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G. Kreytenberg

(fl 1300–34).

Italian sculptor and goldsmith. He is documented in Siena, Massa Marittima, and Messina. He was the son of Goro di Guccio Ciuti (d before 1311), a Florentine sculptor who, with Lapo and Donato, assistants of Nicola Pisano, was granted citizenship in Siena in 1271. Goro di Guccio Ciuti’s sons Neri and Ambrogio, of whom nothing further is known, followed in their father’s footsteps, as did Goro.

Goro’s earliest works are probably the monumental busts on the interior of the north portal of the main façade of the cathedral in Siena, dating from around 1300. One of the two lions on the interior of the main portal also dates from around this time. Goro must have made the sculptural figures, chased in silver, on the shepherd’s staff in the Museo Capitolare in Città di Castello during the first decade of the 14th century. He probably made a statue of a ...


Jill E. Carrington

(b Padua; fl c. 1443–1501).

Italian sculptor, bronze-caster and wood-carver. A pupil and son-in-law of Niccolò Baroncelli, he followed his master from Padua to Ferrara. That he was called ‘Domenico del Cavallo’ in later documents attests to his considerable role in the making of the bronze equestrian monument to Niccolò III d’Este, Marchese of Ferrara (destr. 1796), which was begun by Baroncelli in 1443 and dedicated on 2 June 1451. After Baroncelli’s death (1453), Domenico was head of the workshop and was paid in 1454, 1456 and 1457 for the monument to Borso d’Este, Duke of Ferrara (destr. 1796), begun by Baroncelli in 1451. In 1466 he completed the life-size bronze statues of St George and St Maurelius begun by Baroncelli for the high altar of Ferrara Cathedral; he also executed two marble lions for the high altar (all in situ). On 3 April 1467 he undertook to execute reliefs to cover the ceilings of upper rooms in the ...


John T. Paoletti

(b Siena, bapt June 20, 1443; d Siena, before 1506).

Italian bronze-caster, sculptor and engineer. He was the son of the painter Sassetta. In 1466 he worked together with the goldsmith Francesco di Antonio di Francesco (fl 1440–80) on a silver reliquary for the head of St Catherine of Siena (untraced); by that date he was referred to as a sculptor. In 1477 Federigo II da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, wrote to the governors of Siena commending Giovanni’s work for him as a military engineer. In 1481–2 Giovanni made the marble intarsia of the Cumaean Sibyl for the pavement of Siena Cathedral. Giovanni’s only marble statue, the elegant if somewhat mannered St Ansanus, made for the chapel of St John the Baptist in the cathedral (in situ), must date from after the construction of the chapel in 1482. By the mid-1480s Giovanni had moved to Rome, where he worked on the tomb of Cardinal Pietro Foscari...


Claudia Maué

Austrian family of artists. (1) Georg Raphael Donner worked as a sculptor, architect, medallist and goldsmith, though he is best known for his lead sculptures. His brother (2) Matthäus Donner was also a successful sculptor and medallist.

(b Esslingen im Marchfeld [now in Vienna], bapt April 25, 1693; d Vienna, Feb 15, 1741).

Sculptor, architect, medallist and goldsmith. He was apprenticed to Johann Kaspar Prenner, the Court Jeweller, to the Venetian sculptor Giovanni Giuliani and probably also to Bengt Richter (1630–1735), the Court Medallist of Swedish origin. Before 1720 Donner travelled to Dresden to work with Balthasar Permoser and possibly also to Berlin, to study metal casting with Johann Jacobi (1661–1726). In 1724 he was appointed Court Sculptor of objets d’art, but nothing that he produced in this capacity has been preserved. His sole extant piece of work from that period is the signed ...


Antonio Manno


(b San Gimignano, 1533; d Naples, 1609).

Italian sculptor, architect, draughtsman, antiquarian, engineer and decorator. He began his career as a goldsmith and engraver. He arrived in Rome in 1548 and the next year entered the workshop of the sculptor and architect Raffaele da Montelupo, where he worked mostly on wall decorations for mausoleums. Around this time he carved a statue of Hope for the tomb of Giulio del Vecchio in SS Apostoli, Rome. Between 1552 and 1564 he was in close contact with Michelangelo, and he may have participated with Guglielmo della Porta in the reconstruction of S Silvestro al Quirinale, Rome. Della Porta and Dosio associated with the artistic circle around the Carafa family, for whom they may have planned a chapel. In 1561 Dosio was working as a sculptor and stuccoist for the patrician Torquato de’ Conti. Other sculptural work in Rome includes a funerary monument with posthumous portrait bust for the poet Annibal Caro...


Mark Jones

(b La Chaux-de-Fonds, Neuchâtel, April 17, 1746; d Paris, March 2, 1823).

