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Stanisław Mossakowski

(bapt Utrecht, July 5, 1632; d Warsaw, 1706).

Dutch architect and painter, active in Poland. He studied in Holland and worked as a painter in Venice between 1650 and 1660. Although none of his paintings has been found, hundreds of designs and sketches, mostly of an architectural character, have survived (U. Warsaw, Lib.). In 1660 he was summoned to Poland by the powerful Lubomirski family, with whom he remained in contact for the rest of his life. His other clients were the Polish kings Michael Wiśniowiecki (reg 1669–73), who appointed him Royal Civil and Military Architect (1672), and John Sobieski (reg 1674–96), who knighted him (1685), as well as Queen Mary Casimira and a large number of Polish magnates and rich gentry.

In his church buildings Tylman preferred centralized domed structures. Some were traditional in shape, for example the Kotowski Chapel, S Jacek, Warsaw (1690–3), while others display marked originality, for example the Bonifrater Brothers Church, Warsaw (...


António Filipe Pimentel

Family of builders and masons of Italian origin, active in Portugal. Giovanni Battista Garbo (b ?Milan,fl 1670; d ?Lisbon) went to work in Lisbon c. 1670 for the Jesuits at São Antão (now the chapel of the hospital of São José) and perhaps also for the church of Nossa Senhora de Loreto. His son Carlos Baptista Garbo (d Mafra, 1725) was trained in the same skills of masonry at São Antão, and he also became a designer of altarpieces. The high altar with marble mosaic for the old Jesuit church, now the seminary, Santarém, was designed by Carlos Baptista along 17th-century lines and made in 1713 in the workshops of São Antão. It was here that his son António Baptista Garbo (b Lisbon, 1692; d ?Lisbon) was trained and also worked in the service of the Jesuits.

The ability of the Garbo family is most visible at Mafra, where Carlos Baptista superintended the construction of the vast palace, church and convent, following the plans of ...


Martha Pollak

(b Bissone, nr Lugano, March 12, 1650; d Turin, July 1713).

Italian architect and engineer of Swiss birth. In his youth he worked with Amedeo di Castellamonte, and from 1669 to 1713 he was in the service of Charles-Emanuel II and then Victor-Amadeus II, dukes of Savoy; after 1684 he was responsible for all ducal projects. He was in the service of the Prior of the Confraternità di S Luca in 1688 and of the Prince of Carignano in 1697–9. He was considered the most creative architect active in Piedmont between the deaths of Guarino Guarini and Castellamonte and the arrival in Turin of Filippo Juvarra.

Although Garove initially trained as a military engineer and retained the title of captain, he also practised as a civic architect, as did many other Piedmontese architects of the 17th century, including Carlo di Castellamonte and Ascanio Vitozzi. Garove completed several of Guarini’s unfinished buildings, for example the Castello at Racconigi, where he finished the S-curves of the staircase, the Collegio dei Nobili in Turin, where in ...


Giuseppe Pinna


Giuseppe Pinna

The construction of a worthy seat for the emerging Society of Jesus (see Jesuit Order, §1) was delayed by the opposition of the families (especially the Altieri) who owned the land on which the church was to be built. The first plan for Il Gesù (SS Nome di Gesù), produced in 1549–50 by Nanni di Baccio Bigio, was for a longitudinal scheme with six chapels flanking the nave and a short transept. The work was soon interrupted, however, and the efforts of Cardinal della Cueva to have it resumed had little effect, although he had obtained a new plan free of charge in 1554 from Michelangelo.

In 1568 building began in earnest thanks to the lavish patronage of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, who put Jacopo Vignola in charge along with the Jesuit Giovanni Tristano (d 1575). Vignola adopted the longitudinal scheme with stubby transepts and three interconnected chapels at each side of the nave, respecting the wishes of Farnese, who considered the plan most suitable for the devotional requirements of the Counter-Reformation liturgy. Two additional chapels were set into the sides of the apse. The strong spatial unity of the interior (...


