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Gordon Campbell

(b c. 1706; d 1753).

English engraver, designer of trade cards and furniture designer. In 1746 he published A New Book of Ornaments, and subsequently collaborated with Matthias Lock on a second edition (1752). The New Book contains designs for side-tables, torchères, clocks, frames, pier-glasses and fireplaces, very much in the Rococo idiom but also including such chinoiserie motifs as ho-ho birds and oriental figures. Copland also provided plates for the ...


Maurie D. McInnis

(b Bristol, 1756; d Charleston, SC, May 2, 1811).

American painter and engraver of English birth. Coram immigrated to America on 1 March 1769 following an older brother who was established as a merchant in Charleston, SC. He eventually took over his brother’s business and also advertised himself as an engraver by 1778. He engraved a wide variety of cards and shop bills as well as currency for the state of South Carolina. He referred to himself as “self-taught,” which he was initially, but he also received instruction after 1772 from the portrait painter Henry Benbridge. In turn, Coram instructed the painter Charles Fraser.

At least as early as 1791, Coram began a sketchbook of landscape scenes entitled Sketches, Taken from W. Gilpin’s Observations on the River Wye and Several Parts of South Wales (priv. col.). These sketches demonstrate that Coram was studying the engraved images from the works of the immensely popular English author the Reverend William Gilpin whose numerous volumes published in the mid-18th century helped to disseminate an understanding of the picturesque. Another sketchbook entitled ...


Laurence Guilmard Geddes

(b Paris, 1642; d Villiers-sur-Marne, Sept 24, 1708).

French painter, draughtsman, miniature painter and engraver. He studied drawing with his father Jean Cotelle I (1607–76), an ornamental painter at the court of Louis XIII. He went on to learn miniature painting with Elisabeth Sophie Chéron and portraiture with Claude Lefèbvre. He spent the years 1662–70 in Rome under the protection of Anne, Princesse de Rohan-Guéménée, and in 1672 was received (reçu) by the Académie Royale as a miniature painter on presentation of the Entry of the King and Queen into Paris (untraced). In 1681 he painted the Marriage at Cana (untraced) as that year’s ‘May’ (the picture commissioned annually by the Paris Goldsmiths’ Corporation for the Cathedral of Notre-Dame). His portraits are now known only through engravings, such as that of the Princesse de Rohan-Guéménée made by François de Poilly I. His reputation rests, however, on the series of 21 views of the château of Versailles, its gardens and fountains that he painted for the gallery of the ...


Andrew W. Moore

(b Norwich, Dec 22, 1768; d Norwich, April 22, 1821).

English painter, printmaker, collector and teacher. The son of a journeyman weaver, he was apprenticed to a coach and sign painter, Francis Whisler, from 1783 to 1790. He presumably continued in this trade and during the 1790s consolidated his artistic training. Early local influences upon Crome included William Beechey and John Opie, but the friendship of Thomas Harvey, a patron, collector and amateur artist, was the most significant. Harvey’s collection included works by Dutch 17th-century masters such as Aelbert Cuyp, Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema, and also works by Gainsborough and Richard Wilson. The earliest record of Wilson’s influence is provided by two oils entitled Composition in the Style of Wilson (untraced), dated 1796 and 1798 in Crome’s Memorial Exhibition of 1821. The Dutch influence was also strong throughout Crome’s career. Crome’s early acquaintance with Harvey and his collection almost certainly encouraged him to become a collector, and the Yarmouth banker ...


David Alexander

(b Kingston upon Hull, 1770; d London, 12 or March 14, 1812).

