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Patricia Strathern

(b Langres, Haute-Marne, 1804; d Courcelles, nr Paris, 1892).

French photographer and draughtsman. A wealthy landowner and scholar who travelled widely, he made numerous sketches of Islamic architecture (untraced; engravings, Granada, Casa Tiros) and he took many very fine landscape photographs. During his travels in Italy, Asia Minor, Greece, Lebanon and Egypt (1841–5) he produced more than 900 daguerreotypes, which were used to illustrate his book on the Arabic monuments of the Middle East; he also photographed French monuments (e.g. La Tour St-Jacques, Paris, 1841; see Berger-Levrault, pl. 72). His work remained completely unknown until the plates (London, H. and A. Gernsheim priv. col.) were rediscovered in 1952. One of the earliest French landscape photographers, he devoted much of his time to his home at Courcelles, where he became a recluse after 1846. His only known contemporary exhibition was in Granada in 1833.

Monuments arabes et mauresques de Cordoue, Séville et Grenade (Paris, 1836)Monuments arabes d’Egypte, de Syrie et d’Asie Mineure...


Italo Zannier

(b Wolkashagen, nr Wismar, Mecklenburg, 1856; d Taormina, Sicily, 1931).

German photographer. After studying at the academy in Wismar, von Gloeden painted for some years, but during his first years in Taormina, which he had reached at the end of the Grand Tour in 1874, he abandoned painting for photography. He learnt the dry collodion process from a local photographer, Giovanni Crupi, who was subsequently involved in selling his photographs.

Von Gloeden’s photography is characterized by classically oriented subjects, with models in antique costume placed against classical backgrounds in the natural landscape of Taormina; his models were local youths, and are almost always posed nude or semi-clothed in theatrical postures, creating erotic tableaux vivants (examples in Rochester, NY, Int. Mus. Phot.). Although his pictures are marked by an overt display of male nudity, there is also a tendency to use the nude symbolically, in the manner of contemporary Italian painters such as Aristide Sartorio, whom von Gloeden seems often to imitate. Von Gloeden, who was at the same time a member of the ...


Dennis Radford

(b Dresden, Oct 16, 1813; d Stellenbosch, Oct 8, 1898).

German architect, builder, painter and photographer, active in South Africa. He showed a talent for drawing at an early age. In 1825 he entered the Akademie der Künste, Dresden, to study architecture, qualifying in 1829. He emigrated to Cape Town in 1838. His first commission in 1840 was the new Roman Catholic Cathedral of St Mary, Cape Town, undertaken with his partner Carel Sparmann, which was an unsuccessful venture. Hager then moved to Stellenbosch living principally by portrait painting (examples in Stellenbosch Mus.). It was not until 1854 that his next building, the Lutheran Church, Dorp Street, Stellenbosch, was built. Only in 1863, however, did he receive his first major commission, the remodelling of the Dutch Reformed Church, Stellenbosch. This involved the addition of a large nave, aisles and tower to the existing cruciform church. All the additions were strongly Gothic Revival in character, and the rest of the church was given a Gothic appearance. It would be an exaggeration to claim that it was Hager who introduced the Gothic style into Dutch Reformed churches, but it can be said that he introduced a purer strain of the Revival, although this was still far from ‘correct’. The church at Stellenbosch differs most from previous attempts to Gothicize Dutch Reformed churches in the tower, which has triple-stage base tracery windows surmounted by a broach spire. The open Gothic trussed roof marks its first appearance in Dutch Reformed churches. In ...



(b Baiernrain bei Bad Tölz, March 1, 1804; d Munich, April 18, 1877).

German lithographer and photographer. In 1816 he moved to Munich, where he studied drawing under the German sculptor Peter Schöpf (1757–1841) at the Polytechnische Schule and lithography under the German lithographer Hermann Josef Mitterer (1764–1829) at the Feiertagschule. From 1819 to 1825 he attended the Akademie der Künste in Munich. Acquiring a great mastery of lithography, he then worked as a portrait lithographer, producing works such as Otto I, King of Greece (1832; Vienna, Österreich. Nbib.). In 1833 he set up his own lithographic publishing house in Munich and the following year travelled to Paris to study under the lithographer Joseph Lemercier. In 1835 he was one of a number of artists commissioned by the government to provide lithographic reproductions of the paintings in the Königliche Gemäldegalerie in Dresden. Hanfstaengl in fact made the majority of these, 134 out of 195 being from his hand. The resulting prints were collected as ...