Thomas Pickrel

(b Rieti, Sept 1638; d Rome, May 1702).

Italian painter and architect. He changed his surname only after his arrival in Rome c. 1656. With the help of his first patron, Bulgarino Bulgarini, he was able eventually to study with Pier Francesco Mola and Pietro da Cortona, in whose studio he presumably received his training as both painter and architect.

Gherardi’s earliest documented works, three tapestry cartoons depicting Episodes from the Life of Urban VIII (1663–6; Rome, Pal. Barberini), were executed in connection with Cortona’s workshop and show him almost completely dependent on his master’s style. He then undertook an extensive study tour of northern Italy, probably in 1667–8, apparently spending most of this time in Bologna, Lombardy and Venice before returning to Rome with a distinctive manner derived from his study of the works of Veronese. His cycle of paintings and frescoes depicting Scenes from the Life of the Virgin (1668–70) in the vault of the small Roman church of ...



(b Rome, 1600; d Rome, May 3, 1672).

Italian architect, stage designer and musician, active in Poland. He arrived in Poland before 1632, being court architect first to King Sigismund III, then to Vladislav IV and John II Kazimir. Between 1643 and 1654 Gisleni was noted at the Polish court not only as a singer and composer but also as a director and designer of ephemeral decorations. His immense though mostly unrealized architectural and decorative oeuvre is chiefly known from three collections: the album Varii disegni d’architettura inventati e delineati da Gio: Gisleni Romano … (London, Soane Mus.); 12 loose drawings (Milan, Castello Sforzesco); and a sketchbook containing his own designs, copies after modelbooks, and designs by other architects (Dresden, Kupferstichkab.; ‘Skizzenbuch des G. Chiaveri’).

Gisleni’s architectural projects were relatively limited in scale compared to the grander early Baroque palaces of the court architects Matteo Castelli and Constante Tencalla. The residences he built for the nobility then settling in Warsaw combined elements of the Italian villa and the north European castle, sometimes reduced to the scale of the small wooden-built house—a type that served for vernacular architecture for two centuries. Churches by Gisleni were usually single-naved, with a wall-pillared interior common in the north, to which new Baroque articulation had been applied (e.g. Brigittine church of the Holy Trinity, Warsaw, ...


Françoise Hamon

(b c. 1630; d 1708).

French architect and writer. He was the son of a Parisian master mason, Thomas Gobert (d c. 1644), who built houses on the Ile Saint-Louis (destr.), the Rue Saint-Paul (1641) and the Rue de la Bucherie. The younger Thomas Gobert was related by marriage to the Mansart family. It is not clear, however, if he was related to the painter Pierre Gobert. From 1660 to 1664 he was in the service of Louis II, Prince de Condé, and in 1662 qualified as Architecte des Bâtiments du Roi, building some houses near the Palais-Royal: 61, Rue de Richelieu (1668); 53, Rue Sainte-Anne; and 7, Rue du Mail. In the same district he worked on the library wing of the monastery of the Petits-Pères. In 1670 he collaborated with Antoine Le Pautre on the building of the château of Saint-Cloud (destr.), near Paris. He became Contrôleur Alternatif des Bâtiments du Roi in ...


Christine Challingsworth

(b Rome, 1610–20; d Rome, ?1671).

Italian architect. It is likely that he was self-taught. Surviving documents indicate that he worked in Rome from 1647 until December 1671 (see Pollak, 1909). In 1647 he restructured the Palazzo Monaldeschi (later Palazzo di Spagna) to serve as the Spanish embassy in Rome. He was responsible for the façade, the entrance vestibule and the fountain in the courtyard. The façade is conventional: a rusticated ground level supports a piano nobile articulated by windows with alternating pediments, and a modest mezzanine completes the exterior. The austere treatment of the façade is restated in the two rooms of the vestibule; subdivided by unadorned supports in three equal bays covered by shallow vaults, it provides a scenic approach to the staircase.

