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M. Smeyers

[Baudolf, Jan; [Bandol, Johannes; Bondol, Jean; Jean de Bruges; Jehan de Bondolf; Johannes de Brugis]

(b Bruges; fl 1368–81).

South Netherlandish painter and illuminator. By 1368 at the latest he was in France, in the service of Charles V as court painter and ‘valet de chambre’; in this year the King gave him a house in Saint-Quentin, northern France, in gratitude for his services. Boudolf regularly drew a substantial salary and by 1374 employed an assistant. Apart from the royal commissions, which are always referred to as ‘paintings’, Boudolf undertook other tasks. In 1371–2 a ‘Jehan le peintre de Bruges’, living in Dijon and identified with Jan Boudolf, was paid by Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. A St Christopher in the church at Semur-en-Auxois may be attributed to him. Between 1371 and 1373 he decorated, among other things, a sedan chair for Margaret of Brabant, Countess of Flanders (1310–82), and in 1377 was paid for tapestry designs (untraced) for Louis I, 1st Duke of Anjou (...


Dorothy Gillerman

(fl 1313/14–51).

French sculptor. He has sometimes been identified with Pierron Boi, a stone-carver mentioned in 1286 and 1311 in the town rolls of Ypres, but Baron’s attribution to Boye of the tomb of Clement VI hardly allows for such an early beginning to his career. He was in Paris in 1313–14, where he participated with Jean Pépin de Huy and others in the execution of the tomb of Otto IV, Count of Burgundy (mostly destr.) commissioned by his widow, Mahaut, Countess of Artois. In 1317 she ordered an alabaster Virgin and Child (destr.) from the sculptor, which was destined as a gift for her niece, Alix de Vienne, mother superior of the Franciscan nuns at Lons-le-Saunier (Jura).

Boye’s style is known from the remains of the tomb of Clement VI (Haute-Loire, La Chaise-Dieu, abbey church; Le Puy, Mus. Crozatier). Materials were acquired for the tomb in 1342, and the work was completed between ...


Malcolm W. Norris

A term used to describe any inscription, figure, shield of arms, or other device engraved for a commemorative purpose in flat sheet brass. It is found as early as 1486 in the will of William Norreys of Ash-next-Sandwich, Kent. Such memorials became established in 13th-century Europe as a very satisfactory form of inlay for a grave slab. They recorded the death and status of the deceased and, particularly important, attracted prayers for the soul in Purgatory. Monumental brasses are therefore usually found in churches.

Brasses were manufactured almost exclusively in north-western and central Europe, although they were exported as far south as Madeira. This form of monument was, as with tomb effigies, initially patronized by the higher clergy, although very occasionally royalty chose to be so represented. Examples are the brasses of Philip and John (destr.), sons of Louis VIII of France, formerly at Notre-Dame, Poissy, of Queen Margaret (...


Virginia Davis

Religious group and important exponents of the movement known as the Devotio moderna, which flourished in northern Europe, particularly in the Netherlands, from the late 14th century to the early 16th. The movement stressed the importance of the inner life of the individual, with great emphasis on meditation. The Brethren (and the female equivalent, the Sisters) were groups of pious lay people and clerics who lived a devout and useful communal life dedicated to God. Associated with the Brethren but more formally constituted were the Augustinian Canons Regular of Windesheim near Zwolle, founded in 1387, which became the centre of a flourishing congregation of similar foundations upholding the ideals of the Devotio moderna. The Brethren were first established in Deventer and spread into both the southern Netherlands and neighbouring German regions.

The movement was developed by Gerard Groote (1340–84) and Florent Radewijns (1350–1400). Groote, a canon lawyer, lived as a Carthusian between ...


Nigel J. Morgan

Liturgical book containing the psalms, readings from the scriptures, the Church Fathers or the lives of the saints, antiphons, and prayers that constitute the Divine Office for each day of the Christian Church year (see Service book). The Divine Office comprises the daily devotions observed at the eight canonical hours of the day (Matins, Lauds, Prime, Terce, Sext, None, Vespers, and Compline), arranged around the psalms, so that all 150 psalms are read each week. Its text covers two distinct sections: the Temporal (or Proper of Time), containing the offices for Sundays and festivals commemorating the life of Christ and the weekdays of the year; and the Sanctoral (or Proper of Saints), with offices for the feast days of saints. Supplementary offices for certain occasions, for instance the Office of the Dead and Little Office of the Virgin, were sometimes added to the daily office, and a full version of the Breviary usually includes the whole ...


