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Article

Peter Stansky

(b Walthamstow [now in London], March 24, 1834; d London, Oct 3, 1896).

English designer, writer and activist. His importance as both a designer and propagandist for the arts cannot easily be overestimated, and his influence has continued to be felt throughout the 20th century. He was a committed Socialist whose aim was that, as in the Middle Ages, art should be for the people and by the people, a view expressed in several of his writings. After abandoning his training as an architect, he studied painting among members of the Pre-Raphaelites. In 1861 he founded his own firm, Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. (from 1875 Morris & Co.), which produced stained glass, furniture, wallpaper and fabrics (see §3 below). Morris’s interests constantly led him into new activities such as his last enterprise, the Kelmscott Press (see §5 below). In 1950 his home at Walthamstow became the William Morris Gallery. The William Morris Society was founded in 1956, and it publishes a biannual journal and quarterly newsletter....

Article

Gordon Campbell

American, publicly-owned glassworks founded near Utica, NY, in 1810. In 1833 the factory was bought by the Grainger family, who moved it in 1844 to Mount Pleasant, near Saratoga, where it was renamed the Saratoga Mountain Glass Works; it later became known as Congressville. The factory made bottles and flint-glass tableware....

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American glass factory founded in 1837 by Deming Jarves (1790–1869), who was also instrumental in establishing the New England Glass Co. and the Boston & Sandwich Glass Co. Located in South Boston, the Mt Washington Glass Works was operated by Luther Russell until his death. Jarves’s son, George D. Jarves, was a partner in the firm with others from 1846 until it was sold in 1861 to William L. Libbey (1827–83) and Timothy Howe (d 1866). In 1866 Libbey became sole proprietor, and in 1870 he moved the works to a modern factory in New Bedford, MA. Although the early products were apparently mundane, including lamps, tubes for table lamps, shades and table glass, the art wares produced after 1880 established the firm’s reputation. Beginning in 1878 the company patented several types of opal and shaded effects including ‘Lava’, ‘Burmese’, ‘Peachblow’, ‘Albertine’, ‘Royal Flemish’ and ...

Article

Halina Chojnacka

[Radziwiłł]

Glassworks situated in Naliboki, Poland (now Belarus’). Established by Princess Anna Radziwiłł (1676–1746), it was in production from 1722 to 1862. The Naliboki Glassworks, managed by Constantin François Fremel (c. 1670–1750), produced ruby glass and high-quality crystal glass that had a tendency to crizzling and specialized in vessels and candlesticks. It practised relief engraving, and surviving documents record that it also produced wares decorated with applied relief ornament of pressed glass. The goblets were, to a certain degree, modelled on glass produced in Dresden and Berlin. Engraved ornament features figural scenes (examples in Tarnów, Dist. Mus.), portraits and coats of arms, usually of the Radziwiłł family and Augustus III (examples in Corning, NY, Mus. Glass; Växjö, Smålands Mus.;). The Naliboki Glassworks occasionally used the services of Dresden engravers: Johann Heinrich Heintze (fl c. 1715–48) between 1725 and 1727; Johann Christof Dreher from 1728 to 1732...

Article

Term used for a manifestation of the Neo-classical style initiated in the decorative arts of France during the Second Empire (1852–71) of Napoleon III and his wife, the Empress Eugénie. Based on the standard repertory of Greco-Roman ornament, it combined elements from the Adam, Louis XVI and Egyptian styles with a range of motifs inspired by discoveries at Pompeii, where excavations had begun in 1848; it can be identified by the frequent use of Classical heads and figures, masks, winged griffins, sea-serpents, urns, medallions, arabesques, lotus buds and borders of anthemion, guilloche and Greek fret pattern. Néo-Grec was eclectic, abstracted, polychromatic and sometimes bizarre; it enjoyed popularity as one of the many revival styles of the second half of the 19th century.

