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Article

Gordon Campbell

Small ceramic ornaments manufactured in Germany (notably by Conta and Böhm in Pössneck, Saxony) and sold at fairs in Victorian and Edwardian England and in America. Fairings were typically 75–100 mm high and made from soft-paste porcelain; the rectangular bases made them suitable for display on mantelpieces. They were usually humorous and often risqué. Fairings are now reproduced by potteries such as Kellerton Ceramics in Shropshire....

Article

Elizabeth Collard

Canadian family of potters of American origin. They were descended from English colonists and were potting in Vermont by 1795. They made two important contributions to Canadian pottery: they introduced stoneware potting and promoted Canada’s first whiteware pottery. In 1840 Moses Farrar (b c. 1810) and Isaac Newton Soule built the first stoneware pottery in Canada in St Johns (now St Jean, Quebec), importing the necessary American clay for salt-glazed wares via the Lake Champlain-Richelieu River waterway. In the 1850s Ebenezer Lawrence Farrar (d 1857), proprietor of potteries in both Fairfax, VT, and St Johns, acquired the assistance of his brother George Whitfield Farrar (1812–81). When Ebenezer Farrar died, George Farrar remained in St Johns to make earthenware and stoneware and to enlarge the scope and nature of Canadian ceramics by vigorous promotion in 1873 of the St Johns Stone Chinaware Co. for white-bodied earthenware. Though only briefly connected with the final organization of this company, George Whitfield Farrar had been the prime mover behind it. In ...

Article

Damie Stillman

Architectural and decorative arts style that flourished in the USA from shortly after the acknowledgement of independence in the Treaty of Paris (1783) until c. 1820. The term is derived from the period surrounding the creation of the federal constitution in 1787 and was in use in a political sense by that year. Essentially it was a form of Neo-classicism, strongly influenced by manifestations of that style in England and, to a lesser extent, in France; but at times certain more conservative qualities inherited from the previous Colonial period are also present. The inspiration of European, and especially English, Neo-classical architecture was to be expected in a society grounded in that of 18th-century England; but an added impetus was the association often cited at the time between the fledgling American republic and the ancient Roman one.

Although a few indications of European Neo-classical influence are found in the American colonies before the Revolution began in ...

Article

Joellen Secondo

(b Brussels, Nov 28, 1854; d Helsinki, 1930).

Belgian painter and potter. He studied painting at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts et Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Brussels from 1878 to 1880. He was a founder-member of XX, Les, a group of 20 avant-garde artists who held annual exhibitions of paintings and decorative arts between 1884 and 1895. Initially Finch painted land- and seascapes in the Impressionist style. In 1887—after Seurat and Camille Pissarro exhibited with Les XX—Finch adopted their divisionist painting technique. An early work in the Neo-Impressionist style, the Race Course at Ostende (1888; Helsinki, Athenaeum A. Mus.), shows his unfamiliarity with this new technique. His subsequent proficiency is evident in the work English Coast at Dover (1891; Helsinki, Athenaeum A. Mus.), which also makes use of a border constructed of divisionist dots, a device he borrowed from Seurat. Finch came to excel at rendering the atmospheric effect of the damp climate of the Channel coast—his main subject—through the use of widely spaced dots in related colour values. Finch served as a liaison between ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

English family of potters based at Fremington, Devon. George Fishley (1771–1865) established the pottery, which made both domestic earthenware and figures. The best-known member of the family was George’s grandson, Edwin Beer Fishley (1832–1911), whose work was often modelled on Etruscan and Minoan pottery. His grandson, William Fishley Holland (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Earthenware portrait figures made in Staffordshire potteries in the 19th century; the backs were left unmodelled and undecorated. The design emerged in the 1830s, and flatbacks were soon being made by more than 100 Staffordshire potteries. The figures were usually made by press moulding. The most popular flatbacks portrayed members of the royal family, but there are also images of notable public figures, including clergy, soldiers and authors. There is a large collection of flatbacks in the Potteries Museum and Art Gallery in Stoke-on-Trent....

