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Jan Johnson

(b Mantua, 1558–9; d 1629).

Italian woodcutter and printer. He was the only printmaker to produce a significant number of chiaroscuro woodcuts in Italy in the second half of the 16th century; he also reprinted chiaroscuro woodblocks originally cut 60 or 70 years earlier. He made at least 35 prints in both black and white and colour (many multiple-sheet), using a sophisticated style of cutting characterized by thin, closed contours. Based in Florence in 1584–5 and from 1586 in Siena, by 1590 he was also finding work in his native Mantua, where he is documented as establishing a workshop. He reproduced the designs of artists in diverse media with great fidelity: for example he made several prints (1586–90) after Domenico Beccafumi’s intarsia pavement designs in Siena Cathedral, three prints (1584) from different angles of Giambologna’s marble sculpture of the Rape of the Sabines (Florence, Loggia dei Lanzi; see fig.), as well as of the bas-relief on the base of the same group and of Giambologna’s relief of ...

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Martin Raumschüssel

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Richard Harprath

(b Mantua, 1548; d Mantua, 4–5 June 1608).

Italian painter and draughtsman. A leading exponent of late Mannerism at the Gonzaga court in Mantua, he probably trained there with an associate of Giulio Romano. About 80 drawings of the Palazzo del Te and the Palazzo Ducale, Mantua (Düsseldorf, Kstmus.), were commissioned from Andreasi c. 1568 by Jacopo Strada. In 1574 Andreasi collaborated on the design of a series of tapestries of the Acts of Moses for Milan Cathedral. He is documented in 1579–80 collaborating on decorations in the Palazzo Ducale for Guglielmo Gonzaga, 3rd Duke of Mantua, where he painted the ceiling of the Duke’s studiolo, the vault of the Sala Nuova and, c. 1581, the ceiling frescoes in the Sala del Falconi (preparatory study; London, BM). Documents indicate that in 1586–7 Andreasi collaborated on the decoration of the castle of Goito (destr.). As early as August 1590 he was Prefetto delle Fabbriche (Head of Works) for the ...

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Carmen Ravanelli Guidotti

[Giorgio da Gubbio; Mastro Giorgio]

(b Intra or Pavia, c. 1465–70; d Gubbio, 1555).

Italian potter. He probably learnt the rudiments of pottery at Pavia and seems to have moved to Gubbio c. 1490, together with his brothers Giovanni Andreoli (d c. 1535) and Salimbene Andreoli (d c. 1522). He became a citizen of Gubbio in 1498. He is particularly well known for his lustrewares, and other potters, especially from the Metauro Valley, sent their work to be lustred in his workshop. His wares made in 1518–19 were frequently signed and dated. His istoriato (narrative) wares (e.g. plate decorated with Hercules and the Hydra, c. 1520; Oxford, Ashmolean) can be dated until at least 1537. In 1536 the workshop seems to have been taken over by his sons Vincenzo Andreoli (Mastro Cencio) and Ubaldo Andreoli.

G. Mazzatinti: ‘Mastro Giorgio’, Il Vasari, 4 (1931), pp. 1–16, 105–22 F. Filippini: ‘Nuovi documenti interno a Mastro Giorgio e alla sua bottega (1515–1517)’, Faenza: Bollettino del Museo internazionale delle ceramiche in Faenza...

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Tarq Hoekstra and Kim W. Woods

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Claire Dumortier

(b ?Castel Durante, fl 1512; d Antwerp, 1541).

South Netherlandish potter of Italian birth. He probably worked in Venice before settling in Antwerp at the beginning of the 16th century (see Antwerp §III 2.). In 1512 he purchased a house called De Groote Aren in the Oude Veemerct and in 1520 established the Den Salm workshop in the Kammenstraat, which became the most important in Antwerp. His five sons also worked as potters in Antwerp and abroad: Guido Andries the younger (1535/41–c. 1587) in Antwerp; Frans Andries (b before 1535; d after 1565) in Seville; Joris Andries (c. 1535–c. 1579) in Middelburg; Jaspar Andries (1535/41–c. 1580) in Norwich and London (Lambeth); while Lucas Andries (b before 1535; d c. 1573), the eldest son, eventually inherited his father’s workshop in Antwerp. Guido Andries the elder produced faience pots and paving-tiles, the most remarkable of which are those from the abbey of Herkenrode, which are influenced by Venetian maiolica (...

