generally assumed that his initial work there on the ...


Kruno Prijatelj

[Giovanni di Traù; Ioannes Stephani Duknovich de Tragurio; Ivan Duknović]

(b in or nr Traù, Dalmatia [now Trogir, Croatia], c. 1440; d after 1509).

Dalmatian sculptor, active in Italy and Hungary. He probably trained as a mason in a local workshop near Trogir. He moved to Rome in the 1460s, by which time his style was fully developed. Initially he may have worked with Paolo Romano. His earliest works include the side portal of the Palazzo Venezia, Rome, built for Cardinal Pietro Barbo (later Pope Paul II), and the lunette and other sculptures on the façade of the tempietto at Vicovaro. In 1469 he carved the Annunciation and statues of St John the Baptist and St John the Evangelist on the altar of the Madonna della Palla in S Giovanni at Norcia (Umbria).

In Rome Giovanni collaborated on many works with two of the foremost sculptors of the day: Andrea Bregno and Mino da Fiesole. His style, however, preserved its individuality, and he apparently did not attempt to match his work to that of his collaborators. With Bregno he worked on the tomb of ...


Mark Jones

French family of medallists. Philippe Danfrie the elder (b 1531–5; d Paris, 1606) went to Paris in the 1550s and set up as an engraver of letter punches. He produced a number of books in partnership with Richard Breton in 1558–60 and later with Pierre Haman and Jean Le Royer. He also made mathematical instruments, globes and astrolabes and dies for marking bookbindings. In 1571 he cut his first dies for jettons. As Engraver-General of the French coinage from 1582, he provided the puncheons from which the dies used in every mint in France were taken. He also produced a number of medals (e.g. London, BM) commemorating the events of the first 15 years of Henry IV’s reign. His son Philippe Danfrie the younger (b ?Paris, c. 1572; d Paris, 1604) was appointed Controller-General of effigies in 1591. On his appointment it was claimed that he had demonstrated great skill in modelling portraits in wax and engraving puncheons. His most famous and only signed medal (e.g. London, BM) is cast rather than struck and celebrates the victory of Henry IV over the Duke of Savoy in ...


Silvia Glaser and Werner Wilhelm Schnabel



Philippe Rouillard

(fl 1508–9).

Italian marble mason and sculptor, active in France. He was of Genoese origin and was one of a group of Italian artists responsible for the introduction of the repertory of Renaissance ornament into France. His name is principally associated with the famous monumental marble fountain that stood in the courtyard of the château of Gaillon, château of, Eure, a present from the Republic of Venice to Cardinal Georges d’Amboise. Bertrand accompanied the fountain (the work of Pace Gaggini and Antonio della Porta) from Genoa to Gaillon at the beginning of 1508. He took part in its installation and is generally thought to have completed its decoration by carving the panels of the octagonal basin on site. This basin (La Rochefoucauld, Château) is the only surviving part of this influential work, which was dismantled in 1757.

Bertrand later collaborated with Jérôme Pacherot on the decoration of the chapel at Gaillon, carving marble soffits and pilasters with grotesque ornament and also working on the carved marble frame in the antique manner for ...


Salvador Andrés Ordax

[Andrés de San Juan]

(b ?Nájera, Rioja; fl 1504–33).

Spanish woodcarver. In 1504 he was described by Simón de Colonia as ‘a clever and expert man in the said crafts of carving and figure-making’. It is possible that he received his early training in Italy. He was much admired by his contemporaries, including Alonso Berruguete, who in 1532 regretted that he did not know him personally.

Nájera’s output is not easily identified because he always worked in collaboration, although he may be considered as one of those responsible for introducing Italian decorative ornament into the early Spanish Renaissance. His work is documented between 1504 and 1533 in Burgos, Santo Domingo de la Calzada, Valladolid, Burgo de Osma and Covarrubias. In 1505 he began work on the choir-stalls in Burgos Cathedral, in collaboration with Felipe Vigarny, where he was responsible for the most Italianate forms of decoration. Also in Burgos he collaborated with Nicolás Vergara (i) on a retable (untraced) for the Convent of S Dorotea. During the 1520s he lived in Covarrubias, but no work by him is known there. In ...