Article

Athena S. E. Leoussi

(b Paris, Feb 15, 1802; d Annet-sur-Marne, June 27, 1868).

French painter and pastellist. The son of a porcelain-maker, he first learnt painting in the studio of a porcelain decorator. After a period as a theatre decorator and a dancer, he became a pupil of the animal painter Joseph François Pâris (1784–1871). He devoted himself to landscape painting and became one of the precursors of plein-air painting. Referring to himself as a ‘romantique-naturaliste’, he was a member of the new Naturalist school of landscape painting that emerged in the 1830s in opposition to the official classicism of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He was one of the first to paint sur le motif (from life) in the forest of Fontainebleau, and he also made frequent visits to Barbizon, joining that group of artists known as ‘le groupe de Marlotte’. His works consist largely of views of Normandy and the Paris environs; he concentrated on thatched cottages, farmyards, prairies, ponds and riverbanks. He made his début at the Salon in ...

Article

(b Paris, June 17, 1820; d Paris, March 1, 1900).

French painter, designer and printmaker. He was a pupil of Jules Jollivet, Pierre Lecomte and Eugène-Ammanuel Amaury-Duval, for whom he also acted as executor. From 1857 to 1885 he worked mainly as a designer for the Sèvres manufactory. He exhibited regularly at the Paris Salon from 1842 to 1880; from 1864 he could exhibit his works at the Salon without having to undergo selection by the jury. Heavily influenced by the style of Ingres’s pupils, and especially Amaury-Duval, Froment painted a Virgin (1846; Autun, St Jean) that recalls the contemporary work of Ingres for the stained-glass windows in the chapel of St Ferdinand at Dreux. In the same year he painted St Peter Healing a Lame Man at the Door of the Temple in the church at Pégomas.

Froment’s genre scenes, with their pleasant, decorative symbolism, are often close to the works of Jean-Léon Gérôme and Jean-Louis Hamon, or his friend ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

American pottery established in 1814 in Flemington, NJ, by Samuel Hill (d 1858), who made earthenware storage jars and drainpipes. On Hill’s death the pottery was bought by Abram Fulper, and the product lines expanded to include stoneware and tiles (including drainpipes). In 1900 the company began to make art pottery, and in 1910 hired the German designer J. Martin Stangl (d 1972), who in 1911 created the first Vasekraft wares, which were covered with colourful crystalline, flambé and monochromatic glazes. The most famous Vasekraft products were ceramic and stained-glass table-lamps (shaped like toadstools), which were sold from 1911 to 1918. During World War I the factory produced porcelain dolls and doll heads to fill the gap caused by the embargo on German imports. In the 1920s the factory introduced Fulper Fayence art and dinnerware lines; the dinnerware, which eventually became known as Stangl Pottery, was America’s first solid-colour dinnerware. The factory closed in ...

Article

German ceramics factory. Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, founded a porcelain factory in Fürstenberg in 1747. Attempts, however, to produce hard-paste porcelain were unsuccessful until after the arrival of the arcanist Johann Kilian Benckgraff (1708–58) from Höchst in 1753. Despite difficult economic circumstances and great technical problems—often the wares became misshapen and cracked during firing, and the glaze was a greyish-yellow—production was extensive from the beginning. Modellers included Simon Feilner (1726–98), Johann Georg Leimberger (1711–63), Anton Carl Luplau (1745–95), Johann Christoph Rombrich (1731–94), Christian Gottlieb Schubert (fl 1735) and the sculptor Desoches from the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris, who arrived in Fürstenberg in 1769. He created 45 groups of figures, including mythological scenes, allegorical groups of the seasons, Chinese men, and children, including the much copied Family at a Coffee Table (1771...

Article

Elisabeth Lebovici

(Charles Martin)

(b Nancy, May 4, 1846; d Nancy, Sept 23, 1904).