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V. Hoffmann

French 16th-century château c. 75 km west of Paris, in the département of Eure-et-Loire. In 1546 Duchesse de Valentinois Diane de Poitiers, widow of Louis de Brézé (d 1531), began to build a modest house in the village of Anet; it underwent considerable and magnificent enlargement (after 1547, until 1553) when her lover Henry II became King of France and placed Philibert de L’Orme and virtually unlimited resources at her disposal. The château is built on a moated site around three courtyards with gardens to the north. Around the middle court, the Cour du Seigneur, were three residential wings and the entrance gate set in a screen wall. To the east lay the estate farm buildings around the Basse Cour, while to the west was the Cour de la Fontaine and beyond it the tennis-court, the stables and Diane de Poitiers’ burial chapel. Largely demolished (1798–1811...

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Blanca García Vega

(fl 1588–1617).

Spanish engraver and etcher. Although he lived in Oropesa until 1598, completing woodcuts for Alonso Villegas’s Flos sanctorum … (Madrid, 1588), Angel had already established contacts in Toledo. There he joined the Cofradía del Santísimo Sacramento in 1590 and finally settled in the city in 1598. In Toledo he gained a reputation among the humanist circles; in addition to Villegas, such writers as Juan de Narbona and Jerónimo Ceballos commissioned engraved portraits to accompany their books. The accomplished strength and presence he achieved is evident in such works as the oval portrait of Cardinal Tavera, which appeared in Pedro Salazar de Mendoza’s Chronica del Cardenal Juan de Tavera (Toledo, 1603). Angel’s last known engraving is dated 1617.

A. M. de Barcia: Catálogo de los retratos de personajes españoles que se conservan en la Sección de Estampas de Bellas Artes de la Biblioteca Nacional (Madrid, 1901) J. Ainaud de Lasarte...

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Donatella L. Sparti

(b Terni, after 1559; d Rome, ?Nov 29, 1652).

Italian writer, historian and collector. He produced about 38 novels and several comedies, although his literary works have been little studied. In Perugia he was a member of the Accademia degli Insensati, under the name Tenebroso. He is documented as having been in Rome in the late 16th century as secretary to Cardinal Ippolito Aldobrandini (later Pope Clement VIII) and chief Apostolic Notary. At his home on the Pincio hill he accumulated a substantial collection, containing scientific instruments, examples of flora and fauna, a picture gallery, a large collection of Kleinkunst, medals, and a vast assortment of drawings by contemporary artists especially Annibale Carracci. The collection was accompanied by a rich library. The organization and contents of the collection are described by Angeloni himself in a manuscript in Venice (Fletcher, 1974). From 1634 his nephew Giovanni Pietro Bellori lived in the house; Angeloni educated him in art, literature and antiquities, and introduced him into the circle of classicist artists with whom he had formed a relationship, more in the role of erudite mentor than that of patron....

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Marco Tanzi

[Angosciola; Anguisciola; Angussola]

Italian family of painters. Six sisters from a noble family of Cremona, daughters of Amilcare Anguissola and Bianca Ponzoni, were painters of some renown: (1) Sofonisba Anguissola (see fig.), (2) Lucia Anguissola, Europa (c. 1542–c. 1578), Elena (fl 1546–84), Minerva (fl 1558–69) and Anna-Maria (c. 1555–c. 1611) Anguissola. Sofonisba and Elena studied painting with Bernardino Campi from c. 1545 and with Bernardino Gatti from 1549. Elena entered the convent of S Vincenzo in Mantua, where she was recorded in 1585, and may be the subject of the Portrait of a Nun (1551; Southampton, C.A.G.) attributed to Sofonisba. Vasari, who visited the family in 1566, praised the sisters’ work. He noted that Sofonisba’s Family Portrait (1560s; Nivå, Nivaagaards Malsaml.) shows Minerva, her father and her brother Asdrubale. Europa executed a portrait of their mother (untraced), according to Vasari, and she signed the ...

