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Richard Lorenz

(b Denver, CO, Oct 29, 1931; d Albuquerque, NM, May 19, 2006).

American photographer and printmaker. His training as a painter and printmaker led him to produce eclectic photographic works that appropriate pre-existing mass-media imagery. Considering himself a ‘paraphotographer’, he seldom took his own photographs, instead selecting visual elements from pornographic magazines, advertisements and television and combining them to make ideological statements about contemporary culture. He made manifest the subliminal suggestions of advertising so as to reveal the ulterior hypocrisy and sexual provocation in the media. His finished pieces are notable for their inventive combinations of media and techniques such as photosensitized fabrics, high-contrast transparencies, acrylics, pastel, collage elements, offset lithography, transfer rubbings and Polaroid prints. He began teaching at the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1961.

Heinecken, Robert Are You Rea (Los Angeles, 1968) Mansmag (Los Angeles, 1969) Just Good Eats For U Diner (Los Angeles, 1971) He:/She: (Chicago, 1980) Recto/Verso (Portland, OR, 2006) J. Enyeart, ed.: Heinecken...


Reinhold Misselbeck

(b Dortmund, June 9, 1909; d Puerto Rico, Jan 31, 1993).

American photographer of German birth. He began taking photographs at the age of 15, before studying physics. He first published a photograph, of a Dortmund blast-furnace, as early as 1929. He studied photography in 1930–31 at the Bayrische Staatslehranstalt für Lichtbildwesen, Munich. After this he stayed in Italy, where he was commissioned to photograph Renaissance works of art, and he travelled extensively in Italy for Lloyd Tours. After travelling in China and Japan he made contacts with Life magazine and emigrated to the USA, where he worked as a freelance press photographer for such magazines as Fortune, Life and Harper’s Bazaar. He consistently used a Rolleiflex camera and photographed American subjects. He gave up his studio in New York in 1958 and moved to St Croix, Virgin Islands. He continually emphasized the positive side of life in his work; in the Virgin Islands he found that original beauty whose portrayal he saw as his particular task. His archive is largely at the University of Texas, Austin....


G. Lola Worthington

(b Buffalo, NY, 1950).

Tuscarora artist, writer, educator, and museum director. Hill studied at the Art Institute of Chicago (1968–70), and was awarded a Master of Arts degree from SUNY, Buffalo, NY (1980).

Intrigued with Seneca General Ely Parker (General Grant’s Military Secretary), Hill investigated Parker’s life, which took him to Washington, DC, for two years. Hill began to identify with Parker’s experience and realized he would devote himself to enlightening others about Native American arts, knowledge, education, and culture.

Hill was skilled in painting, photography, carving, beading, and basket weaving, and many of these works are located at the Canadian Museum of Civilizations, Quebec; the Woodland Indian Cultural Center, Brantford, Ontario; the Cleveland Museum of Art; the Philbrook Museum of Art, Tulsa, OK; the Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Washington, DC; and the Seneca Iroquois National Museum, Salamanca, NY. He taught at McMaster University, Mohawk College, Six Nations Polytechnic, and SUNY at Buffalo. Hill developed a culturally based Seneca Language curriculum and training models for teaching....


Mary Panzer

[Hiller, John Arthur; Hiller Sr, Lejaren]

(b Milwaukee, WI, 1880; d New York, 1969).

American photographer and illustrator. John Arthur Hiller worked for a Milwaukee lithographer as a teenager, before studying commercial illustration at the Art Institute of Chicago. It was in Chicago that he acquired his first camera and came up with his professional name, Lejaren à Hiller. By 1909 he had moved to New York and joined the New York Society of Illustrators, where his friends included artists Charles Gibson and John Sloan, as well as editors, art directors, and advertising agents. An avid amateur actor, Lejaren à Hiller staged pageants, artists’ balls, and charity events through the 1930s. In 1921 he married Sara Anita Plummer, his favourite model and a former Ziegfeld dancer.

Lejaren à Hiller’s first photography-based illustrations for fiction appeared in 1913. Over the next decade he combined stagecraft, casting, directing, and photographic technology to create convincing narrative illusions for the printed page. By the early 1920s (when Edward Steichen was just beginning his commercial career), his clients already included Corning Glass, Winchester Arms, and General Electric. He also made cover art for ...