In Paris, the Néo-Grec style was best exemplified in the famous ‘Maison Pompéienne’ (1856–8; destr. 1891) designed for Prince Napoléon Bonaparte (see...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker and Gordon Campbell

American glass factory founded in 1818 in East Cambridge, MA, by Deming Jarves (1790–1869), who developed and managed the company, and his associates. By the early 1820s more than 100 employees produced $150,000 worth of plain, moulded and cut glass using 2 furnaces, 24 glass-cutting mills and a red lead furnace. In 1826 Thomas H. Leighton (1786–1849) became superintendent of the works. During the 1850s the firm had grown to include 500 employees who operated 5 furnaces of 10 pots each to produce $500,000 worth of ware. Following the Civil War (1861–5), the firm’s fortunes declined, although the quality of its products was always held in the highest esteem. In 1878 the works were leased to William L. Libbey (1827–83), who had been agent for the company since 1872. He ran the firm from 1880 until his death in 1883, with his son ...

Article

Peter Bermingham

(b Richmond, VA, Nov 10, 1827; d New York, March 31, 1912).

American painter and stained-glass designer. He grew up in Clarksville, TN, where his stepfather was a tailor and his mother a milliner. In 1846 his request to be accepted as Asher B. Durand’s pupil was turned down, but Newman managed three years later to exhibit in the American Art-Union in New York. In 1850 he studied with Thomas Couture in Paris for five months. On a second trip to Paris in 1854, he visited Jean-François Millet in Barbizon. He worked as a portrait painter and occasional teacher of drawing, before serving briefly as an artillery lieutenant in the Confederate Army. After the Civil War, he apparently remained in New York, apart from a trip to Barbizon in 1882 and to Paris in 1908.

Although in 1872–3 he advertised himself as a portrait painter in Nashville, TN, and in the 1870s worked briefly as a stained-glass designer, Newman was primarily a painter of small compositions with a few figures, usually with a well-known religious, literary, or secular theme. One of his favourite subjects was the Virgin and Child (e.g. ...

Article

Gordon Campbell and K. Somervell

(b Wordsley, Nov 13, 1836; d 1902).

English glass-decorator. In 1859, after an apprenticeship with Benjamin Richardson in Stourbridge, Northwood established a workshop in nearby Wordsley, where he decorated blanks, concentrating on naturalistic and Classical styles (e.g. vase, 1878; Kingswinford, Broadfield House Glass Mus.). Northwood was also responsible for such technical innovations as the template etching machine (1861) and the geometrical etching machine (1865). He was also an important figure in the revival of the Roman art of cameo glass. In 1783 the Portland Vase (early 1st century ad; London, BM) had been brought to England by Sir William Hamilton. Early attempts to reproduce it in glass were unsuccessful. In 1873 the Red House glassworks in Stourbridge made the blank, and Northwood executed the carving, completing it in 1876. His other copies include the Elgin Vase (1873, Birmingham City Art Gallery) and the Pegasus Vase (1882, Washington, Smithsonian).

Northwood was in partnership with his brother Joseph (...

Article

Olga Drahotová

[Ger. Gratzen]

Czech centre of glass production. By the mid-16th century four glassworks were in production in Nové Hrady, and from the early 17th century wares included distillation glass, angsters, bottles, kettles, candlesticks, casks and goblets decorated with enamelling, cold colours or diamond-point engraving. By 1620 the town formed part of the Buquoy estate, and in 1673 a glassworks was founded by Louis Le Vasseur d’Ossimont (d 1689), which worked in conjunction with the factories at Lužnice (1677–1715) and Pohoří (1693–1777). At the end of the 17th century Buquoy crystal was regarded very highly. The glassworks was the first to develop a glass that was very translucent and suitable for deep cutting. In the 19th century the glassworks at Černé Údolí was established. An important figure was Josef Meyr (1732–1829), who with his son Johann Meyr (1775–1841) produced outstanding crystal glass at the ...

