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John Fuller

(b Cuba, May 13, 1856; d Falmouth, Cornwall, May 12, 1936).

English photographer. He lived in Cuba and the USA until his widowed English mother took her two sons to England in 1869. He studied medicine at King’s College Hospital, London (1879), and later received a BA (1883) and a Bachelor of Medicine degree (1885) from Cambridge University. While at Cambridge he studied photography, and after a brief medical practice he left the profession in 1886 for photography and writing. After becoming a member of the Photographic Society of Great Britain in 1883, he achieved recognition writing for such journals as Amateur Photographer.

In East Anglia Emerson used his nautical skills and knowledge of natural history while photographing the fen country and its people. The results were albums such as Life and Landscape on the Norfolk Broads (London, 1886; see fig.), which he co-authored with the English painter Thomas F. Goodall (1856–1944), ...


Alexandra Noble

(b Paris, July 26, 1928).

American photographer and film maker. He studied film at the New School for Social Research, New York, from 1948 to 1950. From 1951 to 1953 he worked as a photographic assistant for the US Army Signal Corps and under Roy Stryker (1882–1975) at the Standard Oil Company, New Jersey, from 1950 to 1952. From 1953 he was a freelance photographer and film maker and a member of the Magnum photographic agency. Although he was highly successful in the field of advertising, his international reputation was based on his personal work. His street photographs, wry and quirky narratives, concentrated on the vagaries of human existence. They often relied heavily on visual puns. Unrelated and sometimes bizarre events, for example the small dog captured in mid-air in Ballycotton, Ireland (1968; see Photographs and Anti-photographs, p. 48), are held together within the 35 mm frame by strong graphic and formal compositions. Erwitt’s films include ...


Terence Pitts

(b New York, Sept 19, 1865; d Munich, Dec 16, 1936).

American photographer and teacher, active also in Germany. After attending the Bayerische Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Munich (from 1886), he began exhibiting his photography in New York. Around 1899 he came to the attention of Alfred Stieglitz and was praised by the critic Sadakichi Hartmann for the intelligent combination of painterly and photographic effects in his work. He became a member of the influential transatlantic photographic society, the Linked Ring, Brotherhood of the (1900), and was a founder-member of Stieglitz’s Photo-Secession.

Around 1901 he moved permanently to Germany, where he became a lecturer at the Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt für Photographie und Reproduktionstechnik, Munich. When Stieglitz visited him in 1907, the two made some of the first artistic experiments in colour photography with the newly developed autochrome process (see Photography, §I). In 1913 Eugene was appointed to the chair in Pictorial photography at the Akademie für Graphische Künste, Leipzig. Two years later, he renounced his American citizenship and became a German citizen....


Constance W. Glenn

(b Saint Louis, MO, Nov 3, 1903; d New Haven, CT, April 10, 1975).

American photographer and writer. He grew up in Kenilworth, a suburb of Chicago, but moved to New York with his mother after his parents separated. Primarily interested in literature, he sat in on lectures at the Sorbonne in Paris (1926–7), visited museums and bookshops, and thought of becoming a writer. In 1928 he acquired a camera and, out of frustration over his inability to find work and develop a literary means of expression, he decided to become a photographer (see fig.). Intermittent assignments instigated by friends such as Lincoln Kirstein made it possible for him to live a bohemian life in Greenwich Village, where he met the writers Hart Crane (1899–1932) and James Agee (1909–55) and the artist Ben Shahn, with whom he worked and shared a house for a short time. Within this circle he found his early influences (see fig....


Eric Gottesman

(b Detroit, MI, June 28, 1951).

American photographer and educator. She grew up in Detroit, received a BA from Antioch College in 1974 and studied photography with Minor White at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In eastern Kentucky from 1976 to 1980, she taught photography at the Appalshop media cooperative. In her book Portraits and Dreams (1985), her photographs mingled with those made by her subjects, rural Appalachian children. The book both borrowed from and challenged the documentary tradition (see Documentary photography) and in the process invented a new form of portraying people and communities. This publication later spawned a field known as ‘participatory’ or ‘pluralist’ photography, where the photographer and subject share in photographic production. Ewald went on to complete projects around the world—in Colombia, India, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, the Netherlands, Mexico, Tanzania, Labrador, Israel, and the United States—that questioned photographic authority and blurred the lines between photographer and subject, art and education....


[Amateur Photographic Exchange Club.]