Kate Sampsell-Willmann

(b Oshkosh, WI, Sept 26, 1874; d Hastings-on-Hudson, NY, Nov 4, 1940).

American photographer. At the age of 15 Hine began working as a sweeper in a bank to support his mother and sister. He studied at night and eventually enrolled in the Oshkosh Normal School (now University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh) intending to become a teacher. He transferred to the University of Chicago (1900–01) where he studied sociology and pedagogy with John Dewey (1859–1952). Hine followed his mentor Frank Manny (1868–1954) to New York to teach at the Ethical Culture School (1901–8). There, Manny gave Hine a camera as a pedagogical tool. Hine experimented with Pictorial photography and introduced his student Paul Strand to this style of photography on a trip to Alfred Stieglitz’s gallery 291 in 1907. In 1904 Hine recognized the significance of the immigration event unfolding at Ellis Island. Arriving as a talented amateur, Hine mastered the camera and the use of magnesium flares to depict the new immigrants, aiming to represent their human dignity and social worth. In ...


Klaus Ottmann

(b New York, Sept 24, 1955).

American sculptor, installation artist, draughtsman, photographer, and writer. Horn studied at the Rhode Island School of Design and at the Yale University School of Art. From 1975 she began to travel frequently to Iceland, whose primordial, unstable landscape influenced her artistic practice.

Always intent to maintain the integrity of her chosen materials, be it solid glass, literature, or the volcanic topography of Iceland, Horn created complex relationships between the viewer and her work. She was less interested in the meaning of the work (the ‘why’ and ‘what’) and more in the interaction of action and being the ‘how’, ultimately creating art that unites both.

Her series of aluminium sculptures, which feature fragments from the writings of Franz Kafka and Emily Dickinson, such as Kafka’s Palindrome (1991–4) or Keys and Cues (1994), are reminiscent of the Minimalist sculptures of Donald Judd and Michael Fried’s famous definition of Minimalist art as ‘literal art’. However, Horn’s ‘literal’ transfer of words onto matter changes the meaning of both the original words and the materials used: taken out of context, the meaning of the original words becomes amalgamated with the meaning embedded in the material. By adding literacy to matter, the sculpture becomes nonliteral, but not devoid of content....



[Horst P ; Bohrmann, Horst Paul Albert ]

(b Weissenfels, Aug 14, 1906; d Palm Beach, FL, Nov 18, 1999).

American photographer of German birth. After briefly studying Chinese in Frankfurt am Main and then working for a firm of importers, he entered the Kunstgewerbeschule in Hamburg, where from 1926 to 1928 he designed and made furniture. Following this he went to work as an architectural assistant to Le Corbusier in Paris. There he met George Hoyningen-Huene, who worked as a photographer for Vogue, and through him Cecil Beaton. In 1931 he himself began working as a photographer for Vogue, at first producing images influenced by Hoyningen-Huene. His photographs soon achieved an individual style, however, characterized by their striking light effects and sensual use of the models. In 1932 he spent several months working for American Vogue in New York, but his employment was terminated before the end of his six-month contract. He immigrated in 1935 to the USA, again working as a photographer for American Vogue while continuing to contribute to the French edition until the late 1940s. He spent much of his time in New York and Paris, meeting celebrities such as the film director Luchino Visconti and the fashion designer Coco Chanel....


Sheryl Conkelton

(b St Petersburg, Sept 4, 1900; d Los Angeles, CA, Sept 13, 1968).

American photographer of Russian birth, active also in France. He came to England during the Russian Revolution of 1917 and moved to Paris in 1921. He studied painting with André Lhote, attempted fashion drawing influenced by his teacher’s Cubism and collaborated with Man Ray on a fashion portfolio. After designing fashion backgrounds he began to photograph in 1925 and became chief photographer for Vogue in France. He was inspired by Edward J. Steichen, one of his predecessors at Vogue. Hoyningen-Huene very quickly developed his own sense of line and volume, utilizing back- and cross-lighting to create strong contrasts. He collaborated with Paul Outerbridge, photographing mannequins, and he made two amateur films on fashion and dance. He was an important presence at French Vogue from the mid-1920s to 1935; among his protégés was his lover, Horst. In 1935 he came to New York where he worked for Vogue and was influenced by the informality of Martin Munkacsi’s photographs. Hoyningen-Huene’s clean, sharp style is demonstrated in the well-known photograph of a male and a female model in Izod bathing costumes (...