[née Elphinstone Fleeming]

(b Cumbernauld, nr Glasgow, June 1, 1822; d London, Jan 19, 1865).

Scottish photographer. She grew up in Scotland and England, but moved in 1857 with her husband Cornwallis Maude, 4th Viscount Hawarden, to his estate in Dundrum, Co. Tipperary, Ireland. She apparently took her first photographs, stereoscopic landscapes, in late 1857 or early 1858. In 1859 the Hawardens moved to London. In her drawing-room studio Lady Hawarden first made stereoscopic carte-de-visite-style portraits, but was soon using larger, single-image formats as well, and working in series. She posed her subjects in the windows and on the balcony of her home (see Ovenden, p. 45 and p. 80). From c. 1862 she concentrated on photographing her daughters in costume tableaux. She exhibited her work under the collective titles Studies from Life and Photographic Studies with the Photographic Society of London in 1863 and 1864, and was awarded the Society’s silver medal in both years. Viscountess Hawarden produced c. 850 photographs, all albumen prints from wet collodion negatives. A large proportion of these are in the ...


(fl Madrid, 1865).

Spanish photographer. He was considered the finest of the early portrait photographers in Madrid, and he had his most prosperous studio in the heart of Madrid’s photographic district (Calle del Prado, 10). At the time when cartes-de-visite began to flourish, Hebert became portrait photographer to the Spanish Royal House; in keeping with this station, he applied an academic style to his work. In his earliest years as portrait photographer he was also a painter of canvases and miniatures; this skill carried over into his photographic portraits, which were sometimes illuminated painstakingly by hand (Madrid, Pal. Real). His album of views of Salamanca (Montreal, Cent. Can. Archit.) is his highest achievement; although uncharacteristic of his day-to-day work, it is technically innovative and is probably the most accomplished and aesthetically appealing treatment of Salamanca found in 19th-century photography.

L. Fontanella: La historia de la fotografía en España desde sus orígenes hasta 1900...


Stanley G. Triggs

(b Edinburgh, July 9, 1831; d Montreal, April 4, 1913).

Canadian photographer of Scottish birth. He emigrated to Canada shortly after his marriage to Agnes Elder Robertson in October 1855. They settled in Montreal, where he worked in accountancy for several years. About 1857 he took up photography as a hobby, and in 1866 he went into it as a profession. In the early period of his business he made portraits, but his international reputation was based on his landscape photography. He received medals for work shown in London, Dublin, Paris and New York. He documented the major cities and resort areas of Quebec and Ontario and many of the villages in Quebec. He was especially fond of the wilderness and made many trips by birch bark canoe to the Blanche, the Rouge and other noted eastern rivers for the purpose of taking pictures for later sale, for example Ready for the Portage (albumen print, 1863–5; Montreal, McGill U., McCord Mus.; Notman Photographic Archvs)....


Hans Christian Adam

(b Vienna, July 27, 1863; d Vienna, July 11, 1918).

Austrian photographer. From 1882 to 1887 he studied physics, chemistry, astronomy and mathematics in Vienna and Jena, obtaining his doctorate in 1888. He began photography in 1887 and first exhibited his work in Salzburg in 1893. In 1894 he became a member of the Linked Ring, Brotherhood of the. Through the Wiener Camera-Klub he met Hans Watzek in 1891 and Heinrich Kühn in 1894, the three forming a group that exhibited under the names of Das Kleeblatt and Trifolium from 1897 to 1903 and toured Germany, Italy and the Netherlands. On seeing Robert Demachy’s gum prints, he experimented in the medium, partly in collaboration with Watzek and Kühn. Landscape remained his preferred subject. He exhibited three-coloured gum prints with the Vienna Secession in 1902 and joined the new Wiener Photo-Klub in 1904. He made regular contributions to the Wiener photographische Blätter from 1895 to 1898. By 1910 he had given up photography and turned to wood-engraving and etching....