Swiss medallist, active in France and England. He trained in France; in 1786 he struck a pattern écu of Louis XVI with an edge inscription produced by a new type of collar. This attracted the attention of Matthew Boulton, who persuaded Droz to visit England in 1787 and to work for him at the Soho Mint in 1788. There Droz effected mechanical improvements to Boulton’s coining machinery and cut dies for some patterns for the English coinage. After his return to France, Droz was appointed Keeper of the Mint Museum and in 1810 won a competition to provide designs for a new coinage. He contributed a large number of medals to the Napoleonic series produced under the direction of Dominique-Vivant Denon, and several to Mudie’s National Series, as well as medals celebrating General Elliot’s Defence of Gibraltar (1787) and King George III’s Restoration to Health (both London, BM)....


Bernadette Thomas

(b Aywaille, Sept 23, 1859; d Uccle, 1938).

Belgian sculptor and medallist. He was a pupil of J. B. Jacquet (1822–88) and Eugène Simonis at the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Brussels and in the studio of Charles Van der Stappen. In 1884 he won the Godecharle prize, using the money to visit the most important museums in Europe. He was an active participant with Les XX, exhibiting at all its salons from 1884 to 1893, and he joined its successor, La Libre Esthétique, in 1894. In 1900 he was appointed professor of sculpture at the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Mons and in 1902 at the Académie Royale in Brussels.

Dubois’s natural gift for grace and elegance found expression in his portraits. He created bas-reliefs and numerous monuments and ornamental sculptures, for example the four figures in gilded bronze that decorate the façade of the Maison du Roi and the figures on the Maison des Boulangers, both in the Grand Place in Brussels. Dubois’s most notable work as a medallist is the medal for the Exposition Universelle of ...


Anne Winter-Jensen

[Jules, John]

(b Lancy, May 20, 1877; d Paris, June 7, 1947).

French sculptor, metalworker, painter and designer, of Swiss birth. He trained as a sculptor from 1891 to 1896 at the Ecole des Arts Industriels in Geneva and in 1897 was awarded a scholarship by the city of Geneva that enabled him to continue his studies in Paris, where Jean Dampt, a sculptor from Burgundy, introduced him to the idea of producing designs for interior decoration and furnishing. Dunand worked on the winged horses on the bridge of Alexandre III in Paris (in situ), while simultaneously continuing his research into the use of metal in the decorative arts. His first pieces of dinanderie (decorative brassware) were exhibited at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts of 1904 in Paris. In 1906 he gave up sculpture in order to devote his time to making dinanderie and later to lacquering. His first vases (e.g. ‘Wisteria’ vase, gilt brass with cloisonné enamels, ...


[Du Plessis; Duplessy.]

French family of goldsmiths, bronze founders, sculptors and designers, of Italian descent. Due to the similarity in name, there has been some confusion between father and son and the attribution of their work; they are now generally distinguished as Duplessis père and Duplessis fils. Jean-Claude Chambellan Duplessis [Giovanni Claudio Chiamberlano] (b Turin, ?1690–95; d Paris, 1774) practised as a goldsmith in Turin before his marriage in 1720 and probably worked for Victor Amadeus II. He moved with his family to Paris c. 1740, perhaps encouraged there by Juste-Aurèle Meissonnier. In 1742 he was commissioned by Louis XV to design and make two large, bronze braziers, presented to the Turkish ambassador Saïd Mahmet Pasha (e.g. in Istanbul, Topkapi Pal. Mus.). From c. 1748 until his death he was employed at the porcelain factories of Vincennes and Sèvres as a designer of porcelain forms and supplier of bronze stands. He also supervised and advised craftsmen. In ...


Geneviève Bresc-Bautier

(b Sissonne, Aisne, c. 1574; d Paris, between 19 and Feb 24, 1642).

French sculptor and medallist. He was trained in Paris by his co-religionist, the Protestant sculptor Barthélemy Prieur, whose daughter he married in 1600. In 1597 he executed a portrait medal of Henri IV with a profile portrait of the royal mistress Gabrielle d’Estrée on the reverse (see Mazerolle, no. 623), and it was perhaps this work that launched his official career. In 1603 he was named Sculpteur Ordinaire du Roi and was authorized to cast medals in gold and silver; in 1604 he was made joint Contrôleur Général des Poinçons et Effigies des Monnaies with his rival Jean Pilon (1578–1617). From 1608 he was in charge of the founding of cannon for the French artillery, and in 1611 Prieur obtained for him the reversion of his title as Premier Sculpteur du Roi.

Dupré’s reputation rests principally on his work as a medallist. He executed numerous portrait medals of Henri IV, representing him as Hercules (...


Brigitte Hüfler


(b Spiekershausen, July 14, 1847; d Berlin, Feb 5, 1926).

