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Emily Umberger

Term applied to the Nahuatl-speaking peoples of late Pre-Columbian central Mexico (1350–1521) and to the Triple Alliance Empire which arose in the Basin of Mexico (1431) less than 100 years before the Spanish Conquest.

When the Spanish arrived in 1519 most central Mexican city-states were tributaries of the Aztec Empire, an alliance of cities of the lake area of the Basin. Founded in 1431 after the defeat of the Tepanecs of Azcapotzalco, by the 1470s it had expanded well outside the Basin, and the dominant city of the alliance, Tenochtitlan, was transformed into its imperial capital. In the 19th century the term Aztec was popularized as a generic label for the late pre-conquest inhabitants of central Mexico. Some scholars use the term more narrowly for the inhabitants of the Basin (the definition used here), and others for just Tenochtitlan, whose inhabitants called themselves Mexica. Whatever their individual tribal names, the Nahuas of central Mexico shared a common culture resulting from a mix through intermarriage of ancestral barbarians (generically called Chichimecs) who had migrated into the area from the north, and civilized ancestors (...



Philippe Rouillard

French family of sculptors. Jacques Bachot (fl 1493–1526), Marc Bachot (fl 1517–40) and Yvon Bachot (fl 1524–34) originated in Troyes, one of the main centres of sculptural production in France in the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance (see Troyes, §2). Their precise relationships have not been established. Jacques Bachot seems to have been one of the last great Gothic sculptors of the Champagne region, to judge from the scale of his earnings and the extent of his activities, although none of his work is known to survive. He was in Troyes in 1493 as one of the sculptors of the Belle Croix (1484–97; destr. 1790s), a bronze monumental crucifix with numerous figures around the base. He is subsequently recorded as being in charge of the carving of marble and the erection of tombs ordered by Henri de Lorraine, Bishop of Metz, for St Laurent, Joinville (Haute-Marne). The chief parts of this ensemble, executed between ...


Alfonso Rodríguez Ceballos

Spanish family of architects. Juan de Badajoz (i) (b ?Badajoz; d León, 31 Aug 1522) probably came from the region of Extremadura. He worked in León virtually all his life, and his works are exclusively Late Gothic in style. In 1498 he was appointed master builder of León Cathedral, where his most individual work was the chapter library (1505; now St James’s Chapel), an extremely flamboyant example of the Gothic style. In 1508 he was called to Oviedo Cathedral to design the elegant tower (executed by local builders). In 1513 he replaced the semicircular presbytery of the Romanesque church of S Isidoro el Real, León, with a rectangular chapel of more ample proportions, and similar in style to his cathedral library. His son Juan de Badajoz (ii) [el Mozo] (b León, c. 1498; d León, c. 1560) assisted him at León Cathedral, and succeeded him as chief master builder in ...


Esther Moench and Diana Gisolfi

Italian family of artists. At least six generations of artists, mostly painters, were active in Verona. The earliest recorded member of the family is the painter Niccolò Badile (d before 1393); the exact relationship between him and Antonio Badile I (d before 1409), the father of (1) Giovanni Badile, is unclear. Giovanni had at least three sons who were painters: Antonio Badile II (fl 1424–1507), Bartolomeo Badile I (fl 1445–51) and Pietro Paolo Badile II (fl 1446–76). Three of Antonio II’s sons became artists: Bartolomeo Badile II (fl 1464–1544), Girolamo Badile (fl 1465–1531) and Francesco Badile I (fl 1476–1544). Francesco Badile II (fl 1505–57) was the son of Bartolomeo II, and (2) Antonio Badile III was the son of Girolamo. Among the last recorded artists in the family was the 16th-century painter ...


Christopher F. Black


Italian family of patrons. The Baglioni are notorious in Renaissance historiography for their often violent attempts to dominate Perugia. The family network, which numbered 28 separate households in 1511, provided political strength until in-fighting brought destruction. Military and political service to the papacy secured the family feudal tenure or governorships of lesser Umbrian towns, such as Bettona, Spello and Torgiano, where they constructed palaces. Besides helping to promote major civic projects in Perugia, such as the cathedral of S Lorenzo (1440s) and the Collegio del Cambio (1452–7, with a sala dell’udienza richly decorated with frescoes by Perugino and pupils), the Baglioni furthered the careers of many artists, including Benedetto Bonfigli, Pinturicchio, Pordenone, Luca Signorelli and Perugino.

The most culturally active patron was Braccio di Malatesta (1419–79). The extensive exterior and interior decorations of his palace (destr. 1540) celebrated famous soldiers and lawyers and his own exploits. ...