Francis Summers

(b Trenton, NJ, Oct 11, 1934; d New York, Nov 26, 1987).

American photographer. He attended the High School of Art and Design, New York, from 1948 to 1952 and worked as a commercial photographer’s assistant before turning exclusively to fine art photography. Based in New York, he was a celebrity in its underground scene, yet never achieved a larger commercial success due to his irascible attitude towards art dealers. Using a considered and classical style of photography that changed little throughout his career, he situated himself within the trajectory of photography from Eugène Atget to Diane Arbus, always working in black and white with static and harmonious composition. Although he explored all the genres of classical photography, Hujar’s most developed work was his portraiture. Photographing his lovers, friends and other underground New York celebrities (such as Andy Warhol, the film maker John Waters and the writer Susan Sontag), Hujar’s photographic gaze managed to dissect the person from the persona, leaving us with a disarmingly vulnerable and tender picture of the human being. His portrait of the actor ...


American museum and school for photography in New York. Hungarian-born photographer Cornell Capa founded the International Center of Photography (ICP) in 1974. He intended the Center to collect and promote the work of documentary photographers and journalists, with the aim of increasing the status of their work among museums and collectors. The ICP originally collected the work of Cornell Capa, his brother Robert Capa, and David Seymour—all members of Magnum—as well as that of the American photojournalist Weegee. It also held large collections of photographs by Roman Vishniac, Henri Cartier-Bresson, and Lisette Model. Much of this work can be described as ‘concerned photography’, a term that Cornell Capa coined for photography concerned with social and political welfare.

In 1994 curator Miles Barth moved the ICP to a dedicated building in Midtown Manhattan and tripled the size of the collection. Since then the Center has embraced a democratic and inclusive definition of photography, including in its collections advertising photography, fashion photography, illustrated magazines, postcards, photo albums, and other forms of commercial and vernacular photography....


Kohtaro Iizawa

(b San Francisco, CA, June 14, 1921; d Tokyo, Feb 6, 2012).

Japanese photographer, active also in the USA. He was brought up in Japan and in 1939 returned to the USA, where he studied agriculture and architecture before photography. In 1952 he graduated from the Institute of Design, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, where he had studied under Harry Callahan and Aaron Siskind, and in 1953 he returned to Japan. He published works in Japanese photography magazines and a collection of his own photographs, Aru hi, aru tokoro (‘Someday, somewhere’; Tokyo, 1958). At the same time he photographed the Katsura Detached Palace in Kyoto, one of the great buildings of the 17th century, publishing the results as Katsura (Tokyo, 1960). This collection, which showed the influence of Callahan and Siskind, involved a new way of interpreting the traditional beauty of Japan and was somewhat shocking to the Japanese. His uncompromising style had a strong influence on the photographers working in the Vivo (Esperanto: ‘life’) group, especially Ikko Narahara, Eikoh Hosoe and Kikuji Kawada. Again resident in Chicago from ...


Sarah Urist Green

revised by Julia Detchon

(b Santiago, Chile, Feb 5, 1956).

Chilean architect, public interventionist, installation artist, photographer, and filmmaker, active in the USA. He first studied architecture at the Universidad de Chile in Santiago, then filmmaking at the Instituto Chileno-Norteamericano de Cultura, Santiago, concluding in 1981. Throughout his career, Jaar’s works have taken many forms in order to address global themes of injustice and illuminate structures of power. In over fifty projects he termed “public interventions,” Jaar conducted extensive research around the world to create site-specific works that reflect political and social realities near and far from his sites of exhibition. He created works—in gallery spaces and in public, often engaging spectator involvement—that present images critically and confront the social and political interests they serve.

Jaar’s first public intervention was Studies on Happiness (1979–1981), a three-year series of performances and exhibitions in which he asked the question, “Are you happy?” of people in the streets of Santiago. Inspired by ...