American photographic society founded in 1861 and open only to amateur photographers. The three founder-members, all from New York, were Henry T. Anthony (1814–84) as President, F. F. Thompson as Secretary and Correspondent, and Charles Wager Hull. Its membership was originally restricted to 20 and, though this rule was later dropped, the members never numbered many more than this. Nevertheless they were from all over the USA and soon included most of the prominent American amateurs of the day. Among them were August Wetmore and Lewis M. Rutherford of New York; Coleman Sellers, Professor Fairman Rogers and Constant Guillou of Philadelphia; Titian R. Peale of Washington; Robert Shirner of Cumberland, Maryland; John Towler of Geneva, New York, author of The Silver Sunbeam (New York, 1864), and Professor E. Emerson of Troy, New York. The physician and writer Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809–94) was an honorary member on the strength of his achievements as a photographic pioneer. The Club’s existence reflected the enormous popularity of photography in the USA in the 1860s....


Reena Jana

(b Cologne, Germany, 1969).

American mixed-media artist of German birth and Asian descent. Ezawa studied at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf (1990–94) before moving to San Francisco in 1994. He received a BFA from the San Francisco Art Institute (1995) and an MFA from Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (2003). Ezawa is not a photographer, but his work centers around photography; he has used a variety of media, from digital animations to paper collages and aquatint prints, to revisit some of the world’s most familiar, infamous and historically significant news photographs, television broadcasts and motion-picture stills (see The Simpson Verdict). All of Ezawa’s work utilizes the artist’s signature style of flat, simple renderings that are cartoonlike and also suggest the streamlined and colorful style of Pop artist Katz, Alex.

Ezawa’s project, The History of Photography Remix (2004–6), exemplifies his approach to exploring the power of photographs as a mirror of reality and yet also a force that can manipulate memories of events and people. The project consists of images appropriated from art history textbooks, such as American photographer Cindy Sherman’s ...


Erika Billeter

(b Buenos Aires, April 18, 1932).

Argentine photographer and publisher. She trained as a painter at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires (1947–53), and took up photography only in the late 1950s. She studied in Buenos Aires first in the studio of Luis d’Amico and then in 1960 under Annemarie Heinrich. In 1960 she opened a studio in Buenos Aires with the Argentine photographer Alicia D’Amico (1933–2001). She contributed to La Nación and Autoclub, and in 1973, together with María Cristina Orive, she co-founded La Azotea, a publishing house specializing in Latin American photography. She was primarily a documentary photographer, whose reputation did not depend on the recording of sensational events. Her photographs were realistic portrayals of the Argentine way of life; they were taken using natural light and were not modified in the laboratory.

Orive, María Cristina

Facio, Sara Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Buenos Aires, 1968)Retratos y autorretratos...


Eliza A. Butler

(b Philadelphia, PA, Aug 28, 1916; d New York, March 2, 2001).

American photographer. Faurer studied design at the School of Commercial Art and Lettering in Philadelphia in the late 1930s and subsequently worked as a civilian photographic technician for the United States Army Signal Corps during World War II. He was hired by Lillian Bassman for a photography position at Junior Bazaar magazine where he met and began a close friendship with American photographer Robert Frank. Faurer moved to New York permanently in 1947 and attended Alexey Brodovitch’s Design Laboratory sporadically between 1947 and 1951. Splitting his time between New York and Europe, he continued to work for Harper’s Bazaar through to the 1960s and early 1970s. His work was also featured in the magazines Flair, Glamour, Look, Seventeen, and Vogue.

Faurer’s editorial work was prolific and well received; however, it was his independent art photography for which he became best known. In the 1950s and 1960s he exhibited in a handful of New York galleries and received important exposure from the Museum of Modern Art. Influenced by ...


Erika Billeter

(b Rio de Janeiro, 1843; d Rio de Janeiro, 1923).

Brazilian photographer. He trained as a photographer with Franz Keller (1835–90), from Mannheim, Germany, and worked as a photographer in Rio de Janeiro, before joining the photographic firm of Leuzinger. In 1865 he opened his own studio. He specialized in photographs of landscapes and shipping, as in View of Rio de Janeiro with Corcorada and Sugarloaf (c. 1875), but was also one of the first photographers of the Indian population of the Amazon region. In 1876 he exhibited his material—which was also of ethnological interest—at the Exhibition of the Century in Philadelphia, PA, winning the gold medal. In 1904, at the World’s Fair in St Louis, MO, he was the only photographer to win a gold medal. In 1907 he opened the first picture-house in Rio de Janeiro and concentrated his attention on the new technical possibilities.

E. Billeter: Fotografie Lateinamerika (Zurich and Berne, 1981)R. Fabian...


Mary Christian


(b New York, March 11, 1941).