French glassmaker, potter and cabinetmaker. He was the son of Charles Gallé-Reinemer, a manufacturer of ceramics and glass in Nancy, and as early as 1865 he started working for his father, designing floral decoration. From 1862 to 1866 he studied philosophy, botany and mineralogy in Weimar, and from 1866–7 he was employed by the Burgun, Schwerer & Cie glassworks in Meisenthal. On his return to Nancy he worked in his father’s workshops at Saint-Clément designing faience tableware. In 1871 he travelled to London to represent the family firm at the International Exhibition. During his stay he visited the decorative arts collections at the South Kensington Museum (later the Victoria and Albert Museum), familiarizing himself with Chinese, Japanese and Islamic styles. He was particularly impressed with the Islamic enamelled ware, which influenced his early work. In 1874, after his father’s retirement, he established his own small glass workshop in Nancy and assumed the management of the family business....

Article

English ceramic export wares made for the American market. Gaudy Dutch ware is a type of Staffordshire cottageware produced in the early 19th century for the American export market, specifically the German colonists in Pennsylvania known as the Pennsylvania Dutch (i.e. Deutsch). Gaudy Dutch wares are painted with blue underglaze and bright overglaze enamels in cobalt blue and burnt orange; the designs, which often include floral motifs, were often based on the Imari designs used for fine china in Derby and Worcester. The shapes are conventional, though the cups do not have handles. Gaudy Welsh (which was sold to Welsh settlers in America) and Gaudy Ironstone are simpler and cheaper wares, and are usually decorated in copper lustre....

Article

Rodolphe Rapetti

(b Paris, June 7, 1848; d Atuona, Marquesas Islands, May 8, 1903).

French painter, printmaker, sculptor and ceramicist. His style developed from Impressionism through a brief cloisonnist phase (in partnership with Emile Bernard) towards a highly personal brand of Symbolism, which sought within the tradition of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes to combine and contrast an idealized vision of primitive Polynesian culture with the sceptical pessimism of an educated European (see fig.). A selfconsciously outspoken personality and an aggressively asserted position as the leader of the Pont-Aven group made him a dominant figure in Parisian intellectual circles in the late 1880s. His use of non-naturalistic colour and formal distortion for expressive ends was widely influential on early 20th-century avant-garde artists.

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Lunéville, Lorraine, Dec 8, 1747; d 1829).

French arcanist and porcelain painter active in Germany. He had an itinerant career, details of which are uncertain. He began as a porcelain painter at Sèvres Porcelain Factory (1764–5), and then moved to Niderviller, Ansbach, Kassel (1766), Fulda (possibly), Frankenthal Porcelain Factory, Ludwigsburg Porcelain Factory (which he certainly visited but seems not to have worked), Weesp Porcelain Factory (1769), Höchst Ceramics Factory (1771–3), Schrezheim Pottery Factory (1773–5), Loosdrecht Porcelain Factory, Wedgwood (1776) and John Turner’s pottery (c. 1777); there is no evidence for the claim that he worked at Offenbach Pottery. On returning to Germany he established the Englische Porcelainsfabrik in Cologne (1788–92) and subsequently worked as director of the Fürstenberg Porcelain Factory (1795–1814); on being dismissed for collaborating with the French during the Napoleonic wars he finished his career as director of the Wrisbergholzen pottery in Hannover. Gerverot was particularly noted for his painting of exotic birds....

Article

Gordon Campbell

French pottery factory. In 1821 a pottery was founded in Gien (Loiret) by an Englishman, Thomas Hall. The factory produced simply-decorated creamware, mostly functional tableware. The product lines expanded to included formal dinnerware and display pottery, and in the 1860s began to produce more highly decorated pottery, using lustres and flambé glazes. The factory is still producing high-quality earthenware...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Chinese porcelain jar with an ovoid body and a wide mouth with a lid, manufactured in mid-19th century China for the export market. The jars may have been used to hold preserved ginger; it was believed by purchasers in the West that the jars were used to contain wedding or New Year gifts, and that the jars were intended to be returned to the giver after the contents had been eaten....