English publisher and engraver. He studied in London under Francesco Bartolozzi and engraved a number of book illustrations but was best known as a publisher, issuing the designs by William Blake for Robert Blair’s poem The Grave (London, 1743). In 1805 Cromek commissioned Blake to draw and engrave the designs, but Blake felt betrayed when Cromek engaged Luigi Schiavonetti instead because he saw that Blake’s style of engraving would not please the public (for further discussion see Blake, William). Blake was further annoyed when Cromek commissioned Thomas Stothard to paint the Canterbury Pilgrims (1806; London, Tate; for illustration see Stothard family, §1), an idea that Blake thought had been stolen from him; in 1809 Blake published a very successful singly issued print of it. Bentley has shown that although Cromek had considerable understanding and sympathy for Blake his treatment of him helped to increase the artist’s isolation....


J.-P. Esther


(b Ghent, ?1640; d Ghent, ?1720)

Flemish priest, draughtsman and etcher, active also in Italy and France. While living in Wetteren (nr Ghent), he was involved in the completion of the Gothic St Michielskerk in Ghent. The construction of the western tower had been interrupted in 1566 because of religious unrest, and in 1652 steps were taken to complete it. After a Renaissance design was proposed in 1653, Cruyl submitted a drawing in Brabantine Late Gothic style (Ghent, Bib. Rijksuniv.) in 1662. His tower was to have been 134 m high, higher than the north tower of Antwerp Cathedral (1521). However, the project was never realized because of lack of funds. Although unoriginal and of an outdated style, the design had elegance and grandeur.

In 1664 Cruyl left for Rome, where he lived until c. 1670. During this time he drew many views of the city (e.g. 18 sheets, Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.) and etched ten plates representing the ...


Filippo Pedrocco

(b Verona, 1724–5; d Rome, Jan 8, 1803).

Italian printmaker. He was the pupil of an otherwise unknown painter by the name of Francesco Ferrari. When he was 18, and after executing several paintings (untraced), he turned to engraving, an art in which he may have been self-taught (Gori Gandellini). Between 1752 and 1760 he collaborated with Dionigi Valesi on the illustrations for a three-volume catalogue of the coin collection of Giacomo Muselli, published in Verona (1752, 1756, 1760; e.g. Verona, Mus. Muselli). Also from the 1750s are several Views of Verona after drawings by T. Majeroni and the St Thomas of Villanova (1757) after Antonio Balestra. This Veronese painter was frequently a source of inspiration for Cunego, who often reproduced works by his contemporaries, for example Francesco Solimena and Felice Boscaratti (1721–1807).

In October 1760 Cunego came into contact with James Adam, younger brother of Robert Adam, who was visiting Verona. Together with Adam and his travelling companions, Charles-Louis Clérisseau, Antonio Zucchi and the Veronese draughtsman Giuseppe Sacco (...


(b Antwerp, May 27, 1764; d Paris, March 20, 1840).

Flemish painter and lithographer. He first studied architecture at the Antwerp Academie from 1776, despite his early preference for painting, and in 1786 he settled in Paris as a decorator. In 1793 he acquired lodgings in the Louvre next to fellow countrymen Pierre-Joseph Redouté, Piat-Joseph Sauvage (1744–1818) and Gerard van Spaendonck; under the influence of Spaendonck he turned to flower painting, in which he specialized for the rest of his life. He was prolific in his output and successful in securing commissions from such wealthy and influential patrons as the Empresses Josephine and Marie-Louise Bonaparte (1791–1847), and both Louis XVIII and Charles X. From 1793 until 1833 he exhibited regularly at the Paris Salon and, after 1807, occasionally in the Low Countries. Van Dael remained faithful to the Flemish tradition of flower painting exemplified by Roelandt Savery, with sober composition and attention to detail (e.g. Roses and Butterflies...


Francis Russell

(b ?1715; d London, Feb 7, 1791).

English draughtsman, engraver and dealer. As agent to a number of patrons and subsequently librarian to George III, he was one of the most influential figures in the sphere of collecting in England for some four decades. He was the son of the Rev. John Dalton and younger brother of the Rev. John Dalton, poet and divine, whose connection with Algernon Seymour, Earl of Hertford (later 7th Duke of Somerset), forwarded Richard’s early career in Italy. He had arrived there by 1739 and may have trained in Bologna; by 1741 he was studying under Agostino Masucci in Rome and was already active as a dealer, selling a collection of prints in that year to Henry Clinton, 9th Earl of Lincoln, and cultivating the patronage of Sir Erasmus Philipps, Bart.