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[Annichini; Nichini; Nichino]

Italian family of gem-engravers. Francesco Anichini (b Bagnacavallo, fl 1449–1526; d ?1545), active in Ferrara, was highly praised by his contemporaries, including Vasari and Jacopo Tagliacarne (fl late 15th century). He was also criticized for being self-willed and slow-working. From 1492 to 1497 he is recorded as having worked for Isabella d’Este, Marchioness of Mantua, who referred to him in a letter as ‘il migliore maestro d’Italia’. Documents indicate that Francesco supplied her in 1492 with a turquoise Head of a Child, some rubies and a cameo, in 1494 with gems for rings and in 1496 with two turquoises with figures of Orpheus and Victory, after a design by the Marchioness, and a gem with a symbolic emblem (all untraced). For a physician from Ferrara, Francesco carved a glow-worm in lapis lazuli (untraced) in such a way that the natural gold veins of the stone appeared as the luminous parts of the insect’s body. In ...

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Michel Hochmann

Italian family of patrons. Probably from Brussels originally, the d’Anna family were wealthy merchants who settled in Venice at the beginning of the 16th century. Martin [Martino] d’Anna (b ?1475; d Venice, 11 Nov 1556) acquired Venetian citizenship in 1545. He bought a palace on the Grand Canal from Lodovico Talenti on 7 December 1538 (Venice, Archv Stato, Notarile atti, Ba. 3258, fols 126–8). Talenti, not Martin, must have commissioned from Pordenone the famous frescoes (c. 1534; destr., known from prints) that decorated the building’s façade. Martin continued embellishing this residence, and in his will (1553, Venice, Archv Stato, Notarile testamenti, Ba. 1218/x42) he requested that his heirs neither destroy nor disperse the decorations and furniture.

The sons of Martin d’Anna, Daniele (d Venice, 26 Dec 1579) and Giovanni (d 1580), were also important patrons. They asked Leone Leoni to engrave several medals for them (e.g. portrait medals ...

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(b Voltri, Aug 24, 1584; d Genoa, Aug 18, 1638).

Italian painter. His first teacher was Orazio Cambiaso, son of Luca Cambiaso, from whom he learnt the principles of design and acquired his proficiency in the use of colour. Ansaldo’s appreciation of colour must also have owed something to Veronese, whose works he copied as a student. Orazio Cambiaso’s large canvas of St James Converting Josiah (c. 1600; Genoa, Oratory of S Giacomo delle Fucine) is one of many sources for Ansaldo’s multi-figured and highly detailed compositions, set in a deep architectural space. The elegant figures and subtle tonalities of his early works are derived also from the work of Tuscan Mannerist artists in Genoa, such as Pietro Sorri (1556–1621), Ventura Salimbeni and Aurelio Lomi (1556–1622). The sumptuous draperies and strong chiaroscuro contrasts of Giovanni Battista Paggi, who had adopted the Tuscan manner after a period in Florence, influenced Ansaldo, as did the rich impasto of Bernardo Strozzi and Simone Barabbino (...

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David Ekserdjian

(b Siena or Lucca, ?1492; d Parma, 1556).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was arguably the most imaginative painter in Parma in the early 16th century after Correggio and Parmigianino. However, he was trained in Siena, though his only surviving work there, a Visitation in the church of Fontegiusta, shows the importance of Sodoma in the formation of his art. Anselmi’s family was apparently from Parma, but he is not securely documented there until 1520. In that year he began to paint in S Giovanni Evangelista, where he decorated the ribs of the nave vaults, the apses of both transepts and at least two chapels: the chapel in the north transept, with frescoes of SS Agnes and Catherine, and the sixth chapel on the left of the nave, with frescoes of the Four Doctors of the Church. It has also been suggested that he executed the frescoes of SS Nicholas and Hilary in the fourth chapel on the left, which have been attributed to ...

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Jetty E. van der Sterre

(fl Basle, 1485; d 1524).

German engraver and printer. He established himself in Basle in 1485 but subsequently worked as a printer in Strasbourg (1487, 1488), Pforzheim (1500–10), Tübingen (1511–17) and Hagenau (1516–22). Although a few of his prints bear dates between 1501 and 1506, stylistically his work belongs to the 15th-century tradition....