L. J. Schaaf

(Frederick William )

(b Slough, March 7, 1792; d Collingwood, Kent, May 11, 1871).

English artist, photographer, scientist, and writer. The only son of the astronomer Sir William Herschel (1738–1822), John Herschel emerged as a commanding figure in 19th-century British science, making significant contributions to mathematics while still at school. Herschel’s scientific viewpoint came from the 18th-century ‘natural philosopher’s’ desire to pursue an eclectic exploration of the physical world. At the same time he was equally conversant with the implications of the explosive technological growth and change of the 19th century, when the term ‘natural philosopher’ gave way to ‘scientist’.

Within a week of learning of the public announcement of the concept of photography early in 1839, Herschel had independently perfected his own working process. Much of his previous research in light, optics, and chemistry was immediately applicable to the new invention, and the involvement of a scientist of Herschel’s stature did much to lend credence to early British efforts. His friendship and working alliance with ...


Sara Stevenson

Scottish photographic partnership formed in 1843 by David Octavius Hill (b Perth, 1802; d Edinburgh, 17 May 1870) and Robert Adamson (b St Andrews, 26 April 1821; d St Andrews, 18 Jan 1848). The partnership lasted little more than four years from June 1843 but is one of the most remarkable associations in photographic history. Their complementary skills achieved results with the primitive calotype process that have served as a standard and challenge to later photographers.

Robert Adamson had apparently trained as an engineer but found his health unequal to the work. Sir David Brewster (1781–1868), an associate of William Henry Fox Talbot, prompted him to take up photography instead. He set up a photographic studio in Rock House on Calton Hill, Edinburgh, in May 1843, having learnt Talbot’s calotype process from his brother, Dr John Adamson.

Robert Adamson’s arrival in Edinburgh coincided with an extraordinary upheaval in the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. The disruption of the Church and the forming of the Free Church of Scotland had an impact on such bystanders as the painter David Octavius Hill. He proposed a great historical painting and had begun the sketches for his picture during the Free Church meetings, when he encountered Brewster, who suggested using photography as an aid and introduced him to Adamson. They took photographs (e.g. ...


G. Lola Worthington

(b Buffalo, NY, 1950).

Tuscarora artist, writer, educator, and museum director. Hill studied at the Art Institute of Chicago (1968–70), and was awarded a Master of Arts degree from SUNY, Buffalo, NY (1980).

Intrigued with Seneca General Ely Parker (General Grant’s Military Secretary), Hill investigated Parker’s life, which took him to Washington, DC, for two years. Hill began to identify with Parker’s experience and realized he would devote himself to enlightening others about Native American arts, knowledge, education, and culture.

Hill was skilled in painting, photography, carving, beading, and basket weaving, and many of these works are located at the Canadian Museum of Civilizations, Quebec; the Woodland Indian Cultural Center, Brantford, Ontario; the Cleveland Museum of Art; the Philbrook Museum of Art, Tulsa, OK; the Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Washington, DC; and the Seneca Iroquois National Museum, Salamanca, NY. He taught at McMaster University, Mohawk College, Six Nations Polytechnic, and SUNY at Buffalo. Hill developed a culturally based Seneca Language curriculum and training models for teaching....


David Rodgers

(b 1837; d London, Nov 21, 1933).

English engraver and photographer. He began his career as a mezzotint-engraver, reproducing two works by Edwin Henry Landseer, the Shepherd’s Grave and the Old Shepherd’s Chief Mourner (both London, V&A), both published by J. McQueen in 1869. In the early 1870s he was employed by Frederic Leighton to photograph paintings and drawings, which he carried out with exemplary skill. Under Leighton’s patronage his clients soon included Edward Burne-Jones, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and G. F. Watts and he established himself as the leading specialist in the photographic reproduction of paintings in England. His reproductions, which sold widely in Britain and Europe, did much to popularize the artists’ works. He was also a gifted portrait photographer and devoted one day a week to sitters from artistic and literary circles, producing photographs of Camille Pissarro, Walter Pater and John Ruskin.