R. Nath

[Bahmanī; Bahmanid]

Dynasty that ruled portions of southern India from 1347 to 1527. ‛Ala al-Din Hasan Bahman (reg 1347–58) threw off the administrative control that the Tughluq dynasty had exerted in the Deccan and established the Bahmani kingdom with its capital at Gulbarga. Hasan Bahman was followed by Muhammad I (reg 1358–75), who streamlined the administration and raised a number of buildings, notably the Jami‛ Masjid at Gulbarga. From 1375 to 1397 there was a succession of five rulers; the notable monuments of this time are the royal tombs at Gulbarga known as Haft Gumbaz. Taj al-Din Firuz (reg 1397–1422) brought stability to the Bahmani dynasty. Firuz was a noted patron of the arts and founded a city called Firuzabad on the Bhima River. His reign was marked by an influx of Persians, Arabs and Turks from West Asia and the emergence of an eclectic Deccani culture. The friction between the immigrants and native Deccanis (both colonists from Delhi and local converts to Islam) was a source of tension at court....


Scot McKendrick

(fl Arras, 1419–64).

Burgundian painter and tapestry designer. He was a wealthy member of the Arras bourgeoisie and seems to have been a very successful artist. His first recorded work was the painting of mainly heraldic devices in memory of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, at the abbey of St Vaast in 1419. The work was undertaken in such a short time and for a sufficiently large payment that he has been considered the head of an important workshop. In 1426 he was again paid for heraldic painting at Arras, and in 1454 he shared with Jacques Daret the supervision of the painting by Robert de Moncheaux (fl 1454–68) of the tomb of the abbot of St Vaast, Jean du Clercq (untraced).

Bauduin is best known for his execution of the designs for a set of tapestries of the History of Gideon (destr. 1794), considered the most outstanding tapestries owned by ...


Lucy Whitaker

(b ?1436; ? bur Florence, Dec 12, 1487).

Italian goldsmith and engraver . According to Vasari, he was a follower of Maso Finiguerra and engraved a series of 19 prints after designs by Botticelli. These illustrate an edition of Dante’s Divine Comedy published in 1481. A group of prints in the same Fine Manner style is attributed to Baldini. His designs incorporate figures and motifs derived from Botticelli, Piero Pollaiuolo and also German printmakers, such as the Master E.S. and Martin Schongauer, but particularly from Finiguerra. Baldini’s Fine Manner style developed from Finiguerra’s niello print technique; the rendering of spatial recession in the large Judgement Hall of Pilate (435×598 mm) suggests it was designed by Finiguerra. With the other prints, however, it shares the decorative quality and emphasis on pattern characteristic of Baldini.

Prints attributed to Baldini include the series of Planets (c. 1465), based on northern woodcuts, and a series of Prophets and Sibyls (early 1470s), as adapted from the characters in a mystery play; the exotic costumes reflect those worn in festival processions. Antonio Bettini’s ...


Ailsa Turner


(b Florence, Oct ?14, 1425; d Florence, Aug 29, 1499).

Italian painter. Belonging to the generation of Florentine painters that followed Domenico Veneziano and Fra Filippo Lippi, he worked all his life in Florence and kept a notebook of commissions. He experimented with painting techniques, sometimes with unfortunate results. His sense of pattern and decoration was particularly suited to the design of mosaic, intarsia and stained glass.

Baldovinetti was the eldest son of a wealthy merchant and rejected the prospect of a career in commerce to become an artist. In 1448 he enrolled in the Compagnia di S Luca and the following year began to keep a notebook of commissions and transactions. His earliest attributable works, c. 1449, form part of the decoration of the doors of the silver cupboard (Florence, Mus. S Marco) formerly in the chapel of the Annunciation in SS Annunziata, Florence, for which Baldovinetti painted the Marriage at Cana, the Baptism and the Transfiguration; their traditional iconography was possibly determined by ...


Giovanna Rotondi Terminiello

(b Demonte, Piedmont; fl 1481–4).

Italian painter . All his signed and dated works are fresco cycles dating from the 1480s in the Alpine area near Demonte, situated in the Valle della Stura. He executed frescoes of the Life of St Stephen in the chapel of St Sébastien at Venanson (Alpes Maritimes) in 1481, and a further cycle in another chapel dedicated to St Sebastian at Celle Macra in Val Maira, Piedmont, in 1484. A fresco of the Virgin and Child on the façade of a house at Stroppo Bassura (Cúneo) in Piedmont bears his monogram and the date 1484. His signature appears with that of Giovanni Canavesio on the frescoes of the chapel of St Sébastien at Saint-Etienne-de-Tinée (Alpes Maritimes). These are all thought to be early works, as are the fresco decorations of the chapels of St Grat and of Notre-Dame-de-Boncoeur at Lucéram (Alpes Maritimes). Baleison was evidently a naive and popularizing painter, in composition and style closer to the rustic, tranquil manner of Tommaso Biazaci (...


