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Wolfram Baer

German family of engravers and publishers. Joseph Sebastian Klauber (c. 1700–68) was a pupil of Melchior Rein (fl 1714–30) in Augsburg, then worked with Anton Birkhart (1677–1748) in Prague. On his return to Augsburg, he worked for Johann Andreas Pfeffel I (1674–1748), doing engravings for Thesenblätter, and c. 1740 he founded a joint publishing venture with his brother Johann Baptist Klauber (1712–c. 1787) and Gottfried Bernhard Göz. The brothers continued the firm after Göz departed to found a publishing company of his own. Their enterprise, commercially the most successful business in Augsburg, was specifically Catholic, publishing mainly devotional and pilgrimage prints, biblical engravings, pictures of saints, portraits of clerics etc. ‘Cath.’ was systematically appended to the engravers’ names, suggesting to Catholic customers that they should give preference to artists of their own faith. The significance of the Klaubers’ output of engravings lies more in the field of cultural history than of art (...


Eva Börsch-Supan

(b Berlin, Sept 25, 1801; d Berlin, May 29, 1865).

German architect. He introduced the forms of the Schinkel school into Berlin’s private housing. He studied at the Berlin Bauakademie (1819–28), but in 1824, when the Bauakademie was separated from Akademie der Künste, Knoblauch and his friend Friedrich August Stüler founded the Architekten-Verein zu Berlin, to make up for the loss in artistic instruction. His numerous private houses (as many as 50 between 1830 and 1850), were mostly in an Italianate style, amongst them the Villa Knoblauch (1835) at Potsdamer Strasse 105, a square block with gables on two sides; the Villa Hänel (1839), a symmetrical building with belvedere and roof terrace; the Villa Pflug (1859) at Alt-Moabit 117–8, with interiors by Bernard Kolscher; the Palais Arnim-Boytzenburg (1857) at Pariser Platz 4; and the Russian Embassy (1840–41; destr. 1945) at Unter den Linden 7. Other buildings included the Weidinger hospital (...


Gordon Campbell


(b Nuremberg, fl 1472; d Nuremberg, Oct 3, 1513).

German publisher. Koberger introduced printing to Nuremberg in 1470 and sold his books through his 16 shops and his network of agents throughout Europe. He published more than 200 folio incunabula, many of which were lavishly illustrated with woodcuts, including Hartmann Schedel’s Nuremberg Chronicle. On his death the business passed to his heirs who went bankrupt in ...


Laurie A. Stein

(b Cologne, Sept 9, 1860; d Darmstadt, Jan 5, 1939).

German publisher, patron and collector. He was influential in the reform movements in art, in particular Jugendstil, the German version of Art Nouveau. Through his publications he hoped to free art from the constraints of the studio, elevate public taste and encourage the creation of a style that would be in keeping with an ideal modern culture. Trained as a printer, he started a magazine of the carpet trade, Tapetenzeitung, in 1888 and shortly afterwards, with only DM 100 as capital, established Verlagsanstalt Alexander Koch. The highly successful firm published periodicals, including Fachblatt für Innen-Dekoration (first issue 1890; since 1980 Architektur, Innenarchitektur, technischer Ausbau) and Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration (first issue 1897); catalogues, notably Grossherzog Ernst Ludwig und die Ausstellung der Künstler-Kolonie in Darmstadt von Mai bis Oktober 1901; and books, among them Handbuch neuzeitlicher Wohnungskultur (1912). He also published the Meister der Innenkunst, the series of prizewinning designs by Charles Rennie Mackintosh, M. H. Baillie Scott and Leopold Bauer for the competition ‘Haus eines Kunstfreundes’ of ...


Gordon Campbell

(b Zwickau, c. 1531; d Dresden, 1586).

German bookbinder. Krause was based in Dresden, where he was the first bookbinder to use gold tooling and the first to use French and Italian designs. In 1566 he was appointed court binder to the Elector Augustus I of Saxony, a post which he held for the rest of his life. The library of the electors (now in the Sächsische Landesbibliothek in Dresden) contains many volumes bound by Krause in gilded bindings with portrait stamps and initials of members of the electoral family....


Sophie Biass-Fabiani

[Lafreri, Antonio]

(b Orgelet, Jura, 1512; d Rome, July 20, 1577).

