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One of the few surviving, early medieval, Latin technical treatises. Its attribution, localization, and dating rest largely on internal evidence variously interpreted and inconclusive. The treatise now comprises three books: it is generally agreed that Books I and II, written in verse by one hand at some time between the 7th and 12th centuries, constitute the original text; Book III, written in prose, was added piecemeal during the 12th and 13th centuries. The treatise is commonly attributed to (H)Eraclius, who is cited as the author in Books I and III but probably wrote only Books I and II. It is not known whether he was a native of Italy or a northerner promoting his knowledge of Roman techniques, and accordingly De coloribus has been located to either Italy or northern Europe.

Relatively complete versions of the text survive in two manuscripts, both accompanied by Theophilus’s treatise De diversis artibus (extracts of the text within compilations of technical material are more common): the first (ex-Trinity Coll., Cambridge, MS. R. 15 5; London, BL, Egerton MS. 840 A) is German and dated ...

Article

M. Heinlen

Essentially a papal letter concerning a matter of canonical discipline. Throughout the Middle Ages numerous collections of decretals were compiled, which served as the basis of ecclesiastical administration and canon law; in the 12th century they began to be extensively illustrated. Between the 12th and 15th centuries illustrated canon law manuscripts, primarily comprising decretals, were made and used throughout western Europe, with major centres of production located in such university cities as Paris and Bologna. These books, along with civil law manuscripts, are numerically the most important type of non-liturgical manuscript illustrated in the medieval period, and a wide range of stylistic developments is represented in the hundreds of extant examples.

The earliest illustrations in decretal manuscripts are Trees of Consanguinity and Affinity. These full-page schemata depict degrees of familial relationships in order to demonstrate the legal implications of marriage bonds. The Tree of Consanguinity shows a man standing with outstretched arms before a tree containing the Table of Consanguinity; the affinities were similarly depicted but also included a woman. These illustrations first appeared in manuscripts of the ...

Article

Francis Woodman

(fl 1188; d 1245).

English cleric, sculptor, and possibly metalworker. A native of West Dereham in Norfolk, he has sometimes been identified with Master Elias, steward to Gilbert de Glanville, Bishop of Rochester. He served in the household of Hubert Walter, Bishop of Salisbury and later Archbishop of Canterbury (1193–1205), and he was employed by other bishops in an executive capacity; he also arranged the distribution of the copies of Magna Carta (1215). With Walter of Colchester (d 1248) he organized the translation of the remains of St Thomas Becket to the new shrine at Canterbury Cathedral in 1220, apparently making and setting up the shrine itself. He was ‘director of the new fabric’ of Salisbury Cathedral (of which he was a canon) from its foundation in 1220 until his death. He built a house for himself in the Close at Salisbury (Leadenhall; destr. 1915). In 1233...

Article

Li Di  

Henrik H. Sørensen

[Li Ti]

(b Qiantang, near Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, c. 1125; d c. 1200).

Chinese painter. He was probably born around the time of the fall of the Northern Song dynasty (960–1127), after which the Song court moved to Lin’an (modern Hangzhou). Li Di’s activity as a court painter is documented in a small number of dated works from the period 1174–97. According to the Huaji buyi (‘Supplement to the succession of painters’; 1298), attributed to Zhuang Su (fl late 13th century), he worked in the Imperial Painting Academy under three emperors from 1163 until his death and is said to have served as the assistant director (fushi). Although he is known primarily for his paintings of flowers, bamboo and various animals, including birds, he also painted landscapes with figures in the style of the Northern Song academy. Surviving works ascribed to him include a number of album leaves as well as some painted fans; his favoured media were ink and colours on silk....

Article

Rossella Caruso

(fl Pisa, 1152).

Italian architect. The name appears in three inscriptions: one on a pilaster in the baptistery at Pisa (‘deotisalvi magister huius operis’), one on the campanile of S Sepolcro, Pisa, and one on the inside north wall of S Cristoforo, Lucca. The last is generally attributed to a different craftsman of the same name.

At the Pisa Baptistery (see), begun in 1152, Diotisalvi presumably worked on the planning, on the execution of the lower storey of the exterior and, inside, on the erection of the monumental granite columns from Elba and Sardinia and of the piers (excluding the capitals). The centralized design is based on the rotunda of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, which may suggest that Diotisalvi’s original scheme included the arcaded gallery and truncated conical roof. The signed inscription on the campanile of the Pisan church of S Sepolcro probably refers to the whole church. This is characterized by a similar centralized plan with a cupola, but it is smaller than the baptistery. The original octagonal structure—with eight tall pilasters, pointed arches and a dome raised on a drum—has, however, been much altered and restored....