Lynette Bosch

Illuminated manuscript (Paris, Bib. N., MS. Rothschild 2529), perhaps the best example of the style practised by Catalan illuminators at the end of the 14th century and the beginning of the 15th. It was originally commissioned by King Martin of Aragon (reg 1395–1410) from the scribes and illuminators of the Cistercian abbey of Poblet, the burial place of the kings of Aragon. The manuscript was begun by 1398, when King Martin wrote to the Abbot of Poblet concerning the text of some prayers that were to be incorporated in it.

The illumination of the Breviary was a collaborative enterprise and the product of two decorative campaigns. The first, which continued until 1410, was for King Martin and must have been under way by 1403, when an illuminator was requested from the nearby abbey of Sant Cugat del Vallès to aid the advancement of the work. The second, from ...


Virginia Davis

[Order of the Holy Saviour]

Religious order named after its foundress, St Bridget of Sweden (c. 1303–73; can 1391), a devout woman with Swedish court connections. In 1346 she founded Vadstena Abbey in Sweden, which she intended to be an influential spiritual centre reflecting the original group of the faithful with the Virgin at its head. Vadstena became the model for other Brigittine houses. Bridget went to Rome in 1349 to seek approval for her Order, dying there after returning from a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Her body was returned to Vadstena in 1374.

The Brigittine Rule, the Regula Sancti Salvatoris, supposedly was revealed to Bridget by Christ. With the Augustinian Rule (see Augustinian Canons §1), it formed the constitution of the Order, which was finally recognized by Pope Urban VI (reg 1378–89) in a bull of 1378. The Order flourished mainly in northern Europe in the later Middle Ages. Intended primarily for women, it had double houses with separate but adjacent convents for men and women, sharing a church. Monks were superior in spiritual matters, the abbess in all else. Monasteries were large by contemporary standards, the rule stipulating that they should have 85 members. Convents were consecrated at Vadstena in ...


Anne Hagopian van Buren

(b Ypres, c. 1355; d Ypres, c. 1411).

South Netherlandish painter. Broederlam’s family, long-established in Ypres, provided three aldermen for the city and sided with the French Counts of Flanders against the Flemish populace. After a training that may have included contact with Jan Boudolf in Bruges before 1368 or Paris after 1370 and an extended visit to Italy, the artist became, by 1381, an official painter of the reigning count, Louis de Mâle (reg 1346–84), painting leather chairs, pennons, and banners. On 13 May 1384, directly after Louis’s death, he was appointed a valet de chambre to the count’s heir, Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, and in 1385 was sent to live in the castle at Hesdin, Artois, in order to supervise the rebuilding of its galleries of entertainment and to paint the walls according to a plan devised by Philip himself.

In the spring of 1386 Broederlam began painting scenes, perhaps of the Trojan War...


Luciano Bellosi

[Bonamico; Buonamico di Martino]

(fl c. 1315–36).

Italian painter. He is recorded as ‘Bonamichus magistri Martini’ among the painters in the Florentine Matricola dei Medici e Speziali of 1320, but he was first recorded there c. 1315 (Hueck). He was in Pisa in 1336 (Bacci, 1917). According to a document of 1341, some time previously he had painted a fresco in Arezzo Cathedral (Pasqui). The record of ‘Buonamico Cristofani detto Buffalmacco’ in the Compagnia dei Pittori of Florence in 1351 is a forgery (Bacci, 1911).

Bonamico, who was nicknamed ‘Buffalmacco’ (Sacchetti) was not only a painter noted for his practical jokes in tales by Boccaccio (Decameron VIII.3, 6 and 9; IX.5) and Sacchetti (Il trecentonovelle CXXXVI, CLXI, CLXIX, CXCI, CXCII) but was also an artist whose greatness was affirmed by Lorenzo Ghiberti. No authenticated work by him survives, however. Some early attributions derive from Vasari’s vita of Buffalmacco, but this is very unreliable. The frescoes dated ...


J. Steinhoff-Morrison

[Bartolomeo] [Ovile Master]

(fl Siena, 1337; d Siena, Sept 4, 1378).

Italian painter. Many of his paintings were attributed by Berenson to an anonymous master he called ‘Ugolino–Lorenzetti’, because of the artist’s obvious indebtedness to the work of Ugolino di Nerio and Pietro Lorenzetti. A group of paintings that partially overlapped with these was attributed by Dewald to an artist he called the Ovile Master, after a painting formerly in S Pietro a Ovile, Siena. In 1931 Meiss recognized that these works formed the oeuvre of a single artist, and in 1936 he identified this figure as Bartolommeo Bulgarini. Subsequent discoveries have confirmed Meiss’s hypothesis and established a dated work around which the rest of Bulgarini’s paintings can be studied. A 16th-century inventory of Siena Cathedral names Bulgarini as the artist of a Nativity that stood on the altar of St Victor (one of four altars dedicated to the city’s patron saints). This must have been a prestigious commission, since the other altarpieces in the cycle are all major works by important artists: the ...