Lynette Bosch

[Pere Joan]

(fl 1477–92).

Spanish illuminator . He is known chiefly for his miniatures of Christ in Majesty (fol. 143v) and the Crucifixion (fol. 144r) in a Missal of Valencian use (Valencia, Archv Catedral, Cod. 97). This has been identified with a document of 1479 in which ‘Pere Joan’ was paid for his work on ‘la sede majestatis en el nuevo misal bisbal’. In the miniatures executed by him in this manuscript the Gothic style practised in Spain into the late 15th century has been abandoned in favour of a more naturalistic representational manner that incorporates Netherlandish elements. This more modern style has also been identified in other manuscripts attributed to Ballester. Among these are a Valencian Missal dated 1477 (London, BL, Add. MS. 34663) and a Missal of the use of Toledo (Toledo, Archv & Bib. Capitulares, MS. Res. 1). The latter was commissioned for Archbishop Alfonso Carrillo who died in ...


Sheila Edmunds

[Baemler, Johann; Bemler, Hans]

(fl 1453–1504).

German illuminator and printer . He is listed in the Augsburg tax rolls from 1453 as a scribe and from 1477 as a printer. Bämler belonged to the guild of painters, glassmakers, woodcut-makers and goldbeaters, eventually achieving the rank of Zwollfer (director). Examples of his youthful work are two signed miniatures dated 1457 (New York, Pierpont Morgan Lib., MS. M.45) and a signed historiated initial on a detached Antiphonal leaf (Philadelphia, PA, Free Lib., Lewis M 67:3). Between 1466 and 1468 he rubricated and decorated with calligraphic and painted ornament four books printed in Strasbourg: a Latin Bible (Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bib., Bibel-S.2°155), a copy of Thomas Aquinas’s Summa theologica (Munich, Bayer Staatsbib., 2° Inc. s.a.1146a) and two copies of St Augustine’s City of God (Chantilly, Mus. Condé, XXII.D.11, and Manchester, John Rylands U. Lib., no. 3218, Inc. 3A8).

Bämler’s knowledge of printing was probably acquired in Augsburg, in the shop of ...


(fl 1427–57).

Painter, probably of Swiss origin. He worked for the House of Savoy. In July 1427, after a three-month trip through Italy accompanying a Savoyard diplomatic mission, ‘Johannes Batheur de Friburgo’ (probably Swiss Fribourg) settled in Thonon, a principal seat of the House of Savoy. Ducal treasury rolls (Turin, Archv Stato) indicate that as part of his court duties Bapteur painted a statue of St Andrew (carved by ‘Monetus’) and an Apocalypse manuscript, made banners for parades, mummeries, banquets, and funerals, decorated carriages and litters, and designed tapestries, costumes, and masks. In the summer of 1432, assisted by ‘Dominico de Venise’ (?Domenico Veneziano), ‘Perenet lenlumineur’ (Peronet Lamy) and artists from Lausanne, Geneva, and Metz, Bapteur arranged lavish heraldic decoration in the new chapel and hall of the Château de Thonon for Amadeus VIII (reg 1391–1434), the 1st Duke of Savoy. Two years later at Seyssel, Bapteur, with his wife and five other painters, decorated the ships destined to take Amadeus’s daughter Margaret down the River Rhône to meet her prospective husband, Louis III of Anjou. The same year he painted and gilded a picture above a door at Ripaille, Amadeus’s hermitage on the south shore of Lake Geneva. In ...


(fl Liguria, 1481–before Nov 1508).

Italian painter . He is first documented in guild records in 1481, and in the mid-1480s he obtained the most prestigious commissions in Genoa: a polyptych (untraced) for the members of the Brigittine Order, to be modelled on the one made by Vincenzo Foppa for the Spinola Chapel in S Domenico, and frescoes (1489–90) for Archbishop Leonardo de Fornari’s chapel in S Maria delle Vigne. Barbagelata’s earliest surviving works were produced in the last years of the century and include a polyptych depicting the Annunciation with Saints in Calvi (Corsica), in which both the painting and the wood-carving must be based on Giovanni Mazone’s polyptych of the Annunciation (Genoa, S Maria di Castello), and the St Nicholas (1498; Pietra Ligure, Parish Church). Other works of this period include the triptych of St John the Baptist (1499; Casarza Ligure, nr Sestri Levante, Genoa, S Giovanni Battista) and the polyptych of ...