O. Mathews: Early Photographs and Early Photographers (London, 1973) T. Browne and E. Parton...


Carolyn Bloore

(b 1830; d Kensington, London, Dec 2, 1858).

English photographer. Considered one of the most skilful photographers of his day, Howlett is best known for his portraits of Isambard Kingdom Brunel standing in front of the anchor chains of the ‘Leviathan’ (the Great Eastern). In 1857 Howlett and the publisher Joseph Cundall (1818–95) were commissioned by the Illustrated London Times to photograph the building and launching of Brunel’s ship, the Leviathan. The photographs were then used to make engravings to illustrate the number devoted to the Leviathan, which was published on 16 January 1858. Many prints from Howlett’s photographs were published posthumously by the London Stereoscopic and Photographic Company.

Howlett became associated with Cundall through the Photographic Institution in New Bond Street in 1855. They formed two companies: Cundall, Howlett & Co. and Cundall, Howlett & Downes, advertising themselves as photographers of contemporary commercial subject-matter; country houses, churches, works in progress, views, wedding groups and paintings for three guineas a day plus travelling expenses. Howlett exhibited photographs of a wide range of subjects at the Photographic Society of London, including the ...


Gjergj Frashëri


(b Shkodër, Aug 15, 1860; d Shkodër, Dec 12, 1939).

Albanian painter, architect, sculptor and photographer. His grandfather Andrea Idromeno was a painter and a doctor of theology; his father, Arsen Idromeno, was a furniture designer and painter. Kol Idromeno took private lessons in painting (1871–5) at the studio of the photographer and painter Pietro Marubi (1834–1903). In 1875 he won a competition and began studies at the Accademia di Belle Arti, Venice. However, due to arguments with his teacher, he abandoned the school and continued his studies in one of the large studios in Venice (1876–8).

At first Idromeno produced works with both religious and secular themes that were noted for their highly realistic rendering of the human form (e.g. St Mary Magdalene, oil on canvas, 1877; Shkodër Mus.). Many of his biblical works were executed in churches within the Shkodër district, with perhaps his best work being the frescoes of the Orthodox Church in Shkodër, especially the fragment depicting ...


Sheryl Conkelton

(b Keesville, NY, April 4, 1843; d New York, June 30, 1942).

American photographer. Jackson began his career as a colourist and retoucher in photographic studios in New York and Vermont. After enlisting in the infantry and working as a sketcher of camp life, he began to travel. He reached Omaha, NE, in 1867 and set up a photographic studio with his brother, Edward Jackson. He began to make expeditions along the Union Pacific Railroad, photographing the Pawnee, Omaha, and Winnebago people, and points of interest in and around Omaha. He gained a contract with the E. & H. T. Anthony Company to supply them with 10,000 views of American scenery. In 1870 the government surveyor Ferdinand V. Hayden visited Jackson’s studio and invited him to join his US Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories. Jackson worked with Hayden every year until 1878, using wet collodion negatives to photograph the Oregon trail (1870), Yellowstone (1871), the Teton Mountains (...


Fiona Dejardin

revised by Mary Warner Marien

(b Grafton, WV, Jan 15, 1864; d New Orleans, LA, March 16, 1952).

American photographer. She studied art at the Académie Julian in Paris (1883–5) and at the Art Students League, Washington, DC. In 1888, in order to write and illustrate articles for popular magazines, she learnt photography from Thomas William Smillie (1843–1917), Director of the Smithsonian Institution’s Photography Division, Washington, DC. On opening a professional portrait studio in 1894, she became known for images of presidents, government officials and other notables. Her interest in public affairs and contemporary issues, such as the lives of coal-mine workers, led her to chronicle student life at Hampton Institute in Virginia and the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, where African American students were educated in the trades. In 1904 Johnston joined the Photo-Secession. She was one of the first professional photojournalists in the United States, and she is often referred to as America’s first female photojournalist. Johnston also arranged a 1920 Paris exhibition of photographs by professional and amateur women photographers. She was a juror for the second Philadelphia Salon of Photography, received four consecutive Carnegie Foundation grants to document historic gardens and architecture of the South and was made an honorary member of the American Institute of Architects in ...