Article

Luciana Arbace

Italian family of potters. They were active in Naples from the beginning of the 18th century to the end of the 19th. During the 18th century important family members included Ignazio Giustiniani (1686–c. 1742), who specialized in the production of tin-glazed earthenware wall tiles decorated with festoons and naturalistic elements; an outstanding example of his work is the tiled floor (1729) in the church of S Andrea delle Dame in Naples. During this period some members of the family were active in Cerreto Sannita, where they worked on such elaborate projects as the panel (1727) set in the tympanum of the congregation of S Maria in San Lorenzello, which is signed and dated by Antonio Giustiniani. Nicola Giustiniani, known as Bel Pensiero (1732–1815), is regarded as one of the most important Neapolitan potters of the period. His work includes two maiolica plaques (...

Article

Gmunden  

Gabriele Ramsauer

Austrian centre of ceramic production. The existence of a pottery tradition in Gmunden was discovered during excavations in 1955 when a settlement with pottery dating from the Roman period was found at nearby Engelhof. At the end of the 16th century seven potters were resident in Gmunden, but by 1747 there were only three. Local clays from Baumgarten and Vichtau were used, and the earliest pottery consisted of rather plain dishes for everyday use, which were based on Italian models.

During the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries the Gmunden potteries produced mainly marbled wares using a combination of green, blue, grey, brown and white glazes. In addition to tankards and jugs, the most popular form was the so-called ‘Pfeifenschüssel’, an oval plate with an undulating edge, which was mainly used as a wall decoration. Green and brown mottled ware was developed from c. 1600 as attempts were made to achieve a marbled effect on a white glaze by using dots and flecks of colour. Originally, in addition to light green and cobalt blue, rich green and brown were also used; from the second half of the 18th century the markings were mainly in green and the pottery was known commercially as ‘Grüngeflammte’ ware and became popular as typical Gmunden pottery. At the same time an ‘Alt-Gmundner-Fayence’ was being developed on which pictorial decoration of the human figure and views of Gmunden were used rather than ornament. For centuries Gmunden pottery presented a stylistically unified picture in the forms and patterns used by its few workshops....

Article

Gabriele Ramsauer

(b Plzeň, Nov 6, 1845; d Nice, Jan 19, 1897).

Czech ceramics manufacturer. After completing his apprenticeship as a salesman at the haberdashery business of his father Moritz Goldscheider (d 1865) in Pilsen, he constructed a brickworks for the production of fireproof wares. From 1877 he became involved in the porcelain industry. After his marriage in 1873, he settled in Vienna and in 1885 established the Goldscheider’sche Porzellan-Manufaktur und Majolica-Fabrik, the success of which led to the establishment of numerous branches, including a porcelain and earthenware factory in Pilsen and a factory for painting porcelain in Karlsbad (now Karlovy Vary). In 1887 the firm participated in the International Exhibition in Leipzig, where ‘maiolica’ figures with thick, lead glazes were presented. Arthur Strasser, professor at the Wiener Kunstgewerbeschule, worked closely with Goldscheider, and designed numerous figures for the firm primarily in the East Asian style. At the 1888 Jubiläumsgewerbeausstellung in Vienna it was thought that Goldscheider’s polychrome works would decline in popularity, but in the same year he won a silver medal at the Exposició Universal in Barcelona. The scale of production, however, made it necessary to divide the firm’s output between the two main centres. In Vienna terracotta and maiolica figures, busts and murals were produced, while in Carlsbad porcelain dinner-services, coffee-, tea- and demi-tasse services were manufactured. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Russian porcelain manufactory. The factory was established in the village of Gorbunovo (Dmitrov District, Moscow Province) in 1804 by Karl Iakovlevich Melli, who had previously worked for francis Gardner. In 1811 the factory was bought by Alexei Popov, a Moscow merchant; it is now known in Russian (and sometimes in English) as the Popov Porcelain Factory. The factory made porcelain figures similar to Gardner’s, and was also well-known for its Empire-style tea services; its products were distinguished by the intensity and innovation of its colours. The factory closed in ...