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Mary S. Lawton and Marco Musillo

[Lang Shining; Lang Shih-ning]

(b Milan, Jul 19, 1688; d Beijing, Jul 16, 1766).

Italian painter, architect, and Jesuit lay brother, active also in Portugal and China. Castiglione is one of the few Western artists to be included in the Chinese imperial collections. In the catalogue raisonné of the Imperial Collection of Paintings published in the Jiaqing reign (1796–1820) are listed forty-seven titles and fifty-six pieces by Castiglione.

Castiglione entered the Society of Jesus in 1707 after having received full training as a painter in Milan. While in Milan he studied late 17th-century painting techniques and later identified himself as a pupil of Andrea Pozzo, also a lay brother, who is best known for his decoration of the ceiling of the Jesuit church of St. Ignazio in Rome. A group of large paintings from Genoa commissioned for the refectory and church of the local Jesuit noviciate indicate that Castiglione’s style was competent if not innovative. Documentary evidence also attest commissions received in Portugal for frescoes of the life of St. Ignatius Loyola that decorated the chapel of the Jesuit Novitiate in Coimbra, Portugal, now part of the ...


Roger S. Edmundson

English ceramic manufactory. Production at the Salopian China Manufactory on the Caughley estate, near Ironbridge, Salop, was started in 1775 by Thomas Turner (1749–1809), a Freeman of Worcester, and Ambrose Gallimore (fl c. 1749–c. 1787), who was active at the estate and may already have been directing potting there. They were encouraged by the availability of coal on site and the proximity of the Severn waterway to Worcester and Bristol as potential markets. Robert Hancock, the former Worcester engraver, was briefly associated with the venture. Until c. 1794 a wide range of useful wares was produced in a soapstone soft-paste porcelain similar to that used at the Worcester factory. Simple shapes and underglaze blue, transfer-printed or painted decoration emulated the style of the wares produced at the Worcester, Chantilly and Tournai factories. A variety of engraved designs was based on Chinese handpainted patterns. Between 1789...



Gordon Campbell

European term for a type of Chinese stoneware also known as greenware; the name derives from the colour of the dress worn by the shepherd Céladon in the stage version of Honoré d'Urfe's 17th-century pastoral romance, L'Astrée. The natural presence of small percentages of iron and titanium oxide in the glaze raw materials gave a wide range of celadon greens when fired in a reducing atmosphere. The glaze was later imitated in the stoneware of Japan and Korea, and still later in Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam. China began to export celedons to Japan in the Song period (960–1279); the Japanese gave the name kinuta (‘mallet’) to the finest Longquan celadons, which have a cloudy, blue-green colour.

G. St G. M. Gompertz: Chinese Celadon Wares (London, 1958, rev. 1980)Ice and Green Clouds: Traditions of Chinese Celadon (exh. cat. by Y. Mino and K. R. Tsiang; Indianapolis, IN, Mus. A., 1986)...


Yi Sŏng-mi

[cha Haech’ŏn; ho Koun]

(b Kyŏngju, North Kyŏngsang Province, 857; d 915).

Korean calligrapher. He is considered to be one of the two most prominent calligraphers of the Unified Silla period (668–918), the other being Kim Saeng. Ch’oe was also a famous statesman, Confucian scholar and man of letters. In 868, at the age of 12, he travelled to China, and in 874 he passed the Chinese civil service examination for foreign scholars. In 885 Ch’oe returned to Korea and served in various official capacities.

Several examples of his calligraphy survive in the form of stelae, the most famous of which is the Chin’gam sŏnsa taegong t’appi (887), a stele dedicated to the Sŏn Buddhist master Chin’gam and now in the Ssanggye-sa Temple, Hadong, South Kyŏngsang Province. The title in seal script and the main text in regular script show his calligraphy at its best. In character composition Ch’oe seems to have modelled his calligraphy loosely on the style of the Chinese master Ouyang Tong (...


(b Busan, March 4, 1951; d New York, Nov 5, 1982).

Korean artist and writer active in the USA. Cha was born and raised in Busan, Korea, moving to Hawaii with her parents in the mid-1960s, and then later to San Francisco. Trained in French from early adolescence, she studied comparative literature at the University of California, Berkeley, including the works of Stéphane Mallarmé. As part of her theoretical studies, Cha also majored in visual art, first concentrating on ceramics and then moving to performance-based work under the tutelage of James Melchert (b 1930). After graduating in both disciplines in 1973 and 1975 respectively, Cha continued her studies in visual art at the University of California, Berkeley, receiving an MFA in 1978. During this time, she studied abroad in Paris at the Centre d’Etudes Américain du Cinéma in 1976, working with psychoanalytic theorists such as Christian Metz and Raymond Bellour. Works created during this time were based on symbols, the manipulation of language via experimentation with font, scale and the placement of words, as well as cinematic devices such as the fade....