Article

R. Allen Brown

Castle in Kent, England, overlooking the seaport at the narrowest part of the English Channel. It has been described as ‘the key of England’ (Matthew Paris: Chronica majora, Rolls Series, iii, 28; 13th century). Occupation of the site has been traced to the Iron Age. In Roman times Dover was a military settlement and later a Saxon Shore fort. The Pharos (lighthouse; probably 1st century ad; see fig. (a)) survives as the bell-tower of the church of St Mary-in-Castro ((b)), within the castle precinct.

Although larger in area than the norm, Dover could not be a more instructive example of an ‘English’ castle. Founded immediately after the battle of Hastings in 1066 by William, it is even more than usually a product of the Norman Conquest, the site having been sought by the Norman duke in 1051 as a surety for his succession to the English throne. The castle was raised (in eight days according to William of Poitiers, the Conqueror’s biographer) within the existing Anglo-Saxon burgh on the hilltop, on the analogy of Old Sarum, Portchester, Wallingford, etc. The late 10th-century or early 11th-century church of St Mary-in-Castro (restored by ...

Article

Dorothy C. Wang

[Tun-huang.]

Site of Buddhist cave sanctuaries located 25 km south-east of the county town of Dunhuang, Gansu Province, China. In the wider definition Dunhuang also includes the Yulin caves at Anxi and the Xi qianfo dong (Western Cave of the Thousand Buddhas). From the 4th century to the 14th, Buddhist cave sanctuaries were continuously carved out in four or five tiers on the cliff face of an alluvial hill that faces east over the Dang River. At its height as a Buddhist complex in the 8th century ad, the complex is believed to have comprised more than 1000 caves. A total of 492 caves with wall paintings and sculptures survive, the earliest of which date to the early 5th century ad. A hoard of old and rare manuscripts was also found at Dunhuang, including the world’s oldest complete printed book (see China, People’s Republic of, §XIV, 3).

Dunhuang was first established as a garrison town in the ...

Article

Kathryn B. Gerry

Extensively illuminated triple psalter (460×330 mm; Cambridge, Trinity Coll., MS. R.17.1) made at Christ Church, Canterbury, in the 1150s with material added in the 1160s. Modelled in part on the Utrecht Psalter (Utrecht, Bib. Rijksuniv., MS. 32). The Eadwine Psalter contains three Latin versions of the psalms in parallel columns: Gallicanum (accompanied by a Latin gloss), Romanum (with interlinear Old English translation), and Hebraicum (with interlinear Anglo-Norman translation). Each psalm is accompanied by a tinted drawing, tituli, preface and collect; the text of the psalms is followed by a prayer naming the scribe Eadwine (fol. 262r), and several canticles and creeds. The manuscript also includes a calendar and other prefatory texts (fols 1r–5v), a marginal note related to a comet (fol. 10r), texts on divination (fols 282r, 282v), a portrait of Eadwine (fol. 283v), and a plan of the monastic compound of Christ Church and its waterworks (fols 284...

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Margaret Mullett, Elizabeth Bruening Lewis, Valerie Nunn, Robin Cormack, Hans Buchwald, W. Eugene Kleinbauer, Marlia Mundell Mango, Lyn Rodley, William Saunders, Robert Ousterhout, Archibald Dunn, Slobodan Ćurčić, Kara Hattersley-Smith, Charles Barber, Christine Kondoleon, Ruth E. Kolarik, Lucille A. Roussin, Henri Lavagne, Margaret A. Alexander, Melita Emmanuel, Alexander Grishin, J.-P. Sodini, T. Zollt, Lucy-Anne Hunt, John Lowden, Manolis Chatzidakis, Nano Chatzidakis, Judith Herrin, Cécile Morrisson, Hero Granger-Taylor, Karel C. Innemée, David Whitehouse, Anthony Cutler, Aimilia Yeroulanou and David Buckton

The art produced by the peoples of the Roman Empire from the early 4th century ad to c. 600—as well as specifically Christian art from c. 250—and that produced in the eastern half of the Empire, centred around Constantinople (Byzantium) to 1453. The Byzantine empire (see fig.) was the institutional setting for much of the medieval art of the eastern Mediterranean, and from the early 4th century ad for the Orthodox Church and so for Early Christian art. Byzantines regarded their empire as having arisen from the happy coincidence of the foundation of the Roman Empire under Augustus with the incarnation of Jesus Christ; for modern historians the empire has a clear end (1453, when the city fell to the Turks) but no clear beginning. The foundation of Constantinople (324–330) by Constantine on the site of the small town of Byzantion is the conventional point of departure, when ironically Byzantion both ceased to exist and took on a new existence; it became known later as The City, and under the Turks Istanbul (...