In 1650 del Grande became architect to the Colonna family. His major work for them was the Galleria (begun 1654 of the Palazzo Colonna in Piazza dei SS Apostoli, Rome. The salon is a long rectangular hall (the largest in a palace in Rome) covered with a cloister vault, and with screening columns defining the spatial boundaries. Del Grande’s architecture and the later pictorial decoration (...


Richard Bösel

(b Savona, May 1, 1583; d Rome, July 23, 1654).

Italian priest, architect and mathematician. He was born into an established Savonese noble family but joined the Jesuit Order in Rome at the age of 17, taking his vows in 1618. As early as 1616 he was appointed professor of mathematics at the Collegio Romano, a position he held with interruptions until 1627. Although he soon earned the highest respect and engaged in discussions with Galileo Galilei on his theories about the nature of comets, he is best known for his achievements in the field of architecture. He may be considered the most important Jesuit architect of the first half of the 17th century.

Grassi seems to have come to the profession by way of architectural theory: in 1612 he was instructed by his Order to establish an academy to train Jesuit architects. This institution seems to have been short-lived, if it existed at all. From 1617 to 1624 and again from ...


Joseph Connors

Italian family of architects. Vincenzo della Greca (b Palermo; d Rome, before 1663) was living in Rome by 1615. He was appointed architect at the Castel Sant’Angelo and from 1631 to 1644 was surveyor of works at the papal establishments of Castel Sant’Angelo, Civitavecchia and Castelfranco. Under Urban VIII he collaborated with Francesco Paparelli on the church of S Caio (1631–7; destr. 1885), a Barberini foundation built on the site of an Early Christian church in the Via Pia. In 1647 his project for rebuilding S Giovanni in Laterano was rejected in favour of a design by Francesco Borromini. Between 1654 and 1660 Vincenzo worked at SS Domenico e Sisto, where he designed a grand staircase in two curved flights.

Vincenzo’s son, Felice della Greca (b Rome, c. 1626; d Rome, 1677), wrote a treatise on architecture (MS. in Stockholm) that emphasized the role of the orders, entrances, staircases and adjacent gardens. In ...


Alice Dugdale

[Fra Francesco]

(b Oppido Lucano, Calabria, 1543; d Naples, Aug 1, 1613).

Italian architect. He joined the Theatine Order in Naples in 1574. His first major building was the church of S Paolo Maggiore, Naples (1581–1603). Its nave arcades give a strong sense of movement, with arches of alternating height opening into domed or vaulted bays. In 1588, as presumably the most eminent Theatine architect, he was summoned to Rome to design the Order’s new church of S Andrea della Valle. Because of the influence of Cardinal Alfonso Gesualdo (d 1603), he was obliged to submit his designs to Giacomo della Porta for approval; this leaves the evolution of the design uncertain, especially as della Porta left soon after the foundation stone was laid, while Grimaldi remained in Rome until 1598. During this time he also visited Lecce, where he worked on the church of S Irene (1588–1639). Grimaldi’s first major commission on his return to Naples was to build S Maria degli Angeli (begun ...


(b Bologna, 1606; d Rome, Nov 28, 1680).

Italian painter, printmaker, draughtsman and architect. He was an accomplished fresco painter, whose decorative landscapes were popular with such leading Roman families as the Santacroce, the Pamphili and the Borghese; his many landscape etchings and drawings spread the influence of 17th-century Bolognese landscape throughout Europe. After studying in Bologna in the circle of the Carracci, he arrived in Rome c. 1626 and by 1635 was already a member of the Accademia di S Luca and associated with the circle of artists working with Pietro da Cortona. Sometime between 1635 and 1640 he collaborated with François Perrier and Giovanni Ruggieri on the decoration of the gallery in the Palazzo Peretti–Amalgia, Rome; the vault, which was probably designed by Grimaldi, was modelled on Cortona’s gallery in the Villa Sacchetti at Castelfusano. In 1640–41, again inspired by the Villa Sacchetti, Grimaldi frescoed the vault of the great hall of the Palazzo Santacroce ai Catinari, Rome. The ceiling is framed with stucco cartouches, and the vault is decorated with five ...