French engraver and print publisher, active in Italy. He is known to have worked in Rome from 1544 onwards, on the evidence of three plates dated and signed Antonii Lafrery sequani formis. He became famous for his work as a publisher. Most of his engravings from 1544 to 1553 were copies of works by his rival Antonio Salamanca, whose associate he became in 1553. Their contract was broken in 1563 by Salamanca’s son Francesco. Lafréry’s most important work, the Speculum romanae magnificentiae, was by its nature unfinished. It was an album of plans and views of Rome, executed between 1545 and 1577 by the best engravers in Rome. By 1567 it comprised 107 plates. The project, intended to give an account of ancient Rome, contained numerous reconstructions and extended to the architectural work of Michelangelo’s period, as well as to some events and festivals. The plates were captioned in Latin and in ...


Maxime Préaud

[Chartres, de; Ciartres]

(b Chartres, bapt May 12, 1588; d Paris, Jan 13, 1647).

French print-publisher and seller, bookseller and painter. Between 1610 and 1614 he was apprenticed to Pierre-Louis Febvrier, a bookseller in Paris. He visited Rome in 1613 and 1614, and Genoa, Florence and Rome again in 1621; in the course of these travels he became friendly with Anthony van Dyck, who executed his portrait (Viscount Cowdray priv. col.), and with Claude Vignon, Stefano della Bella and François Collignon. It was probably at this period that he acquired the nickname of Chartres, or (in Italian) Ciartres. In 1624 and 1625 he dealt in paintings in association with Vignon, while also collecting prints for Thomas Howard, 14th Earl of Arundel, and for Charles I of England.

In 1629, while on his way to Italy with Matthieu Fredeau, a painter from Antwerp, Langlois collaborated with him on the Rosary altarpiece in the Dominican church in Aix-en-Provence. Around that time he embarked in earnest on a career as a print-publisher, beginning with illustrated books, which he published in collaboration with ...


Maxime Préaud

French family of engravers, print-sellers and print-publishers. Nicolas de Larmessin I (bapt Paris, 17 Oct 1632; d Paris, 23 July 1694) was the son of the bookseller Nicolas de Larmessin. In 1647 he was apprenticed to the engraver Jean Mathieu (fl 1618–46), and in 1654 he married the daughter of the print-publisher and print-seller Pierre Bertrand (d c. 1678). Larmessin first worked for his father-in-law, particularly on the execution of series of portraits and almanacs, such as that of Anne of Austria (1663; see Weigert, no. 16). After Bertrand’s death and that of his widow (c. 1685), Larmessin took over their publishing business in the Rue St Jacques at the sign of the Golden Apple.

Nicolas de Larmessin II (b Paris, c. 1645; d Paris, 18 Dec 1725) was the brother of Nicolas I, with whose works his own are often confused; he engraved almanacs but is known particularly for his series of prints depicting grotesque costumes [...


Gordon Campbell

(fl 1425–67).

German manuscript illuminator. Lauber had a workshop in Hagenau (now French Haguenau) in Alsace, 15 km north-east of Strasbourg. His workshop is known to have produced more than 50 manuscripts (in both German and Latin) between 1425 and 1467.


L. von Wilckens: ‘A Note on an Embroidery with the Joys of Mary’ [15th century linen embroidery from Alsace], ...


Concha Vela

(b Beire, Navarra, March 30, 1862; d Madrid, Dec 1, 1947).

Spanish collector, publisher and patron. He studied law in Barcelona and c. 1882 settled in Madrid, where his enthusiasm for art and literature rapidly developed. In 1888 he founded a publishing enterprise, España Moderna, and a journal of the same name containing contributions by such leading writers and intellectuals as Juan Valera and Emilia Pardo Bazán. Lázaro Galdiano used the journal to publish the most significant writings on Spanish art and translations of such books as Carl Justi’s Diego Velázquez und sein Jahrhundert, 2 vols (Bonn, 1888, rev. 1903). His publishing house also issued the Revista Internacional and several collections dealing with cultural and juridical matters. Over a period of 60 years he assembled one of the finest collections of art in Spain and in Europe, notable for its size and the quality and rarity of the works. Many pieces were acquired through his extensive travels, when he was accompanied by his wife, the wealthy Argentine Paula Florido. His collection included important illuminated manuscripts and engravings, as well as numerous examples of enamel work, from 10th-century Byzantine pieces to 16th-century Limoges enamel. He collected ivory, gold and silver objects of various periods and styles: Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic, Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque. There were also many examples of fans, fabrics, pieces of lace, medals, armour and furniture in his collection. Among his paintings were examples of 15th- and 16th-century Flemish and Spanish work (e.g. ...


Marianne Grivel

(b Paris, c. 1555; d Paris, c. 1612).

