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Paul Scolari

(b Rome, 1620–25; d Rome, 1645–50).

Italian painter. He is the only known pupil of Claude Lorrain other than Claude’s long-standing assistant Giandomenico Desiderii (b 1620–24; d after 1657). Pascoli, the only biographer to record him, claimed in his life of Claude that Angeluccio was Claude’s most able student but had died young and was able to work little. Angeluccio appears to have lived in Rome and, like Claude, was exclusively a landscape painter. About 25 paintings and 35 drawings, all dated 1640–45, comprise his entire oeuvre. Claude’s influence can be seen in such paintings as Landscape with Figures and Bridge (priv. col., see 1983 exh. cat., no. 88). This is a composition with centrally placed foreground figures framed by trees in the middle ground, which in turn stand before a bridge and a distant vista, and was borrowed directly from such paintings by Claude as Pastoral Landscape (1644–5; Merion Station, PA, Barnes Found.). Although Angeluccio shared Claude’s approach to landscape, he was not merely an imitator. His paintings form a coherent stylistic group of wooded landscapes, rich in foliage and undergrowth and characterized by a blue-green tonality, which indicates that he also embraced the tradition of landscape painting brought to Rome in the 17th century by Dutch and Flemish artists. The ...

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Johannes Ramharter

(b Weilheim, Bavaria, c. 1580; d Munich, June 6, 1633).

German ivory-carver and sculptor. He was the first in a line of 17th-century south German ivory-carvers who served the taste of princely and aristocratic patrons for small-scale carvings for their Kunstkammern. Angermair worked mainly at the Munich court of Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria; his works reveal a high degree of virtuosity, and minute details are worked with a precision reminiscent of goldsmith’s work. As his style developed, the modelling became softer, but there was always a certain stiffness in his compositions.

Angermair was the son of a Swabian goldsmith, and he was first apprenticed to the Weilheim sculptor Hans Degler, through whom he would have had close contact with the Munich court sculptors Hans Reichle, Hubert Gerhard and Hans Krumper. His first recorded work was a Christ Child (untraced) in ivory, carved in 1606 for the Innsbruck court of Anna Caterina Gonzaga (1566–1621), the widow of Archduke Ferdinand of Tyrol. It has been conjectured that Angermair might have worked in ...

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Thomas F. Hedin

[Anguierre]

French family of sculptors. Honoré Anguier (b Eu, fl c. 1570–80; d Eu, 1648) was a carpenter, wood-carver and small-scale entrepreneur in Eu, Normandy. Local church archives document his work on doors, frames, balustrades and retables. His eldest son, (1) François Anguier, became noted for his funerary sculpture but also contributed to decorative schemes for ecclesiastic and secular buildings. His younger son, (2) Michel Anguier, worked in Rome before returning to Paris where he enjoyed royal and aristocratic patronage and became a distinguished teacher and lecturer at the Académie Royale. Both François and Michel introduced a new Roman influence, helping to form the classical style in France. A third brother, Guillaume Anguier (1628–1708), was a successful decorative painter, working at various royal residences; one of his daughters married the sculptor Domenico Cucci. Catherine Anguier, sister of François, Michel and Guillaume, was the mother of the sculptor ...

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Torbjörn Fulton

[Johan]

(fl Narol, 1663; d Stockholm, 1688).

Italian stuccoist active in Sweden. He collaborated with Hans Zauch on ceilings in Skokloster Castle, Uppland (1663–4), and he created the ceiling in the great hall in Djursholm Castle (1668), near Stockholm. At Skokloster he may have executed two ceilings (1663–4) alone, in the antechambers of the apartment of Carl Gustaf Wrangel (1613–76) and his wife in the east wing. These ceilings are dominated by figurative motifs—flying putti in one ceiling, representatives of the Four Seasons in the other. The latter especially is marked by its somewhat naive but fine modelling and has lyrical scenes, such as the heavily clad young man warming his hands by a fire, typifying winter.

E. Andrén: Skokloster (Stockholm, 1948) S. Karling: ‘Les Stucateurs italiens en Suède’, Arte e artisti dei laghi lombardi, ed. E. Aslan (Como, 1964), pp. 291–302 G. Beard: Stucco and Decorative Plasterwork in Europe...

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James Cahill

[Chin. Xin’an pai]

Term used to refer to a group of painters, mostly landscapists, active in Anhui Province chiefly in the second half of the 17th century, early in the Qing period (1644–1911). The Chinese name refers to the region of Xin’an in south-eastern Anhui, where the artists were mostly concentrated. Anhui was prominent in the production of craft and trade goods, including paper, lacquer, brushes and ink-cakes, before it became a centre for painters. From the early 17th century the finest woodblock cutting and printing were done here, rivalled only by nearby Nanjing. Some Anhui artists of the late Ming (1368–1644), notably Ding Yunpeng, contributed designs for pictorial prints, and the spare, precise linear patterns of Anhui printing must have been a factor behind the popularity of related painting styles among local artists (see also China, People’s Republic of, §XIV, 21).

Another important factor in the formation of the school and the stylistic direction it took was the patronage of the wealthy Huizhou merchants, who by the late Ming period controlled most of the commerce in the lower Yangzi River area. Their passion for collecting antiquities, especially works of calligraphy and painting by prestigious masters of the past, is attested in writings of their time; the prices paid for certain kinds of paintings by respected literati masters of the Yuan (...

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B. P. J. Broos

(b Utrecht, c. 1635; d Deventer, bur April 13, 1678).