German sculptor. He attended the Realschule in Hannoversch Münden until 1861. He was apprenticed to a goldsmith in 1861–4 and thus learnt embossing, carving, chasing and engraving. He subsequently travelled as a journeyman, finding employment in Hildesheim, then in Kassel with the court jeweller, Ruhl. From 1867 to 1870, Eberlein trained as a sculptor under August von Kreling (1819–76), director of the Kunstgewerbeschule in Nuremberg, also working as Kreling’s assistant to support his studies. On receiving a grant from Elisabeth of Prussia (the widow of Frederick William IV) for three further years of study, he moved to Berlin inspired by the works of Reinhold Begas shown at the first Internationale Kunstausstellung in Munich. Eberlein arrived in Berlin with a letter of recommendation to the sculptor Bernhard Afinger and he soon obtained a post as assistant to the sculptor Gustav Blaeser, who was then engaged on commissions from the Emperor Frederick William III....


Martine Reid


(b Skidegate, Queen Charlotte Islands, BC, c. 1839; d 1920).

Native Canadian Haida sculptor, metalworker and painter. He spent much of his adolescence at Kiusta with his maternal uncle Albert Edward Edenshaw, chief of the Haida Eagle clan, acquiring a considerable knowledge of Haida art and mythology. In 1882 the Eagle clan moved north to Masset, where, on the death of his uncle in 1884, he assumed his titles and privileges, including his chief’s name Edenshaw. Edenshaw was an imaginative craftsman who incorporated into his work technical and conceptual ideas from both native and non-native sources. He was a versatile and prolific artist who worked within the Northwest Coast tradition of two-dimensional design (see ). He carved both ritual and commercial objects in wood and argillite, including totem poles, masks, chests, boxes, platters and frontlets; painted designs on spruce root mats and hats, the latter often made by his wife, Isabelle; and produced silver bracelets. His commercial objects included a host of forms for non-native and market use; and his contact with a number of anthropologists and collectors resulted in a large body of well-documented, often commissioned works. The model totem poles and house models, for example, commissioned by the ethnographer and linguist ...


Mark M. Salton

(di Luca)

(b Parma, fl 1455–78).

Italian goldsmith and medallist. He is recorded in Parma between 1467 and 1471 and was master of the mint in Ferrara in 1472–3 under Ercole d’Este, Duke of Ferrara. Although no coins with his signature have been identified, it is quite likely that he engraved dies for some of the Duke’s coins of Ferrara and Reggio, in particular a number of fine portrait pieces, including those of his principal patrons, Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, Cecco Ordelaffi of Forlì, Taddeo Menfredi of Faenza and Pier Maria Rossi of Berceto. Many of his early medals (1455–71) are struck from engraved dies and are small, but only a few struck examples survive; most known specimens are cast from struck originals. In later years he changed his method and in 1474–5 produced a splendid series of large cast medals of Costanzo Sforza, Lord of Pesaro. One of these is dedicated to the memory of Costanzo’s father, Alessandro Sforza, who is portrayed on the reverse. The other reverse types eulogize Costanzo’s military prowess but suffer from over-elaboration of detail. Characteristic is the representation of the castle of Pesaro with its pinnacled towers fully manned, many windows, drawbridge and gateway surmounted by a coat of arms. Of his largest medal (92 mm), of ...


Antonia Boström


(b Stockholm, July 4, 1658; d Berlin, May 21, 1703).

Swedish medallist, wax-modeller, sculptor and miniature painter, also active in France and Germany. From 1674 to 1678 he trained in Stockholm under his father, a German immigrant goldsmith. For three years from 1680 he travelled around Europe, finally settling in Paris, where he entered the studio of Charles-Jean-François Chéron before establishing his own workshop. In Paris he took part in producing Louis XIV’s histoire médallique and received from the King an annual stipend of 1200 livres. After leaving France for Sweden in 1688 he produced medals for Karl XI (reg 1660–97) and Queen Ulrica (1656–93). In 1690 Faltz entered the service of Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg (later Frederick I of Prussia) and settled in Berlin for the rest of his career, producing a large number of medals for the Prussian court.

The hard-edged medallic style of Faltz’s French period became softer in his later works, with the increased use of wax models; the effect is notable in such works as the portrait medals of ...


Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...


(b Florence; fl 1532–45).