In 1749 Dalton visited Calabria and Sicily and then, in his capacity as travelling draughtsman, joined the party of James Caulfeild, 1st Earl of Charlemont, on a tour of Egypt, Turkey and Greece. He was possibly the first English artist to record the ancient monuments of these places. A selection of drawings executed on this tour was engraved by Dalton and published in ...


Mildred Archer

English family of painters and printmakers. Thomas Daniell (b Chertsey, 1749; d London, 19 March 1840) was apprenticed to a coach painter and in 1773 entered the Royal Academy Schools; between 1774 and 1784 he exhibited topographical views and flower pieces at the Royal Academy. Having become responsible for bringing up his orphaned nephew William Daniell (b 1769; d London, 16 Aug 1837), in 1784 he decided to travel to India with his nephew and work there as an engraver. William’s brother Samuel Daniell (b 1775; d Ceylon [now Sri Lanka], Dec 1811) remained independent of his uncle and also became a topographical artist; he went to South Africa in 1801 and after his return to England published African Scenery and Animals (1804–5), a collection of aquatints. From 1806 he lived in Ceylon.

On arriving in Calcutta in 1786, Thomas Daniell published a proposal for engraving 12 views of the city. This seemed a promising idea, since Calcutta was rapidly expanding and its European inhabitants might be willing to buy engravings showing its latest buildings. Both he and William were inexperienced engravers and had to enlist the help of Indian craftsmen, but the set was completed in ...


David M. Sokol

(b Philadelphia, PA, June 23, 1822; d Claymont, DE, March 27, 1888).

American illustrator and printmaker. After being exposed early to the Neo-classical style of John Flaxman, Darley began his career as an illustrator in Philadelphia in 1842. Following a sketching trip west of the Mississippi during the summer of that year, he produced outline drawings that were adapted into lithographs appearing in Scenes in Indian Life (1843). His early book illustrations were published in periodicals such as Democratic Review and Godey’s Magazine. Working in line drawing, lithography and wood- and steel-engraving, his first major success was his series of illustrations for John Frost’s Pictorial History of the United States (1844).

After moving to New York in 1848, Darley dominated the field of American illustration with his illustrations of Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper’s tales and novels. He produced about 500 illustrations for Cooper’s novels and a similar number for Benson J. Lossing’s Our Country (1875–7...


James Yorke

[Mathias; Matthew]

(fl c. 1740–early 1770s).

English engraver, draughtsman and drawing-master. In 1748 his premises faced Old Slaughter’s Coffee House in St Martin’s Lane, London, a favourite meeting-place for adherents of the new Rococo style. His earliest known satirical print, the Cricket Players of Europe, is dated 1741.

In 1751 he issued A New-book of Chinese, Gothic & Modern Chairs, a slight publication on eight leaves. Twelve examples with bizarre backs were described as ‘Hall Chairs’ in a reissue of 1766, but it is more likely they were intended for gardens and summer-houses. A shell-back chair (Stratford-on-Avon, Nash’s House) corresponding to one of the designs was made for the Chinese temple erected at Stratford for the Shakespeare jubilee organized by David Garrick in 1769. Five plates from a second book of chairs (c. 1751), of which no copy survives, were apparently reprinted in Robert Manwaring’s The Chair-maker’s Guide (1766). Described as ‘Parlour Chairs’, they incorporate extravagant C-scroll motifs in the backs....


Marie-Félicie Pérez

(b Lyon, Oct 25, 1737; d Paris, June 2, 1824).