Article

[Ger. Haida]

Czech centre of glass production. Since the 1760s it has been the main centre for the trade in Bohemian glass produced in the surrounding area. In connection with the activity of the nearby glassworks at Chřibská and Falknov, since the mid-16th century numerous glass painters and, from the 1660s, glass engravers, grinders and enamellers have been active there. The success of exported Bohemian glass at the end of the 17th century brought about a greater concentration of decorating workshops and glass exporters in the area. The increase in glass traders gave rise to the first commercial companies, which from 1730 established trading houses in countries all over Europe. The refining workshops included the painting workshop of Friedrich Egermann (1777–1864), the inventor of Lithyalin glass (1829). In 1870 the Zeichnen- und Modelierschule was established, soon converted into a specialist glassmaking school. In the first quarter of the 20th century the ...

Article

Olga Drahotová

[formerly Neuwelt]

Czech glassworks. They were founded on the estate of the counts of Harrach in the Krkonoše Mountains in 1712 by Elias Müller (1672–1730). In 1732 two cutting workshops were set up at the works, and high-quality tableware and coloured glass were introduced. In 1764 production was broadened to include painted, opaque-white glass, made to resemble porcelain, and blue, green and sealing-wax red glass. In the same year the works were bought by Graf Ernst Guido Harrach (d 1783). Between 1773 and 1795 the factory was under the direction of the highly skilled glassmaker Anton Erben (d 1795), who was at first administrator and from 1778 tenant of the factory. After 1796 the works were reorganized, and after 1808 they came under the direction of Johann Pohl (fl 1808–50), whose experience contributed greatly to the factory’s success. The factory became particularly well known during the Biedermeier period, and it was famed for its crystal glass and for the quality of its cut decoration, with the result that it was highly acclaimed at the industrial exhibitions of the late 1820s. In ...

Article

Bailey Van Hook

(b Bergen Heights, NJ, June 10, 1874; d Philadelphia, PA, Feb 25, 1961).

American painter, illustrator, stained-glass artist and author. Although she worked as an illustrator early on, Oakley is remembered as a muralist. Oakley attended the Art Students League, New York, Académie Montparnasse, Paris, and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, but, most importantly, a class in illustration with Howard Pyle at the Drexel Institute, Philadelphia. Pyle teamed her together with Jessie Willcox Smith (1863–1935) to illustrate an edition of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s Evangeline (1897). Smith and Oakley and another illustrator, Elizabeth Shippen Green (1871–1954), rented adjoining studios in Philadelphia and subsequently lived together in a supportive camaraderie until Green’s marriage in 1911. During her brief career as an illustrator, Oakley completed over 100 illustrations, mostly for novels and short stories.

In 1900 she created a stained-glass window on speculation, which led to a major commission for stained-glass windows, mural decoration and a mosaic altarpiece for a church in Manhattan. That project brought her to the attention of architect Joseph Huston (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

French glasshouse founded in 1850 by E. S. Monot at LaVillette; it moved to Pantin, near Paris, in 1855. The company specialized in clear glass with cut decorations, chandeliers, and glass tubes. In the 1860s it began to produce coloured glass. In 1878 Monot’s son and a M. Stumpf joined him as directors of the factory, and by ...

Article

John Kenworthy-Browne and Lin Barton

(b Milton Bryant, Beds, Aug 3, 1803; d Sydenham, Kent, June 9, 1865).

English horticulturalist, garden designer, and architect. He established his reputation as a gardener at Chatsworth House, Derbys, where he developed new construction techniques for glasshouses. This work inspired his acclaimed and influential ‘Crystal Palace’, which housed the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London (see fig.).

The youngest son of a farmer, Paxton lacked formal education and his professional training was in horticulture. He worked at Battlesden, Beds, and other country house gardens before employment in 1823 at the Horticultural Society’s new garden at Chiswick. While there he encountered the 6th Duke of Devonshire, who, impressed by his intelligence and bearing, asked him in May 1826 to be head gardener at Chatsworth, Derbys. Paxton rapidly brought the neglected garden to be possibly the most famous and influential in England. From 1831 he also edited and wrote in botanical magazines, becoming widely known and publishing many details of plants and improvements at Chatsworth (e.g. ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

German glass manufactory. In 1866 the German glassmaker Fritz Eckert (c. 1840–c. 1905) founded a factory in Petersdorf, Silesia (now Pieszków, Poland). At first the factory specialized in historical styles ranging from Islamic designs to enamelled 17th- and 18th-century German Humpen. In 1890 a group of original designs in opaque glass known as ‘Cyprus glass’ was introduced, and from ...