Italian sculptor and bronze-founder. He probably trained in Padua and Florence, and he worked extensively in Padua until at least 1545. He was noted for his bronze sculptures, and his workshop produced such decorative objects as inkwells and candlesticks. It is difficult to establish the attributions of these small bronze pieces, but it is certain that Desiderio created the bronze voting urn (1532–3; Padua, Mus. Civ.) commissioned by the Maggior Consiglio of the Comune of Padua. Payments to him are documented in 1532–3. The style of the tripartite bronze urn, which combines Florentine clarity with hints of Venetian models, seems more indebted to Andrea Verrocchio than, as has been suggested, to Andrea Riccio. On the three-faced base there are putti bearing the Comune’s coat of arms; the upper sections display an intricate arrangement of motifs, including lions of St Mark, dolphins, grotteschi and garlands. The urn is considered to be one of the best poured bronzes of 16th-century Padua....


(b Nuremberg, bapt Oct 6, 1567; d Nuremberg, 1631 or later).

German goldsmith, engraver and medallist. The son of the goldsmith Paul Flindt I (fl 1567; d 1582), he became a master in Nuremberg in 1601, after a lengthy stay in Vienna. A variant of his pf monogram was pvn, for Paul Vlindt Norimbergensis. Apart from a few lead plaques, only one securely attributable piece of his goldsmith work is known, an embossed oval gold-plated silver tray with figural motifs (1606; Moscow, Patriarch’s Pal.). Although he maintained only a small workshop, Flindt exercised a major influence on the development of ornament in the goldsmith work of his time, especially through his serial engravings (over 200 sheets; 1592–1618; see 1985 exh. cat., nos 409–24, 461, 463–6) of all sorts of ornate pieces, garnished with ribbon- and band-ornament and rich figurative centres. These delicately shadowed, plastically modelled sheets, with their Mannerist motifs, created under the influence of Wenzel Jamnitzer, Jost Amman, Hendrick Goltzius and others, were taken by many goldsmiths as ‘classical’ models for their own work. It has been claimed that Flindt invented the embossing technique of copper-engraving, but this had already been practised before him, in Augsburg....


(b Thurgau, 1485–96; d Nuremberg, Nov 23, 1546).

German sculptor, medallist, cabinetmaker, woodcutter and designer. It has been conjectured on stylistic grounds that between 1515 and 1518 he was active in Augsburg and worked in Hans Daucher’s workshop on the sculptural decoration (destr.) of the Fugger funerary chapel in St Anna. His early style was formed by the Italianism of Daucher and of Hans Burgkmair I and also by a journey to Italy in 1520–21. He was briefly active in Ansbach before arriving in 1522 in Nuremberg; there he was documented as master sculptor when receiving citizenship in August 1523. His earliest sculptural work in Nuremberg is thought to have been 22 capitals (early 1520s) for the renovated Rathaus (destr. 1945). The use of Italian Renaissance ornament, such as volutes decorated with acanthus leaves and fluting, represented a progressive development, in contrast to Albrecht Dürer’s Gothic-inspired architectural design of the Ehrenpforte. Flötner’s first-hand study of Italian Renaissance architectural vocabulary is apparent in the ornamentation of the pilasters of the triangular fountain (...


Robin A. Branstator and Adriano Ghisetti Giavarina


Italian family of artists. (1) Giovanni Paulo Fonduli was probably the son of Fondulino de Fonduliis (fl c. 1444–9), a goldsmith and sculptor whose family had long-established ties with the district of Crema. Giovanni’s brother Bartolomeo Fonduli (fl Vicenza, 1471– 1505) also practised as a goldsmith. (2) Agostino Fonduli, son of Giovanni, was an architect as well as a sculptor, working throughout Lombardy and collaborating with Bramante in Milan.

Robin A. Branstator

(fl second half of 15th century).

Sculptor. A contract dated 29 November 1469, written by Fonduli himself, has survived, stipulating the execution of three all’antica terracotta altarpieces for a church to be built in the Castello at Este. From Fonduli’s handwriting and Venetian dialect, it can be deduced that he had had some education and that he had probably worked outside of Crema, in Padua. In a later contract of 3 March 1484...


Maria Teresa Fiorio

(b Milan, 1540; d Milan, 1587).

Italian medallist, hardstone-engraver and sculptor. During the first half of his career, before 1570, he concentrated on making medals and on rock crystal engraving. From 1570 he turned increasingly to sculpture, especially that (from 1574) for the decoration of S Maria presso S Celso in Milan.

He came from a family of Swiss origin, from Ticino, and was active mainly in Milan. According to Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo, his great friend, Fontana in his early career was active mainly making medals and engraving on rock crystal and hardstones (pietre dure). Based on references in Lomazzo, portrait medals of Ferdinando Francesco D’Avalos and Lomazzo (both Milan, Castello Sforzesco) have been attributed to Fontana. The latter, which dates from 1560–61, shows Lomazzo presented to Prudence and Fortune on the reverse. The medal dedicated to Avalos, who was Governor of Milan from 1560, is more elaborate and of higher quality. It has been suggested (Rossi) that it reflects Bernardino Campi’s painted portrait (untraced) of Avalos done in ...