French engraver and print-seller. He belonged to a family of Lyonnais engravers that included his father, Jean-Louis Daudet (1695–1756), an engraver of illustrations and print-seller, and another Robert Daudet, probably his uncle (fl 1728–33). He may have attended the classes of Jean-Charles Frontier (1701–63) at the Ecole Gratuite de Dessin in Lyon (founded in 1757). In 1766 he is documented as entering the workshop of Jean-Georges Wille. There he engraved plates for Wille and for Jacques-Philippe Lebas and Pierre-François Basan. He was also active as a dealer. His correspondence with the Lyonnais artist Jean-Jacques de Boissieu reveals that he saw to the sale of the latter’s drawings and prints in Paris.

Daudet’s engraved work amounts to 82 pieces and consists exclusively of reproductive prints, often after a preliminary etching done by another printmaker. He specialized in reproducing the work of such fashionable 17th-century Dutch artists as ...


Véronique Meyer

(b Abbeville, May 18, 1703; d Paris, April 23, 1763).

French printmaker and print publisher. He was a pupil of Robert Hecquet and came to specialize in engraved portraits. In 1735 he met the portrait painter Hyacinthe Rigaud and quickly became his favourite engraver, producing his best work after Rigaud’s portraits. His Comtesse de Caylus and Hyacinthe Rigaud were so admired that he was approved (agréé) and admitted (reçu) by the Académie Royale on the same day, 2 June 1742. He was appointed Graveur du Roi in 1743 and c. 1757 became a member of the academy of Augsburg. From 1753 he engraved many paintings for the Galerie de Dresde, including Quos Ego and the Artist’s Children after Rubens. Between 1748 and 1755 he gradually gave up portraits, to devote himself to mythological and genre scenes, mainly after François Boucher but also after Joseph Vernet, David Teniers the younger, Adam Frans van der Meulen and Jean-François de Troy. Around ...


Ugo Ruggeri

(b Cabella Ligure, 1743; d Genoa, 1790).

Italian painter and engraver. He moved c. 1770 to Rome, where he trained with Domenico Corvi, and his Moses Giving the Law, which is close to Corvi, won first prize at the Accademia di S Luca in 1775. In that year he moved to Venice as a protégé of the Genoese ambassador Giacomo Durazzo. There, in addition to painting and engraving, he designed scenery for the Teatro La Fenice and responded to contemporary Venetian painting. In 1775 he made a series of satirical etchings with aquatint of 12 Venetian characters (Le Blanc, 8–19). He returned to Genoa c. 1780, then travelled to France, England and the Netherlands.

David’s main activity, however, in the 1780s was in Genoa, where he painted vast panoramic canvases, such as the Battle of the Meloria for the Sala del Maggior Consiglio in the Palazzo Ducale (c. 1783). This work contrasts sharply with the academic tradition established by Raphael Mengs, which was then dominant in Liguria. Tiepolo’s influence can be seen in David’s ...


Patrick Conner

(b London, Aug 6, 1763; d London, May 1804).

English painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He is chiefly remembered for his topographical watercolours. He was versatile in technique and subject-matter and often undertook drawing and oil painting (including both large-scale history subjects and miniatures), etching and aquatint. After studying printmaking under William Pether, he enrolled at the Royal Academy Schools, London, in 1780 and began to exhibit at the Academy in 1786. In the 1790s he was active in supplying drawings for topographical publications and working up sketches by amateur artists, notably the antiquary James Moore (1762–99). Some of his architectural views, for example Greenwich Hospital (1788; London, V&A), are highly finished and peopled with elegant figures, tinted over an assured pen-and-ink outline. Dayes’s sketches have often been confused with early works by J. M. W. Turner and Thomas Girtin. The latter was a pupil of Dayes’s from 1789, but the two men quarrelled: according to popular legend (unsubstantiated by contemporary sources) Dayes resented his pupil’s success and had him imprisoned as a refractory apprentice....


Geoffrey Ashton

(bapt London, July 28, 1751; d London, Jan 19, 1832).