Sheryl Conkelton

(b Keesville, NY, April 4, 1843; d New York, June 30, 1942).

American photographer. Jackson began his career as a colourist and retoucher in photographic studios in New York and Vermont. After enlisting in the infantry and working as a sketcher of camp life, he began to travel. He reached Omaha, NE, in 1867 and set up a photographic studio with his brother, Edward Jackson. He began to make expeditions along the Union Pacific Railroad, photographing the Pawnee, Omaha, and Winnebago people, and points of interest in and around Omaha. He gained a contract with the E. & H. T. Anthony Company to supply them with 10,000 views of American scenery. In 1870 the government surveyor Ferdinand V. Hayden visited Jackson’s studio and invited him to join his US Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories. Jackson worked with Hayden every year until 1878, using wet collodion negatives to photograph the Oregon trail (1870), Yellowstone (1871), the Teton Mountains (...


[Johanna Alexandra ]

(b Thorn, W. Prussia [now Torun, Poland], Aug 17, 1896; d Concord, NH, May 9, 1990).

American photographer of German birth. From 1925 to 1927 she studied photography and film at the Bavarian State Academy of Photography, Munich. She took over her father’s photographic studio in Berlin in 1927 and became noted for celebrity portraits. Because of Nazism she left Berlin to establish a studio in New York (1935). She avoided a specific style, often presenting subjects casually, for example the portrait of Albert Einstein (1938; see Wise, p. 100) wearing a leather jacket. Another aspect of her professional work was published as Theatre and Dance Photographs (Woodstock, VT, 1982). She used the term ‘photogenics’ to describe the abstract black-and-white images that she produced by moving torches and candles over light-sensitive paper. In 1955 she moved to Deering, NH, and opened a studio.

K. Wise, ed.: Lotte Jacobi, intro. J. A. Fasanelli (Danbury, NH, 1978)V. Goldberg: ‘Lotte Jacobi’, American Photographer (March, 1979), pp. 22–31...


Morgan Falconer

(b Long Beach, CA, 1959).

American photographer. He emerged in the art world in the 1980s, incorporating found texts from popular sources into computer-manipulated photographic images. Untitled (John-John and Bobby) (1998; see D. Raminelli, p. 162), citing the son and brother of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, is typical in that each letter is set in a different colour while the whole text lies on a bright pastel ground, reminiscent of billboard advertisement. In 1988 Johnson began to place his own, often urbane, poetic and mannered writing into his images. In a series of computer-generated images of the early 1990s these texts are shown as if erected on signboards and situated in unusual, almost Oriental or comic-book landscapes. Untitled (Ghost Story #1) (1991; see D. Hickey, p. 34) depicts words seemingly falling out of the sky into a snowy landscape. Johnson acknowledged debts to Sherrie Levine and Al Held, yet the tenor of his work suggests that it evolved out of a reaction against the didactic, political, text-based art of the 1980s. His work often suggested satirical attacks on other artists who employed appropriation as a technique, and his reliance on text and humour has led him to be compared to Richard Prince. In the 1990s Johnson began to exhibit photographed drawings and altered animation cells from children’s cartoons. ...


Fiona Dejardin

revised by Mary Warner Marien

(b Grafton, WV, Jan 15, 1864; d New Orleans, LA, March 16, 1952).

American photographer. She studied art at the Académie Julian in Paris (1883–5) and at the Art Students League, Washington, DC. In 1888, in order to write and illustrate articles for popular magazines, she learnt photography from Thomas William Smillie (1843–1917), Director of the Smithsonian Institution’s Photography Division, Washington, DC. On opening a professional portrait studio in 1894, she became known for images of presidents, government officials and other notables. Her interest in public affairs and contemporary issues, such as the lives of coal-mine workers, led her to chronicle student life at Hampton Institute in Virginia and the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, where African American students were educated in the trades. In 1904 Johnston joined the Photo-Secession. She was one of the first professional photojournalists in the United States, and she is often referred to as America’s first female photojournalist. Johnston also arranged a 1920 Paris exhibition of photographs by professional and amateur women photographers. She was a juror for the second Philadelphia Salon of Photography, received four consecutive Carnegie Foundation grants to document historic gardens and architecture of the South and was made an honorary member of the American Institute of Architects in ...