American photographer. He studied photography privately with Lisette Model and with Alexey Brodovitch (1898–1971). In 1974 he began to photograph the élite at benefit galas and fashionable nightclubs in New York, for example Benefit, the Museum of Modern Art, June 1977 (see Fink, 1984, p. 23). After he moved to rural Martin’s Creek, PA, in 1980, his photography of social celebrations focused on the unmannered directness of his neighbours at family parties, such as Pat Sabatine’s Twelfth Birthday Party, May 1981 (see Fink, 1984, pp. 76–7, 79), and county fairs. His use of a hand-held flash sharply lit the faces of his subjects, and, with the high contrast that he favoured in his developing, the fleeting animation of his subjects’ gestures and expressions was intensified.

Fink, Larry Social Graces (Millerton, 1984; 2/New York, 2001)...


Aleesa Pitchamarn Alexander

(b Santa Maria, CA, Sept 19, 1967).

Aleesa Pitchamarn Alexander

American social practice artist.

He was awarded a BFA in photography from the San Francisco Art Institute in 1990 and an MFA from California College of the Arts in 1994. Not confined to any particular media, his work is characterized by its collaborative, socially engaged, and interdisciplinary nature; the thematic focus of his art ranges from exploring personal narratives to engaging with larger global conflicts. In addition to his formal artistic training he also received a certification in Ecological Horticulture at the University of California, Santa Cruz, where he studied organic farming. His interest in agriculture is a reflection of his larger involvement with communities and food systems, and has manifested in his work as both an artist and a pedagogue through the establishment of an outdoor classroom at an organic farm with his students at Portland State University, where he established the second MFA programme in social practice in the USA. His work often challenges notions of the ‘passive viewer’ or ‘singular artist’, by creating projects that are generated primarily by viewer/artist interaction. Fletcher instead acts as a kind of facilitator; for example, for ...


Shana Simone Lopes

[Hercule] (Romuald)

(b Nice, Feb 29, 1804; d Vila de São Carlos [now Campinas], Mar 27, 1879).

Brazilian draftsman, inventor, naturalist, and painter of French birth. Shortly after moving to Brazil at the age of 21, he worked as an artist on Baron von Langdorff’s survey expedition from 1825 to 1829, recording the indigenous population and environs of Brazil’s interior region. Following the survey’s completion, he settled in the southern village of São Carlos, where he attempted to publish a study on bird and animal sounds entitled Zoophonie. After encountering problems finding a print shop in the region, he devised his own stencil-inspired method of printing, a process he named poligraphie. Concurrently, he learned of the light-sensitive properties of silver nitrates through conversations with local pharmacist Joaquim Corrêa de Mello. Documented in his meticulous diary in January 1833, he noted his first experiments with the camera obscura and silver nitrates, which led to his invention of a photographic process. Through a four-hour exposure, he produced an image of a view from his window. His primary interest in the medium was reproduction, and to this end he developed a printing-out, negative–positive process capable of producing multiples of his drawings. Extant examples include a Masonic diploma and a sheet of pharmaceutical labels. In his diaries of ...


Tom Williams

(b Wooster, OH, March 11, 1936; d Buffalo, NY, March 30, 1984).

American photographer, filmmaker, teacher and theoretician. He attended the Phillips Academy in Andover, MA (1951–4), and he went on to study at Western Reserve University (now Case Western Reserve University) in Cleveland, OH, before moving to New York City in 1958. In his early years in New York, he worked as a photographer, but during the 1960s, he increasingly embraced filmmaking over photography, and he became widely known as a key exemplar of structuralist film for his experiments in non-narrative filmmaking. Beginning in the late 1960s, he taught film, photography and design at Hunter College (1969–73) and in the Center for Media Study at the State University of New York at Buffalo (1973–84). He also taught film history at Cooper Union (1970–73) and the School of Visual Arts (1970–71). He died in 1984 from lung cancer after a short illness....


Constance W. Glenn

(b Zurich, Nov 9, 1924).

American photographer and film maker of Swiss birth. He emigrated to New York City in 1947, having worked in the studios of various Swiss photographers and film makers, including that of Michael Wolgensinger (1913–90). The small, handmade book, 40 Fotos (artist’s col.) prompted Alexey Brodovitch (1898–1971) of Harper’s Bazaar to hire the young, unknown photographer. The book included examples of a wide variety of his work and provided evidence of his early skill at juxtaposing images and creating photographic sequences.

Until 1951 Frank remained a regular contributor to Harper’s Bazaar, where he met the photographer Louis Faurer (b 1916), but he also did freelance work for magazines such as Look, Life and Fortune; for his own pleasure he recorded New York with a newcomer’s vision, creating images of uncanny insight and poetic spareness. These qualities would remain hallmarks of later work that critics found to be a harsh and unpalatable judgement of prosperous, post-war America. ...