Jay A. Levenson

(b ?Venice, c. 1460–70; d Mechelen or Brussels, before July 17, 1516).

Italian painter and printmaker . He was the first Italian Renaissance artist of note who travelled to the courts of Germany and the Netherlands. His earliest known works appear to date from the late 1490s, suggesting that he was born c.1460–70. The birthdate of c. 1440 traditionally assigned to him reflects the misinterpretation of a document of 1512 in which his patron, Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Netherlands, awarded him a stipend because of his ‘weakness and old age’. In fact, at this date a man could be described as ‘old’ while in his fifties or even younger (Gilbert).

Barbari probably trained with Alvise Vivarini in Venice in the 1490s. His earliest dated work, the celebrated bird’s-eye View of Venice, a monumental woodcut produced between 1497 and 1500, can be securely attributed to him on the basis of style (12 extant copies, e.g. London, BM; original blocks in Venice, Correr). It also bears the caduceus, with which Barbari signed nearly all his works. Two other large woodcut compositions, the ...


John Law

Italian family of statesmen and patrons. The early history of the Barbarigo is obscure, although it is possible that they emigrated from the Trieste region and settled in Venice in the 8th or 9th century ad. The growth of their prominence is indicated by their entry into the hereditary nobility from the 13th century. One of the several branches of the clan was established in the Venetian colony of Crete in the 14th century. Members of the clan followed various careers and enjoyed differing degrees of wealth and political standing; one of the better documented is Andrea Barbarigo (b Venice, 1399; d Venice, 1449). He began a mercantile career in 1418 with modest assets, owing to his father’s financial ruin, but amassed a respectable fortune through family connections, minor offices and an assiduous attention to business. At its peak his commercial activity stretched from Alexandria to London.

The brothers ...


Jeremy Musson

(b Syracuse, 1426; d Palermo, c. 1487).

Italian historian, philosopher and theologian . A member of the Dominican Order, he taught at the University of Catania and at Palermo. He twice visited Hungary before 1474, and was granted a pension for life by King Matthias Corvinus. His writings included several historical works. His chronicle of popes and emperors (from 1316–1469) was first published anonymously in Rome in 1474, but was later reissued erroneously under the name of Giovanni Filippo de Lignamine. Another important work was the Virorum illustrium cronica (published early 1475), which culminates in a eulogy of Ferdinand the Catholic (later Ferdinand II, King of Aragon), and includes such figures as Guarino da Verona and Leonardo Bruni. He also produced two major theological works, De immortalite animarum libri tres and De divina providentia et hominum praedestionene, which defend the Thomist doctrine of predestination. In 1474 he was appointed as preacher to the Florentine convent of S Maria Novella and later as preacher to the Aragonese court in Naples. While he was on a mission to Seville, he came to be highly regarded by King Ferdinand II and his court. From ...


Gordon Campbell

[Antonio di Neri]

(b 1453; d 1516).

Italian intarsia designer, civil engineer, architect and engraver, was a native of Siena. From 1483 to 1502 he worked in Siena Cathedral, providing carving and intarsia for the choir-stalls in the chapel of San Giovanni (1483–1502; seven panels survive in La Collegiata in San Quirico d’Orcia and one in the Kunstgewerbemuseum in Vienna) and building the benches for the Piccolomini library (...


David Hemsoll


(b Milan; fl c. 1471; d 1520).

[Ambrogio da Milano; Ambrogio da Urbino] Italian architect and sculptor. He was one of the most able and prolific of the late 15th-century peripatetic Lombard masons and was recorded by Giovanni Santi in La vita…di Federico da Montefeltro duca d’Urbino (1484–7) as being among the great artists of the period. His career has, however, sometimes been confused with that of other artists named Ambrogio da Milano, in particular the sculptor who signed the tomb (executed in collaboration with Antonio Rossellino) of Bishop Lorenzo Roverella (1475; Ferrara, S Giorgio), and his oeuvre may still not have been fully defined.

Barocci was probably involved in the sculptural decoration of Pietro Lombardo’s enlargement (begun c. 1471) of S Giobbe, Venice. By c. 1475 he was in Urbino, where, under the direction of Luciano Laurana and Francesco di Giorgio Martini, he executed numerous designs for stonework for the Palazzo Ducale. Some of this work (e.g. the portals of the Sala del Trono and the fireplace in the Salotto della Duchessa) is notable for the extremely fine low relief carvings of foliage enlivened with birds and other naturalistic details, a characteristic of Barocci’s work that Santi singled out for special praise. It is closely related in style and quality to the carvings in S Giobbe and S Maria dei Miracoli, Venice (where Barocci may have worked with ...