Article

Francis Woodman

Term invented in the early 19th century by Thomas Rickman to denote the style of Early Gothic ecclesiastical architecture that flourished in Britain from c. 1190 to c. 1250. Rickman’s original style label, which he applied to architecture of the period 1189–1307, was popularized by Nikolaus Pevsner in The Buildings of England. The term is still in favour where equivalent labels (‘lancet’ or ‘pointed style’) have fallen out of use. The style follows the Romanesque and develops into the Decorated style and is characterized by the use of rib vaults, sharply pointed arches, lancet windows, deep mouldings, and the use of decorative contrasting marbles and foliage sculpture, especially Stiff-leaf. It was superseded after the mid-13th century by the window tracery and patterned vaults of the Decorated style). (See also Gothic §II 1..)

The Early English style combined such formal aspects of French Gothic as rib vaults with English pre-Gothic decorative and structural tendencies. It developed from several regional centres of late 12th-century Gothic, the most important of which were the choir of ...

Article

William W. Clark

[First Gothic; Fr. premier art gothique]. First Gothic

The generally accepted term for the first phase of the French Gothic style (see Gothic, §II, 1), lasting from its beginning at Saint-Denis Abbey (c. 1140; see Saint-Denis Abbey, §I, 2) until the reconstruction of Chartres Cathedral (begun after 1194; see Chartres, §I, 1). The Early Gothic style was at first largely confined to the areas in and around Paris and those under royal control, but generally the style spread without respect for political boundaries, having quickly lost its initial Parisian association with the Capetian monarchs. Areas contiguous to the royal domain, such as Normandy and Champagne, were the first to benefit from the structural and spatial changes. The first Gothic buildings in England, Spain, and Germany are described as ‘Early Gothic’, but the practice of adopting stylistic features while rejecting structural innovation indicates that in these countries the main connotations of the term should be chronological. Only with the cathedrals of ...

Article

Culture area of the Isthmian region of Latin America, which is more broadly classed by archaeologists as part of the Intermediate area (see South America, Pre-Columbian, §II). It comprises the Atlantic watershed and central highlands areas of Costa Rica, from the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific Ocean and from the Nicaraguan to the Panamanian border. Environments include the low coastal wetlands of the Caribbean and the Pacific drylands, numerous river valleys and plateaus, and an almost continuous chain of mountains and volcanoes running north–south. Despite a diversity of ecological niches, the archaeological remains of the region are similar enough to be considered as a single cultural group. The prehistoric archaeological record begins c. 1000 bc, with radiocarbon dates up to c. ad 1500. Results of excavations in the Reventazon Valley were published in 1893, but the most important late 19th-century works are Carl V. Hartman’s excavations of cemeteries in the Cartago Valley and in the Linea Vieja region of the Atlantic watershed, especially at Las Mercedes. More recent work by ...

Article

Günther Binding

Former Cistercian monastery in the Taunus Hills, Hessen, Germany, c. 4 km west of Eltville am Rhein. Founded on 13 February 1136 on the site of an Augustinian canons’ monastic foundation with the help of Archbishop Adalbert I (reg 1109–37) of Mainz, it was the first Cistercian abbey to be built on the right bank of the River Rhine. Heavily endowed by the archbishops of Mainz, the abbey became a large property-owner; in its heyday about 300 monks and lay brothers lived in the monastery and at the granges. Eberbach was the burial place of two archbishops of Mainz and of the Grafs of Katzenelnbogen. The abbey was damaged in 1525 during the Peasants’ War and between 1632 and 1635 in the Thirty Years War. In 1803 the monastic complex passed to the Duchy of Nassau; it was used as a prison, a mental asylum, and a sanatorium and now belongs to the state of Hessen. The monastery, which has been preserved in its entirety, now houses a state vineyard. The monastic precinct lies in the narrow Kisselbach Valley and is enclosed by a wall dating from the 12th–13th century. The gate-house, originating from the Romanesque period, was altered in the Baroque style (...