Article

Gavin Townsend

(b Lichtenheim, Lower Bavaria, Dec 3, 1818; d Munich, Feb 10, 1901).

German chemist. Although best known for his research into the causes of cholera and typhoid, he was also involved in art and architecture. In 1845, a year after completing his doctorate in chemistry, he obtained a post at the Royal Mint of Bavaria. Here he discovered a way of reproducing porporino, an antique red glass much used by the ancient Romans and admired by Ludwig I of Bavaria. In 1849, when a professor of medical chemistry at the university in Munich, Pettenkofer developed, at the request of the architect Leo von Klenze, a process of manufacturing a building cement that was the equal of Portland cement. Pettenkofer’s greatest contribution to art, however, lay in the restoration of paintings. In 1863 he was asked to find a way of reversing the growth of mildew on the varnishes of oil paintings in the various galleries of Munich. Through experimentation and microscopic analysis, he discovered that the varnishes could be cleared through the application of hot alcohol vapour. In this endeavour Pettenkofer introduced the use of the ...

Article

English ceramic manufactory. In 1892 the Pilkington family, which had been making window glass since 1826, founded Pilkington’s Royal Lancastrian Pottery and Tile Company in Clifton, near Manchester. It was managed by William Burton (formerly of Wedgwood) and his brother Joseph. Initially the factory made architectural tiles, but in 1897...

Article

Gordon Campbell

[from Fr. potiche: ‘glass vase’]

The mid-19th-century fashion for imitating Japanese or other porcelain by covering the inner surface of glass vessels with designs on paper or sheet gelatine. Those who adopted the craze were called potichomanists.

A Handbook to Potishomachia, or the Art of Ornamenting and Decorating Glass, Giving to it the Appearance of Porcelain...

Article

Charles T. Little

(b Paris, 1931; d May 1, 2009).

French art historian of medieval art. As Professor of the University of Paris IV (Paris-Sorbonne) from 1981 until 1998, she was a leading specialist in French architecture and stained glass. She was president of the French section of Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi from 1980 to 1988. Studying at the Ecole du Louvre, she wrote initially on the sculpture of Reims, followed by a study on Notre-Dame-en-Vaux at Châlons-en-Champagne, Notre-Dame-en-Vaux. Her doctoral dissertation for the Sorbonne, under the direction of Louis Grodecki (1910–82), became an important monograph on St Remi at Reims. This was later followed by several books on Chartres Cathedral that stand out as classic studies. Aside from technical studies of the origin and development of the flying buttress, she was able to determine building sequences for a number of monuments by utilizing dendrochonological analysis of wooden beams. Her interest in Gothic architecture lead to a new series devoted to the Gothic monuments of France by Editions Picard. Her important contribution to Zodiaque publications included books on the ...

Article

Jean A. Follett

(b Boston, MA, 1842; d Boston, MA, 1910).

American architect, stained-glass designer, furniture designer, and photographer. Preston was the son of Jonathan Preston (1801–88), a successful builder in Boston. William completed a year’s study at the Lawrence Scientific School in Cambridge, MA (later incorporated into Harvard University), and then went to Paris where he enrolled briefly in the Atelier Douillard. He returned to Boston in 1861 to work with his father, with whom he remained in partnership until the latter’s death. William then practised independently until his own death.

Preston was a prolific architect, designing over 740 buildings in the course of a career spanning 50 years. His early work was in the French Renaissance style, as seen in his Boston Society of Natural History building (1861–4), a tripartite structure with its floor levels arranged to equate with the proportions of the base, shaft, and capital of a Classical column. It has monumental Corinthian columns and pilasters and a central pediment flanked by a balustraded parapet. He worked in a typically eclectic manner during the 1870s and became an extremely fine designer in the Queen Anne Revival style in the 1880s and early 1890s. The varied massing, stained-glass windows, terracotta, moulded brick, and carved-wood detail of the John D. Sturtevant House (...