Peter Stein

(b Modena, Jan 17, 1624; d Milan, March 6, 1683).

Italian architect, mathematician, astronomer, theorist, writer and priest. Together with Francesco Borromini, he is the most renowned exponent of the anti-classical, anti-Vitruvian trend that dominated Italian architecture after Michelangelo but increasingly lost ground from the late 17th century. His subtly designed buildings, crowned with daring and complex domes, were ignored in Italy outside Piedmont, but illustrations published in 1686 and again in Guarini’s treatise Architettura civile (1737) proved a fruitful source of inspiration in the development of south German and Austrian late Baroque and Rococo architecture.

Guarini came from a deeply religious family; he and his four brothers all joined the Theatine Order. At the age of 15 he became a novice and was sent to Rome (1639–48), where he was able to study High Baroque architecture, in particular the work of Borromini, Gianlorenzo Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. The details of Guarini’s architectural training are not known, but in the excellently equipped libraries of his Order he presumably studied such well-known treatises as those of Serlio and Jacopo Vignola. In ...


Brigitte Schneider

[Guarinonius, Hippolytus]

(b Trent, Tyrol, Nov 18, 1571; d Hall in Tyrol, May 31, 1654).

Austrian doctor, theologian and amateur architect-builder. He wrote prolifically about living habits and health: his main work, Die Grewel der Verwüstung des menschlichen Geschlechts, was printed in Ingolstadt in 1610.

Documentary sources indicate that Guarinoni originated the design for the Karl-Borromäuskirche (1620–54) at Volders in the Tyrol; he supervised the construction himself, worked on the site as a mason and in other ways, and invested the whole of his considerable fortune in the building. The squat, centrally planned building with its original, imaginative, picturesquely evocative style has a wealth of odd design details that give it a peculiar, exotic charm.

Guarinoni based his church on the symbolic concept of the Trinity: to the circular central space he adjoined three semicircular domed spaces to incorporate chapels and a choir, and to the west a projecting bay, on to which dome-covered chapels were later built. The tower to the east with its circular core and semicircular projections repeats the pattern of this ground-plan on a reduced scale. The inspiration for this building can be found not only in Rome, in the works of Francesco Borromini (although Guarinoni’s forms are simpler), but principally in the Bohemian Mannerism of Carlo Lurago (ii) in Prague (where Guarinoni had spent several years) or in the mausoleum of Emperor Ferdinand II at Graz. The Karl-Borromäuskirche was not, however, based directly on one model. As a dilettante, Guarinoni could ignore the normal rules of architecture and give his imagination free rein. The Volders church may, in its turn, have provided the inspiration for the design by Konstantin Pader (...


Simon Thurley

English palace situated on the north bank of the River Thames, c. 23 km upstream from central London. In the building that survives, two main periods of work can be seen: the remains of the Tudor royal palace, begun by Cardinal Thomas Wolsey between 1514 and 1529 and completed by Henry VIII between 1529 and 1547; and the Baroque palace built for William and Mary between 1688 and 1702 by Christopher Wren. The palace has also been continually altered and repaired up to the present day. The Tudor part of the building is probably the most important surviving example of early Tudor domestic architecture in England, and the Wren building contains one of the finest collections of early 18th-century decorative arts in situ.

The earliest buildings (destr.) on the site belonged to the Knights Hospitallers of the Order of St John of Jerusalem, although little is known about the nature of these buildings. The first important period of expansion began ...


Kerry Downes

(b ?East Drayton, Notts, 1661–2; d London, March 25, 1736).