Lee Fontanella

(b Spain, March 1826).

Spanish photographer. He trained in the family traditions of fine arts and music, but he gave these up for photography. He did, however, make photographic reproductions of paintings and portraits of numerous artists. Juliá was renowned in Spain for his commercialization of portrait cartes-de-visite in the second half of the 19th century. He is known almost exclusively for maintaining the most complete and organized gallery of important personages of his time, including politicians, actors and writers. The iconography of Spain’s 19th-century figures depends to a great extent on Juliá’s work, which complemented the more luxurious photographs made by his contemporaries. At his studio in Madrid he marketed a complete range of photographic paraphernalia; he also wrote several almanacs containing curious data....


Kevin Halliwell


(b Selezna, Tambov province, July 16, 1837; d Nizhny Novgorod, July 31, 1906).

Russian photographer, collector, painter and draughtsman. He was born into a peasant family, and he studied briefly as an icon painter before entering the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg in 1857. After graduating in 1864, he stayed in St Petersburg to learn photography, and he opened a portrait studio in Nizhny Novgorod in 1869. Like many of his colleagues at the Academy, he had worked as a retoucher of photographs for the sake of employment, and initially he regarded photography merely as material support. He gradually became more interested in the medium, however, especially in the decade 1875–85, when it supplanted his painting.

Karelin made many photographic portraits and genre studies, and he is important in both the technical and the aesthetic sense. His studio was larger than usual, with numerous windows, top lighting and glazed walls. He disdained the use of painted props, preferring instead to use real domestic furnishings. He was especially concerned to achieve a sharp focus in all fields in the photograph, and to this end he studied optics, independently realizing the connection between the focal length of the lens and the size of the aperture for depth of clarity. To achieve his ends he therefore introduced into portrait photography the use of additional diverging and converging lenses. He also managed, through the use of lenses, to overcome the more common distortions. This technical achievement gained him many gold medals at international photographic exhibitions in the 1870s and 1880s....


Barbara L. Michaels

(Stanton )

(b Fort Des Moines [now Des Moines], IA, May 18, 1852; d New York, NY, Oct 13, 1934).

American photographer. She studied painting at the Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, NY (1889–93), and in France and Germany (1894–5). She began her professional photographic career c. 1894, as a magazine illustrator, and then c. 1898 she opened a portrait studio on Fifth Avenue in New York. Her simplified portrait style dispensed with scenic backdrops and fancy furniture and was soon widely emulated. Robert Henri, (François-)Auguste(-René) Rodin, McKim, Mead & White, and the chorus girl Evelyn Nesbit were among her subjects. Beginning in 1898, her studies of mothers and children as well as her portraits were acclaimed at major photographic exhibitions such as the Philadelphia Photographic Salons. Käsebier was a founder-member of the Photo-Secession in 1902, and ‘Blessed art thou among women’ was among the photographs featured in the first issue of Camera Work in 1903. By 1907 she had begun to drift from the Photo-Secession, exhibiting with them for the last time in ...



Lee Fontanella

[Cánovas del Castillo, Antonio; Kavlak]

(b Madrid, 1874; d Madrid, Sept 1933).

Spanish photographer. He followed his uncle, a prominent conservative, into politics, but in the early 1890s, with his brother’s encouragement, he took up photography. By the next decade, recognized as one of the most important photographers in Madrid, Kaulak was one of the two vice-presidents of the newly formed Real Sociedad Fotográfica (Madrid) and a founder of its periodical, La Fotografía (first issue published 1 Oct 1901). Here he published images and articles on a great variety of technical and aesthetic subjects. In 1904 he took charge of the Portela gallery in the centre of Madrid (on Alcalá 4) and made it one of the most fashionable portrait studios of that era; for many years it housed his complete archives. Kaulak is also known for exquisite hand-painted portrait photographs, for example an Imitation of Velázquez (a Pseudo Margarita), in keeping with the painterly pictorial mode that characterized the Real Sociedad Fotográfica....