Jessica S. McDonald

(b Morristown, NJ, Sept 29, 1940).

American photographer, curator, educator, and arts administrator. Jones played a significant role during the expansion of American photography in the 1970s. Jones studied photography and painting at the Maryland Institute College of Art in Baltimore, receiving a BFA in 1965, and in 1972 received an MFA in photography from the University of New Mexico under the mentorship of Van Deren Coke (1921–2004). In 1967 a museum studies fellowship brought him to the George Eastman House International Museum of Photography and Film in Rochester, New York, where he was later hired as an assistant curator, working alongside Beaumont Newhall and Nathan Lyons.

In 1971 Jones became the founding director of LIGHT Gallery, the first in New York City to represent exclusively contemporary photographers. At LIGHT, Jones championed emerging artists and those who experimented with book formats, historic processes, and combinations of media. In 1975 Jones was invited to serve as the founding director of the Center for Creative Photography (CCP) at the University of Arizona in Tucson. Two years later he established the university’s photography programme in the Department of Art, teaching there for over 30 years. In ...


Michelle Yun

(b Ithaca, NY, 1966).

American multimedia artist. A second generation Korean–American, Joo grew up in Minneapolis, MN, and studied briefly at Wesleyan University as a biology major. He took a two-year sabbatical to work at a seed science firm in Austria and subsequently received his BFA from Washington University, St. Louis, MO. In 1989, Joo went on to receive an MFA in sculpture from the Yale School of Art, in New Haven, CT, in 1991, after which he moved to New York.

Joo’s diverse body of work includes sculpture, video, installations and works on paper that deal with issues relating to cultural identity, the body and the relationship between science and art. His projects overlap thematically and formally as part of an ongoing series. Joo has variously implemented a wide range of materials, including monosodium glutamate, salt, taxidermy animals and even his own body, to explore the transformative moment that signals a change of state between matter and energy. Through this exchange, Joo seeks to illuminate the slippages in meaning of the subject within a prescribed cultural context. Time often functions as a cyclical and multilayered catalyst for transformation, exemplified best through his video installations such as ...


Reinhold Misselbeck

(b Mardin, Turkish Armenia, Dec 23, 1908; d Boston, MA, July 13, 2002).

Canadian photographer of Turkish Armenian birth. He moved to Canada in 1924 and worked as an assistant in his uncle’s photographic studio in Montreal (1926–8). He studied photography in Boston from 1928 until 1931. He opened his own portrait studio in Ottawa in 1932. His front cover for Life magazine (30 Dec 1941), a portrait of Winston Churchill, was the basis for his fame and career as a portrait photographer, which involved many of the most important contemporary figures from the worlds of politics, science and the arts (e.g. Beaumont Newhall).

Karsh’s photography used strongly focused lighting and dark backgrounds, creating a chiaroscuro effect seen, for example, in Ingrid Bergman (1946; see Karsh, 1983, p. 169). He tried to reflect a characteristic image of the person photographed through the pose, for example in the contemplative profile portrait of Ronald Reagan (1982; see Karsh, ...


Barbara L. Michaels

(Stanton )

(b Fort Des Moines [now Des Moines], IA, May 18, 1852; d New York, NY, Oct 13, 1934).

American photographer. She studied painting at the Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, NY (1889–93), and in France and Germany (1894–5). She began her professional photographic career c. 1894, as a magazine illustrator, and then c. 1898 she opened a portrait studio on Fifth Avenue in New York. Her simplified portrait style dispensed with scenic backdrops and fancy furniture and was soon widely emulated. Robert Henri, (François-)Auguste(-René) Rodin, McKim, Mead & White, and the chorus girl Evelyn Nesbit were among her subjects. Beginning in 1898, her studies of mothers and children as well as her portraits were acclaimed at major photographic exhibitions such as the Philadelphia Photographic Salons. Käsebier was a founder-member of the Photo-Secession in 1902, and ‘Blessed art thou among women’ was among the photographs featured in the first issue of Camera Work in 1903. By 1907 she had begun to drift from the Photo-Secession, exhibiting with them for the last time in ...