H. B. J. Maginnis

(fl Siena, 1356; bur Siena, May 17, 1388).

Italianpainter. He is presumed to have been the son of the painter Buonaccorso di Pace (fl c. 1348–c. 1362). His name first appears in the membership list of the Sienese painters’ guild in 1355–6. In May and June 1372 and in March and April 1376 he participated in the government of Siena. He was Gonfaloniere for the Terzo di S Martino in 1381. Niccolò painted the capello, presumably the baldacchino, over the high altar of Siena Cathedral in 1376 and, in 1383, a panel of the prophet Daniel for an altar in the cathedral. There was once a signed and dated Virgin and Child Enthroned (1387; untraced) in S Margherita, Costalpino (Siena). Niccolò di Buonaccorso’s only known signed work is a Marriage of the Virgin (510×330 mm; London, N.G.) inscribed nicholaus bonachursi de senis me pinxit, which was painted as a companion to a Coronation of the Virgin...


Peter Kurmann

[incorrectly Stehaimer]

(b Burghausen, c. 1355–60; d Landshut, Aug 10, 1432).

German architect. He was the most important architect of the German-speaking area in the late 14th century and the early 15th, and the founder of the tradition of Late Gothic hall churches in south Germany that lasted over a century and a half. Documentary sources are scarce: the earliest possible reference is in 1389, when ‘Master Hans’ is mentioned as master builder of the church of St Martin at Landshut, in a context indicating that he had already held this office for several years. On the assumption that he was then a mature man, he was probably trained in the builders’ lodge of the large town church of St Jakob, Burghausen, which was built from 1360. Some features of his main work, St Martin at Landshut, suggest that he must have been familiar with the stylistic repertory of the cathedral lodge in Prague under Peter Parler (see Parler family, §3...



Giles Clifford, Patrick M. de Winter, Anne Hagopian van Buren and L. Boonen

French dynasty of rulers and patrons. They were a cadet branch of the French royal house of Valois, House of family. After the death of the last Capetian duke, Philippe de Rouvres, in 1361, the Duchy of Burgundy, a region to the south-east of Paris, was given by King Charles V to his brother (1) Philip the Bold in 1363. Philip acquired the counties of Flanders, Artois, Rethel, Burgundy (Franche–Comté), and Nevers at the death of his father-in-law, Louis de Mâle, in 1384; the dukes then became vassals of the Holy Roman Emperor as well as of the king of France. Both Philip the Bold and his son (2) John the Fearless were heavily involved in the politics of France. The alliance formed with England by John’s son (3) Philip the Good increased Burgundian power at a time of French weakness during the Hundred Years War. Philip extended his lands to include Namur, Zeeland, Holland, Hainault, and Luxembourg, while his son ...


In the 20th century, discussion of the relationship between Byzantine art and the art of the Latin West evolved in tandem with scholarship on Byzantine art itself. Identified as the religious imagery and visual and material culture of the Greek Orthodox Empire based at Constantinople between ad 330 and 1453, studies of Byzantine art often encompassed Post-Byzantine art and that of culturally allied states such as Armenian Cilicia, Macedonia, and portions of Italy. As such fields as Palaiologan family manuscripts and wall paintings, Armenian manuscripts, and Crusader manuscripts and icons emerged, scholars identified new intersections between Western medieval and Byzantine art. Subtle comparisons emerged with the recognition that Byzantine art was not static but changed over time in style and meaning, although most analyses identified Byzantine art as an accessible reservoir of the naturalistic, classicizing styles of antiquity. Scholars considering the 7th-century frescoes at S Maria Antiqua and mosaics at S Maria in Cosmedin, both in Rome, and the 8th-century frescoes at Castelseprio and Carolingian manuscripts such as the Coronation Gospels of Charlemagne (Vienna, Schatzkam. SCHK XIII) used formal comparisons with works such as pre-iconoclastic icons at St Catherine’s Monastery on Sinai, along with the history of Byzantine iconoclasm, to argue for the presence of Greek painters in the West. Similarly, Ottonian and Romanesque painting and luxury arts, such as ivories, provided examples of the appropriation of Byzantine imperial imagery. Yet the study of works such as the great 12th-century ...