French engraver, publisher and print dealer. The son of a dealer in Audenarde, he worked first at Antwerp for Jean Ditmar (c. 1538–1603) and then went to Paris before 1580 to work for the painter and engraver Jean Rabel (1540/50–1603). He married first Marie, daughter of Antoine Caron, in 1583, and secondly, in 1605, Charlotte Bothereau. He skilfully moved from the side of the militant Catholic League in the Wars of Religion to that of Henry IV, and as a result made himself a fortune. He ran a busy workshop and published large numbers of prints by other hands. Among his apprentices were Jacques Honnervogt (fl 1608–35) and Melchior Tavernier (c. 1564–1641). His first dated engraving is Justice (1579; Linzeler, no. 57), after Federico Zuccaro. He specialized mainly in portraiture (more than 300 plates), for example Catherine de’ Medici...


Anne Blecksmith

(b Kiev, Sept 4, 1919; d Miami, FL, Nov 19, 1999).

American painter, photographer and publishing executive of Ukrainian birth. Raised in England and France, he received a degree in philosophy and mathematics from the Sorbonne in 1930. Connected to the Russian exile community in Paris, he was introduced to artists Aleksandr Yakovlev and Marc Chagall. In 1931, he studied painting with André Lhote and enrolled at the Ecole Spéciale d’Architecture, where he was a student of Auguste Perret. Later that year, he transferred to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. While studying architecture, he was apprenticed to graphic artist Cassandre through whom he found work at the newsweekly Vu, where he created photomontage covers with Russian Constructivist sensibilities and later rose to art director. At Vu he worked with imagery by pioneers of 35 mm photography Henri Cartier-Bresson, Brassaï and Erich Salomon. A prolific photographer since childhood, he enthusiastically identified with the candid documentary style of the 35 mm camera.

Arriving in New York in ...


Jetty E. van der Sterre

Netherlandish family of artists. There are at least two families of printmakers with this surname, and it is unclear whether or not or exactly how they were related. Willem Liefrinck (b Augsburg, 1490; d Antwerp, 1542) was a woodcutter, who worked in Augsburg in 1516 and 1518 on book illustrations for Emperor Maximilian. His son Hans Liefrinck I (b ?Augsburg, ?1518; d Antwerp, bur 28 Feb 1573) was active in Antwerp as a print publisher, engraver, woodcutter and etcher from 1538 until his death. Among the prints attributed to him are portrait engravings of the nobility and clergy, and a series of 44 woodcut portraits of Princes and Princesses (Hollstein, nos 92–135) after Cornelis Anthonisz. Hans I’s daughter Mynken [Wilhelmine] Liefrinck (fl Antwerp, c. 1567–82) was a printer, illuminator and woodcutter, who worked mainly for Christoph Plantin in Antwerp, printing and hand-colouring maps and engraved book illustrations; she was also responsible for a woodcut ...


Mónica Martí Cotarelo

(b Parma, 1790; d Tampico, Dec 11, 1832).

Italian lithographer, active in Mexico. In 1809 he completed his studies in Paris, but after returning to Italy he was sentenced to death in 1824 for revolutionary activities. He went to Mexico with his colleague Gaspar Franchini in 1825, apparently attracted by the idea of putting his revolutionary ideas into practice. He took a lithographic press with him and set up the first lithographic workshop in Mexico City. In addition to teaching, he printed a weekly periodical, El Iris, from February to August 1826, featuring lithographs of fashion models and portraits of such heroes of Mexican independence as Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla. Under this innocent guise, that of printers of a publication intended for women, he and his collaborators gave expression to political comment that led to the periodical’s closure, and in September 1826 he was forced to leave Mexico. In 1828 in Brussels he published Costumes civils, militaires et religieux du Mexique...


(b Antwerp, Jan 25, 1578; d Rotterdam, before Jan 7, 1625).

Flemish engraver, etcher and print publisher. He apparently trained in Antwerp, where he may have worked in the workshop of Abraham de Bruyn, father of his brother-in-law Nicolaes de Bruyn. About 1600 he followed his brother A(ha)ssuerus van Londerseel (bapt Antwerp, 30 March 1572; d before 21 May 1649), also an engraver and print publisher, to Rotterdam. He seems to have been active there between 1610 and 1625; in 1614 he was living in Delft.

Londerseel’s reproductive engravings after landscapes by David Vinckboons, Gillis d’Hondecoetre and others are large and have a standard composition, with trees on either side, a high horizon and hills, rivers and villages. The landscapes, unlike the figures in them, are engraved with great virtuosity and reveal a preference for picturesque detail, such as gnarled trees. These engravings are characterized by their mixture of emphatic contrasts between black and white in the foreground (e.g. on the leaves) and pale, lightly etched backgrounds. One fine example is the ...


James Stevens Curl

(b Cambuslang, Lanark [now Strathclyde], April 8, 1783; d London, December 14, 1843).