English architect. One of the most original architects of his generation, Hawksmoor used a rich, eclectic, scholarly and often unconventional vocabulary of detail to make real a feeling for the geometrical abstraction of solids and spaces. His unassuming personality probably lost him some preferment in his profession, but the boldness of his designs and his assiduity in promoting them show a different side of his character. Hawksmoor’s work is distinct from, but nevertheless intricately connected with, that of Christopher Wren and John Vanbrugh, to each of whom he was at some time an assistant. Together these three architects were the greatest exponents of the Baroque in England.

Hawksmoor came from a yeoman farming family. His style as a letter writer implies that he attended grammar school. Around 1679 the plasterer Edward Goudge took him to London and introduced him to Wren, who engaged him as his personal clerk and subsequently taught him all he could about the theory and practice of architecture. A small sketchbook of the early 1680s (London, RIBA) contains drawings in Hawksmoor’s hand of buildings and topographical views that show promise rather than achievement; but before the end of the decade he had not only learnt the techniques of draughtsmanship but had also developed a capacity for imagining sequences of rooms as a spatial experience, as his project for a ‘Villa Chetwiniana’ demonstrates (...


Susanne Kronbichler-Skacha

Castle in Salzburg, Austria. To the south of Salzburg, Archbishop Marcus Sitticus von Hohenems (reg 1612–19) commissioned Santino Solari to build a small castle to be used as a summer palace. Schloss Hellbrunn (1613–19) is a most perfect realization of the Italian villa suburbana and the earliest of its kind north of the Alps. Situated at the end of a long avenue, the building is a cube of classic simplicity, with a bifurcate staircase opening on to a cour d’honneur. The most remarkable interior features are the Festsaal (banqueting hall), set asymmetrically on the west side, and its projecting octagon, with frescoes by Arsenio Mascagni (1579–1636). Hellbrunn’s main attraction, however, is its gardens. The Lustgarten or Pleasure Garden was laid out north of the castle and furnished with an unusual variety of grottoes, fountains, ponds and other features including the Roman Theatre, a miniature exedra dominated by a statue of ...


Johannes Zahlten

Palace and garden on the outskirts of Hannover, Germany. After Duke Georg of Calenberg (d 1641) had elevated Hannover to the status of Residenzstadt, his summer residence was developed from an existing palace to the north-west of the town (from 1638). The modest palace, which was altered several times, was almost completely destroyed in 1943, but its Baroque gallery-building (1694–6) survives. The banqueting hall and residential wings are richly decorated: the frescoes (including an Aeneas cycle) were painted by the Venetian Tommaso Giusti (1644–1729), while the stucco decoration was executed by Dossa Grana, Pietro Rosso (fl 1695–1706) and others. To the south of the Residenz lies the park, the Grosser Garten, for which Herrenhausen is famed. The first pleasure garden, inspired by Venetian villa design, was created in 1666 by the landscape gardener Michael Grosse and developed (from 1674) by ...


J.-P. Esther

(b Antwerp, June 1601; d Brussels, March 4, 1690).

Flemish architect. He joined the Jesuits in 1617 and went to school in Antwerp from 1619 to 1621, at which time the church of St Carolus Borromeus was being built after the design of Franciscus Aguilonius and Peter Huyssens. Initially, Hesius came to prominence as a preacher and an important figure in religious politics, and he did not become active as an architect until he was nearly 50. During the third quarter of the 17th century he was his order’s most important architectural adviser. The plans for St Michielskerk, Leuven, one of the most important examples of Flemish Baroque architecture, have been attributed to him and date from 1650. They show the influence of Vitruvius (known in the Netherlands through the translations of Pieter Coecke van Aelst and Sebastiano Serlio), as well as the influence of illustrations by Jean Maggius. The design is characterized principally by a high lantern tower with a dome above the junction of transept and nave. The church, completed in ...