Rosa Alcoy

[Sanglada, Pedro]

(fl 1386–1407).

Catalan sculptor and wood-carver. He has been associated with Girona (Sp. Gerona), but his style, particularly that of the figures peopling the choir-stalls he carved for Barcelona Cathedral (1394–9; pulpit completed 1403), reflects his travels in France and the Netherlands. Ça Anglada was primarily concerned with the direction of the cathedral workshops and with projects for the city of Barcelona. In the early years of the 15th century he carried out various works for the Casa de la Ciutat (the Town Hall), including the carvings in the Saló de Cent and probably also the St Raphael on the Gothic façade of the building. An Annunciation in the choir of Barcelona Cathedral is partly the work of the sculptor Jordi di Deu (fl c. 1361–1418); but the decisive role is that of Ça Anglada, who gave an innovative refashioning, on International Gothic lines, to the subjects of this Italianizing master. In ...


J. M. Maddison


Royal fortress and palace in Gwynedd, Wales. It was begun in 1283 on the site of a Norman predecessor, built c. 1090 by Hugh, Earl of Chester, and is the most splendid and important of the royal castles built in connection with Edward I’s Welsh wars. The castle made an impact on the development of both secular and religious architecture in early 14th-century England and successfully emulated one of the great works of antiquity.

The royal building accounts have been analysed by Taylor (1952) to establish a chronology, which is divided into two phases. The full length of the south curtain wall from the Eagle Tower to the North-East Tower was constructed between 1283 and 1292. This completed the enclosure of the town walls, which were built simultaneously. Associated work on the north curtain wall was suspended after the excavation of a substantial ditch and the laying of the lower masonry courses. Welsh forces led by Prince Madoc overran these unfinished defences in ...


(b before 1315; d Venice, April 16, 1355).

Italian architect and sculptor. Reliable Venetian chronicles from the 15th century onwards not only praise him as the architect of the Doge’s Palace in Venice and as a sculptor but also record that the Venetian government (‘Signoria dogal’) valued his advice when building palaces, towers, and other public works. He was the most important sculptor and architect of the 14th century in Venice, although no building other than the Doge’s Palace can now be attributed to him.

It is probable that Calendario, like many Venetian masons, traded in stone, for he owned marani, large boats suitable for its transport. When he lost three marani in 1343, he was given State support. Calendario became known above all for his part in the ‘conspiracy’ of Doge Marin Falier (reg 1354–5), as a result of which he was condemned to death and hanged between two columns of the Doge’s Palace.

The decision to build a new Sala del Maggior Consiglio, which involved rebuilding the south wing of the Doge’s Palace, was taken on ...


Roberto Coroneo

Term coined by critics in the 19th century to designate a group of sculptors and architects who were active in northern Italy and elsewhere from the mid-12th century to the late 14th; the name derives from their place of origin, Campione (Campigliono) di Lugano, which in documents often appears after their baptismal names. Some of the masters were related. A distinctive style, marked by solid forms and a robust realism, becomes apparent only in the second half of the 12th century and the first half of the 13th; later it merges with the more general manner of north Italian sculptors and builders from Arogno, Bissone, and other places between Lake Como and Lake Lugano.

The earliest document mentioning the masters from Campione is a contract dated 30 November 1244 between Ubaldino, Director (Massaro) of the Cathedral Works of Modena from 1230 to 1263, and Enrico di Ottavio da Campione, who undertook, on behalf of himself and his heirs, to work for the cathedral ...


Pere Freixas

(fl 1394; d byApril 1431).

Catalan architect and sculptor, probably of Mallorcan origin. In 1394 he was working as a highly paid apprentice of Pere Ça Anglada on the choir carving of Barcelona Cathedral. He was briefly involved in the decoration of the Portal del Mirador of Palma de Mallorca Cathedral (1397). In 1405 he executed some of the ornamental detail of the portal of the former chapter house (now Capella del Santíssim) in the cloister of Barcelona Cathedral. His most important sculptural work is the alabaster tomb of Bishop Ramon d’Escales in the Capella de les Ànimes in the Cathedral, commissioned in 1409. The sarcophagus bears the recumbent effigy of the Bishop and a frieze of weeping figures on the front, which reveal that Canet, who was familiar with the Franco-Flemish models derived from Claus Sluter, was one of the most outstanding craftsmen of the international style in Catalan sculpture.

As an architect Canet was Master of the Works of Seu d’Urgell Cathedral until ...