Dutch painter. He probably became a pupil of Gerard ter Borch (ii) in Deventer after 1654 and by 1660 he must have visited Amsterdam: the surprisingly mature Still-life with Stone Jar and Pipes (The Hague, Mauritshuis), signed and dated 1658, displays both the stylistic influence of ter Borch and an awareness of the work of the Amsterdam painters Jan Jansz. den Uyl (1595/6–1639/40) and Jan Jansz. Treck (c. 1606–52). This is the only still-life in van Anraadt’s oeuvre, which otherwise consists mainly of portraits, chiefly of groups.

In 1660 he was confirmed in Utrecht, where in 1663 he married Antonia, daughter of the popular poet Jan van der Veen (1578–1659). During the 1660s van Anraadt appears to have painted little; only one dated work from these years is known, the Departure of Capt. Hendrik de Sandra (1661; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.), a large group portrait that includes van Anraadt’s self-portrait. Thereafter his activity was confined to portraits and genre scenes. Although he lived in Deventer, his commissions came mainly from Amsterdam and Haarlem. In ...

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(b Voltri, Aug 24, 1584; d Genoa, Aug 18, 1638).

Italian painter. His first teacher was Orazio Cambiaso, son of Luca Cambiaso, from whom he learnt the principles of design and acquired his proficiency in the use of colour. Ansaldo’s appreciation of colour must also have owed something to Veronese, whose works he copied as a student. Orazio Cambiaso’s large canvas of St James Converting Josiah (c. 1600; Genoa, Oratory of S Giacomo delle Fucine) is one of many sources for Ansaldo’s multi-figured and highly detailed compositions, set in a deep architectural space. The elegant figures and subtle tonalities of his early works are derived also from the work of Tuscan Mannerist artists in Genoa, such as Pietro Sorri (1556–1621), Ventura Salimbeni and Aurelio Lomi (1556–1622). The sumptuous draperies and strong chiaroscuro contrasts of Giovanni Battista Paggi, who had adopted the Tuscan manner after a period in Florence, influenced Ansaldo, as did the rich impasto of Bernardo Strozzi and Simone Barabbino (...

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An antiquary (Lat. antiquarius) is a lover, collector and student of ancient learning, traditions and remains. Antiquarianism originated from the revived interest in Classical antiquity during the Renaissance and became a scientific and historical method in the 17th century. The difference between literary and non-literary sources distinguishes humanism from antiquarianism, the latter being based on those tangible remains of antiquity (inscriptions, coins and ruins) related to literary sources. From the 16th century new attitudes towards antiquity were discussed in antiquarian circles, later giving rise to antiquarian societies. Thereafter, antiquarianism was firmly linked to archaeological excavations and to the study and collecting of ancient art. It was also linked to the search for a national identity in the arts and for the origins of Western culture and was sustained by a curiosity about civilizations outside Europe. Antiquarianism, in fact, was associated with the Grand Tour and with travel more generally. Antiquaries and artist–antiquaries were responsible for producing numerous drawings, prints and illustrated volumes. High-quality illustrations of archaeological sites and ancient sculpture contributed to the growth of art history as an autonomous discipline. They also contributed to the popularization of the Antique and to the transformation of commercial dealing in objects associated with antiquarian interests (...

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Bruno Tollon

In 

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Enrique Valdivièso

(b Seville, c. 1644; d Seville, c. 1700).

Spanish painter. A lawyer by training, he continued his profession while practising as a painter and was well educated in the humanities. Although he was a prolific artist, few of his paintings are signed; only one, the Adoration of the Shepherds (1678; Seville Cathedral, Sacristia de los Cálices), bears his name. This painting is characteristic of his style, depicting small, highly expressive figures in a setting with dramatic lighting effects. Antolínez painted spacious interior scenes and landscapes, always featuring small figures in lively attitudes. He specialized in modestly sized pictures, usually in series of eight or ten paintings of religious subjects, to which he gave a pleasing decorative effect by the addition of landscape backgrounds. Most of them were evidently painted in haste with an eye to a quick sale. His output includes many scenes of episodes from the lives of Jacob (Seville Cathedral, sacristy), Abraham and David from the Old Testament, scenes from the life of the Virgin, and New Testament scenes of the childhood of Christ (Madrid, Colegio S Anton) and of the life of Christ (Fuentes el Año, parish church). Many of these series have been dispersed into numerous different locations. Antolínez is thought to have been related to the painter ...

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J. Rogelio Buendía Muñoz

(bapt Madrid, Nov 7, 1635; d Madrid, May 30, 1675).

Spanish painter. According to Palomino he was an arrogant and quarrelsome character. Although he came from a low social position the prestige he acquired procured him an important clientele: the Almirante of Castile hung works by him in a hall intended to exhibit the most important Spanish artists, and the Danish ambassador to Spain, Cornelius Lerche, gave him commissions. Although initially employing simple compositions, these became more complex during his career, and he also developed into a dynamic and brilliant colourist.

The son of a carpenter, at the age of 18 Antolínez married the daughter of the artist Julián González de Benavides, and his first apprenticeship was served with his father-in-law. He then joined the workshop of Francisco Rizi, with whom he collaborated. He became one of the most prominent Baroque painters of religious subjects, particularly that of the Immaculate Conception. This was a favourite theme in Spanish Baroque art, and the Spanish monarchy was closely connected with the proclamation of the dogma it embodied. Antolínez’s earliest treatments of the subject were in the tradition established by Jusepe de Ribera, Francisco Pacheco and Alonso Cano, but his composition eventually became freer, and he added more cherubs around the Virgin. The first version (Palma de Mallorca, Col. March), showing the influence of Alonso Cano, was signed ...

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