Virginia Dodier

(b Brooklyn, NY, Oct 23, 1929).

American photographer and film maker. He was mainly self-taught in photography but studied briefly under Alexey Brodovitch (1898–1971). In 1958 he became a freelance photojournalist, working for such publications as the Sunday Times Magazine, the New York Times Magazine, Der Stern and Geo. Freed worked primarily in 35 mm black and white in the tradition of ‘concerned photography’, typical of the Magnum agency, which he joined in 1970. Through such images as Harlem, New York (1967; see 1985 exh. cat., p. 124) he showed his interest in social groups, for example Black and Jewish communities. His works have been published in a number of collections (see photographic publications). Freed’s films explore similar themes, for example Dansende vromen (‘Dance of the pious’; 1963) about Hasidic Jews, and The Negro in America (1966), both made for Netherlands Television.

Freed, Leonard Black and White America (New York, 1968)...


revised by Margaret Barlow

(b Aberdeen, WA, July 14, 1934).

American photographer. He first became interested in photography in 1948, and from 1953 to 1955 he studied under Edward Kaminski (1895–1964) at the Art Center of Los Angeles. In 1956 he settled in New York and supported himself by producing photographs of jazz musicians for record jackets, for example Count Basie (1957; see Malle, pl. 39). He also produced photographs influenced by (Jean-)Eugène(-Auguste) Atget, Walker Evans, and Robert Frank, and, like his subsequent works, these were all in black and white. In 1958 he discovered the work of the little-known photographer E(rnest) J(ames) Bellocq from whose gelatin dry-plate negatives of the brothels of New Orleans he took prints, which were included in the exhibition E. J. Bellocq: Storyville Portraits at the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1970. In 1960, 1962, and 1977 Friedlander was awarded Guggenheim Memorial Foundation grants, and his works began to appear in such periodicals as ...


Michelle Yun

(b Manila, 1954).

Filipino filmmaker and photographer, active in the USA. Fuentes received a BA in Anthropology and Behavioral Science in 1974 from the De La Salle University in Manila. The following year he traveled to the United States to study at the Wharton School of Business, Philadelphia, PA, receiving an MBA in 1977. In 1981, he moved to Washington, DC to study Photography at the Corcoran School of Art under Mark Power. Fuentes subsequently received a Presidential Fellowship in 1991 from Temple University to pursue a MFA in Film and Video.

Fuentes began his artistic practice as a photographer and is best known in this medium for two series, Circle of Fear (1981–91) and Face Fusion (1986–9). These two bodies of work initially sprang from the artist’s feeling of disconnection towards both his Filipino roots and his adopted home in America. The Circle of Fear works incorporate a syncretic mix of Filipino folk culture with Western iconography to create fetishistic still lifes with a Post-modern gothic sensibility. ...


Monica McTighe

(b London, 1961).

British photographer, active also in America. Fuss worked with historical photographic processes to produce personal symbolic images with themes such as birth, death, and spirituality. He was born in 1961 in London and spent his childhood in Australia and England. His father died when Fuss was a child. As a student, he became interested in nature and science, themes that emerged in his images. He began as an apprentice at a commercial photography firm in Sydney. Settling later in New York City, he worked as an exhibition photographer and became interested in pinhole photography. He produced a series of pinhole images of Classical sculptures in museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and the British Museum in London after dark. In the 1990s he made photograms, recording images of ripples on the surface of a pool. Using flashlights suspended over the photosensitive surface, he made abstract images that hint at natural rhythms. His photograms of infants partially submerged in water and snakes swimming through water suggested a connection with religious iconography. His best-known works in this series are titled ...


(b Montreal, May 1934; d Montreal, April 16, 2003).

Canadian painter and photographer. After studying briefly in Montreal, he moved to New York in 1956 and enrolled at the Parsons School of Design. He later studied painting at the New York School of Design (1957) and at New York University. He first exhibited in 1958 at the Galerie Artek in Montreal and the following year had his first one-man show there. He was in New York until 1960 and the paintings executed during this period clearly show the influence of Abstract Expressionism, for example Untitled (1956; see 1978 exh. cat., p. 128).

After returning to Montreal Gagnon made a series of collage works using newspaper and other printed matter, similar to those of Rauschenberg. These were followed in 1961 by a series of landscape paintings in which the paint was applied in a spontaneous, Expressionist manner, as in Landscape (1961; Ottawa, N.G.). During 1961–2 he worked on a number of shallow box constructions containing various objects and materials. In ...