Article

Echizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Centre of ceramics production in Japan, based on some 20 kiln sites 7 km north-west of the city of Takefu (Fukui Prefect.). Echizen is known as one of Japan’s ‘Six Old Kilns’. It is one of three centres that arose in the area (the others being Kaga and Suzu) in the 12th century in response to increased agricultural production. Ceramics appeared in Fukui Prefecture in the 6th century ad with the manufacture of Sue stoneware, fired in tunnel kilns (anagama; see Japan §IX 2., (ii), (a)). In the 12th century, however, increased agricultural production, coupled with the introduction of new technology, encouraged the development of a higher-fired brown stoneware. The use of a tunnel kiln with a dividing pillar, the manufacture of jars with everted rims and incised horizontal bands and the use of the coil-and-paddle technique in the early Echizen wares point to origins in kilns such as ...

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Heather Elgood

Two groups of Hindu temples of the 10th–15th centuries ad on the edge of a small lake near Udaipur in Rajasthan, India. The complex is enclosed by undecorated walls similar to those at Baroli. The main temple at Eklingji is dedicated to Shiva and houses a linga regarded as the guardian deity of the Sisodia Maharanas of Mewar. However, the earliest temple in the complex is the Lakulisha Temple (971–2), a simple building consisting of a sanctuary (vimāna), a hall (maṇḍapa) and a porch. One wall niche contains an image of the goddess Sarasvati (see Indian subcontinent §V 7., (iii), (a)), and inside the sanctum is a seated sculpture of Lakulisha, founder of the Pashupata sect; the doorway has a similar image on the lintel. Although the hall is square, its supporting columns form an octagonal space. Niches on its outer walls contain relief sculptures of a variety of goddesses. The main Eklingji temple dates from the 15th century. The principal sanctuary and the two-storey hall are constructed of marble, and there is a curved tower over the sanctuary. Inside the sanctum is a highly decorated silver doorway and screen preceding the central image, a black marble four-faced Shiva ...

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Phillip Lindley and Faith Johnson

Cathedral in Cambridgeshire, England. It began as the minster church for the city of Ely, having been founded in ad 673 on an island in the Fens by Queen Etheldreda (reg 630–79). After being sacked by the Danes in 870, the minster was reconsecrated and re-endowed by Bishop Aethelwold and King Edgar (reg 959–75) in 970 as the church of a Benedictine monastery. Before the Norman Conquest of 1066 Ely was one of the richest English monasteries. Little is known of the undoubtedly sizeable Anglo-Saxon church, which possibly lay on the north side of the present nave, because the first Norman abbot, Simeon (reg 1081–93), founded a new church in 1082. In 1109 Ely was made an episcopal see, and the endowments were divided between the bishop and the monastery. The monastery was dissolved in 1539, and the cathedral church refounded in 1541, when the dedication to SS Etheldreda and Peter was changed to the Holy and Undivided Trinity....

Article

En  

Samuel C. Morse

School of Japanese sculpture that flourished during the 12th century. It was founded by and named after Ensei (d 1134) and was one of the two major schools of Japanese Buddhist sculpture of the later Heian period (794–1185), the other being the In school (see also Japan, §V, 3, (iii), (c)). Ensei was a pupil of Chōsei (d 1091), the chief disciple of Jōchō, who had developed a refined, elegant style that satisfied both the secular and spiritual pretensions of the 11th-century aristocracy. Sculptors of both the En and In schools were patronized by the most influential figures of the capital of Heian (now Kyoto), at whose behest they rejected innovation in favour of close replication of the formal qualities of Jōchō’s imagery. They worked mainly in wood. Ensei’s only surviving work is a seated Healing Buddha (Jap. Yakushi, Skt Bhaishajyaguru; 1103...

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Elizabeth Sears

Term anachronistically applied to a wide range of antique and medieval works of a compendious character, which were often provided with extensive cycles of didactic illustration. The boundaries of the genre are difficult to set, for the content, scale, structure, stated aims, and intended audiences of the works vary considerably. All contain comprehensive descriptions of the natural world—celestial and terrestrial—often in conjunction with information from other fields, for example history or ethics. The material, drawn from sources approved by tradition, is normally presented not alphabetically but according to systems of the author’s devising. The compilations are often simply called ‘On the nature of things’, but sometimes more evocative metaphoric titles are employed: ‘image’ or ‘mirror’ of the world, ‘garden of delights’, ‘treasure’. The works, each containing a library of information in small compass, were intended to be of practical use, especially to commentators on the Bible. They served an edifying function by bringing the reader to the knowledge and love of the Creator....