English painter and etcher of Dutch descent. He was the son of a Dutch joiner who had settled in London by 1748. On 19 November 1765 he was apprenticed for seven years to his godfather, Samuel Haworth, a joiner in London. However, he left after five years and enrolled as a student at the Royal Academy Schools in 1769. He exhibited small portraits at the Society of Artists (1776–8) and at the Royal Academy (from 1778), where he also showed fancy pictures of banditti in the style of Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg. But the genre that he made very much his own was theatrical portraiture: he exhibited theatrical portraits at the Royal Academy almost every year from 1792 to 1821.

De Wilde’s first connection with this genre was his work for John Bell’s second collection of miscellaneous plays, published serially as The British Theatre (1791–7). As in the first collection (...


Christian Michel

(b Paris, Feb 13, 1755; d Paris, Sept 22, 1832).

French painter and printmaker. He was a protégé of Gabriel-Christophe Allegrain and was taught by Joseph-Marie Vien. His own preference was for genre painting in the Flemish style. In 1781 he was approved (agréé) as a member of the Académie Royale, Paris, on the basis of several works to be exhibited at that year’s Salon; among these, the Charitable Gentleman (Paris, Gal. Cailleux) is a moralistic scene clearly inspired by Jean-Baptiste Greuze but using the technique of Isaack van Ostade. The pictures Debucourt exhibited at the Salons of 1783 and 1785 continued to draw their inspiration from Flemish art, then very popular in Paris, while remaining faithful to the realities of French peasant life. One of these works, The King’s Act of Charity and Humanity (untraced; engraved in 1787 by Laurent Guyot), was accepted for exhibition in 1785 only after Debucourt had, by royal command, changed the title and made ...


Claire Baines

(b Paris, 1734; d Paris, Oct 11, 1789).

French decorative designer, engraver and architect. In 1747 he was apprenticed to the sculptor Jean-Baptiste Poullet (d 1775), but he seems not to have completed his apprenticeship. By 1767 he styled himself ‘architecte et professeur pour le dessin’. In 1768 he published the first volume of his most important work, the Nouvelle iconologie historique. It contains 110 plates, nearly all engraved by Delafosse himself, with designs for furniture, decorative objects and architectural ornament in the heavy, classicizing, Louis XVI style. In addition, each design bears a particular, usually complex, symbolic or iconological meaning, pertaining to an almost encyclopedic range of subject-matter. In some of his designs he manipulated abstract shapes in new ways, using such forms as truncated columns, cones, pyramids, spheres, discs and rectangles, sometimes carefully shaded to appear simultaneously three-dimensional and flat. His compositional methods were characteristic of the most revolutionary architectural designs of the period, such as those of Etienne-Louis Boullée and Claude-Nicolas Ledoux. In these images he used discrepancies of size, employing Piranesi’s device of juxtaposing tiny human figures with immense architectural elements, sometimes heavily rusticated to emphasize the contrast further; reversals of weight and balance; and spatial ambiguities, playing off three-dimensional objects against two-dimensional shapes. He divorced familiar architectural elements—the base of a column, a pediment, a single Ionic volute—from their usual functions and placed them in new and witty contexts....


Madeleine Barbin

(b Liège, Jan 19, 1722; d Paris, July 31, 1776).

French engraver and print publisher. He was descended from a family of gunsmiths. In 1739 he went to Paris to join a brother who had established himself there as a goldsmith. Beginning as an engraver and chaser, in 1746 he obtained the rank of master. As early as 1757 he began to specialize in crayon manner (see Crayon manner §2) using a roulette, a process that brought him success; Jean-Charles François contributed in developing this process, but Demarteau, because of his superior skill, outstripped his rival. At a time when drawing was greatly in vogue, he offered the public faithful reproductions, first of red chalk drawings and then of drawings intended for decoration or teaching, in two or three colours, by contemporary artists. His oeuvre comprises 560 numbered plates, half of them after specially provided drawings by François Boucher (for illustration see Crayon manner) or after drawings owned by collectors such as ...