Scottish garden designer and writer. The son of a farmer, he was first apprenticed to a nurseryman and landscape gardener, moving to London in 1803 to set himself up as a garden designer. That year he published his ‘Hints…[on] Laying Out the Grounds of the Public Squares in London’ in the Literary Journal (ii/12, 31 Dec 1803, cols 739–42), advocating a judicious mixture of deciduous and evergreen plants. He also carried out work for the Duchess of Brunswick at Brunswick House, Blackheath, London, and the following year spent some time in his native Scotland, improving the estates of several aristocratic clients. The same year he exhibited three drawings at the Royal Academy and published his first book, Observations on…Ornamental Plantations. In it he emphasized his adherence to Picturesque principles and those of Uvedale Price in particular. From this time on, and in addition to several forays into architectural design, Loudon’s career as a garden designer was inseparable from his vast publishing enterprises, by which he disseminated his advice and ideas....


Dario Succi

(b c. 1690; d c. 1750).

Italian publisher. His printing press was situated ‘underneath the arches at Rialto’ in Venice, and he is known almost exclusively for the publication of a series of large prints, titled Il Gran Teatro di Venezia ovvero descrizione esatta di cento delle più insigni prospettive e di altretante celebri pitture della medesima città. The first edition is undated, but it probably came out c. 1717. As originally planned, the series was to include 200 prints, but this ambition was not realized, and even the second edition (1720, 2 vols) has only c. 120 prints. The approximately 57 plates contained in the first volume reproduce paintings that hung in Venetian public buildings, including works by Veronese, Titian, Tintoretto, Palma Giovane. They were engraved by Andrea Zucchi, Domenico Rossetti (1650–1736), Giacomo Burri, Domenico Bonavera (b 1640), Pietro Sante Bartoli, Agostino dalla Via and others. The second volume contains a varying number (up to 66) of views of Venice (see exh. cat., figs 279–82) engraved by ...


Michael Eissenhauer

(b ?Kronstadt, Transylvania [now Braşov, Romania], c. 1530; d Helmstedt, Oct 1597).

Hungarian woodcutter, printmaker and printer of German descent, active in Germany. He was probably employed at the printing works of Gáspár Heltai (c. 1520–74) in Klausenburg (now Cluj) from c. 1545 and later probably worked in Nuremberg. From 1555 he lived in Wittenberg, at the same time as Lucas Cranach II. From 1556 he had his own printing works, and in 1564 he was appointed university book printer in Rostock. In 1579, after a dispute with the university, he moved to Helmstedt, still as a university book printer. After his death from bubonic plague, his son Jakob Lucius II (fl 1568–1616) carried on his printing business.

The extent of Lucius’s oeuvre is difficult to ascertain, and any appreciation of his work is dominated by his major standing as a book printer. His woodcuts reflect the influence of Lucas Cranach II and attain especial quality only in his Wittenberg period, in such works as the ...



Isabelle Monod-Fontaine

French dealers and publishers. Aimé Maeght (b nr St-Omer, 27 April 1906; d 1981) first worked as a lithographic draughtsman and poster designer, joining the printing firm Robaudy in Cannes at the age of 20. In 1928 he married Marguerite Devaye (b Cannes, 25 April 1905; d 31 July 1977) with whom he opened a shop selling radios in 1932 while still working as a lithographer and advertising designer. In 1937 they opened the Galerie Arte in Cannes, where they exhibited the work of painters such as Georges Rouault, Jean Pougny, Roger Chastel, Henri Lebasque and Jean-Gabriel Domergue. With the encouragement of Pierre Bonnard, a friend of the Maeghts from 1941, and of Matisse and other artists and writers whom they met in the south of France, they decided to devote themselves to art publishing and dealing. In late 1945 they settled in Paris and opened the ...


Valerie Holman

(b Paris, Nov 3, 1901; d Créteil, Nov 23, 1976).

French writer and government minister. He became well known as a writer of novels of heroism and adventure, especially Les Conquérants (Paris, 1928) and La Condition humaine (Paris, 1933), and as a leader of the Resistance. He had an interest in art, however, and at the age of 19 he became art director for the publisher Simon Kra’s Editions du Sagittaire, and at 20 took charge of Kahnweiler’s Editions de luxe, for which Malraux himself wrote Lunes en papier (Paris, 1921), a fictional work illustrated by Fernand Léger. In 1926–7 he founded two successive but short-lived publishing companies of his own, A la Sphère and Aux Aldes, to produce illustrated limited editions, and from 1928 to 1936 he was in charge of the art book department of Gallimard.

Prior to World War II Malraux began work on his first major art book, La Psychologie de l’art, whose first volume, ...