Yi Chae  

Yi Sŏng-mi

[cha Hŭigyŏng ; ho Toam, Hanch’ŏn ]

(b Ubong, 1680; d 1746).

Korean painter, calligrapher and government official. He passed the civil service examination in 1702 and served in various posts before becoming Vice-minister of the Board of Rites. He was also a Neo-Confucian philosopher ( see Confucianism, §2(ii) ). Although he is recorded as having been good at painting, none of his works has survived. On the other hand, the portrait of him by an anonymous painter (Seoul, N. Mus.;) is one of the best-known portraits of the 18th century; in it a hint of the influence of Western painting technique, i.e. the use of chiaroscuro, can be detected. Yi Chae is portrayed in old age wearing a white scholar’s robe with black trimming, called hakch’ang’ŭi, and a black headdress. The simplicity of the scholar’s garment further enhances the penetrating expression of his eyes and the slight shading on his face. Several of his calligraphic works remain, including the stele of Kim In-hu (...


Hong Sŏn-p’yo

[ho Sodang ]

(b Yong’in, Kyŏnggi Province, 1783; d c. 1839).

Korean painter. He was born into an impoverished noble household and was active in the later Chosŏn period (1392–1910). Because of his father’s early death he became a self-taught professional painter in order to make a living. As a member of the Bureau of Painting and a royal portrait painter, he restored the portrait of King T’aejo (reg 1392–8), founder of the dynasty. In accordance with the practice of appointing court painters to military posts, Yi became a military official near Haeju, Hwanghae Province. Although he was a professional painter from the age of about 20, he associated closely with such middle-class literati painters as Cho Hŭi-ryong and was profoundly influenced by their literary circles. Up to his early thirties he mainly followed the Chinese Southern school but later moved towards the distinctive styles of Yi In-sang and Yun Che-hong. He established his own method of combining to excellent effect a simple structure with the tones of Chinese ink and a light colour. His later style of painting won the praise of the artist and connoisseur ...


Hong Sŏn-p’yo

(b 1491; d 1554).

Korean painter of the early Chosŏn period (1392–1910). He was born into the aristocracy. After passing the civil service examinations in 1519, he was elected to the Bureau of Painting but in the same year was implicated in a purge of reform-minded scholars and was sent into exile for 20 years. Exile, however, allowed him to devote his time to calligraphy, painting and poetry. Sin was renowned for his ‘eight parts’ (Chin. bafen; Kor. p’albun) style of calligraphy (see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (ii), (b)), a style that combines cursive script (Kor. ch’osŏ) with the ornamental seal characters of clerical script (yeso). Furthermore, his bamboo and vine compositions were so outstanding that since his time he has been described as a samjŏl (‘three supremes’) to indicate his talent in three contrasting areas. No composition has survived that can be proved conclusively to be by Sin, though the drawing ...


Mayching Kao

[Chen Fushan, Ch’en Fu-shan]

(b Panama, Nov 24, 1905; d 1995).

Chinese painter and art critic. Chan moved with his family to Hong Kong in 1910, becoming an active member of the Hong Kong arts scene in the 1920s. A self-taught artist of Western-style painting, Chan painted realistic watercolours of the local scenery. From the early 1960s he experimented with a variety of styles and techniques inspired by international avant-garde movements, ranging from geometric abstractions painted with a spray gun to configurations achieved by splashing and dribbling paint on canvas. In the 1970s Chan won critical acclaim for his dreamlike fantasy paintings populated with colourful creatures, both real and imaginary, and inspired by the hustle and bustle of Hong Kong life. Chan has been called the myth-maker of Hong Kong, and his complex iconography as well as his heterogeneous artistic origins are significant for the light they shed on the cultural history of Hong Kong.

Luis Chan: Fifty Years of Artistic Career...


Susan Pares

[Chŏng Ch’ang-sŏp]

(b 1927).

Korean artist and teacher. He graduated in 1951 from the College of Fine Arts, Seoul National University, and exhibited in Korea, East Asia, the USA and Europe. His favourite medium was tak, Korean paper made from mulberry bark, which does not discolour or deteriorate. His technique was to lay previously soaked paper directly on to stretched cotton duck and there manipulate it. As it dries the tak adheres to the cotton; soaking gradually washes out the sap from the fibres. By control of this process Chung could determine variations in colour. He used no pigment. The result of such ‘dialogue’ with his medium is an art of subtle colouring with architectural echoes as the paper creases and wrinkles. Chung was concerned to express the shapes that the paper seeks to create. He valued tak for its durability and as a material used extensively in the past in Korean construction and thus redolent of traditional communal values....


Aileen June Wang

(b San Leandro, CA, Feb 3, 1972).

American performance and video artist of Chinese ancestry. Chang earned a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of California, San Diego in 1994. She showed her first solo exhibition at Jack Tilton Gallery, New York, in 1999. Her body of work focused on how people can be deceived, either through sight—what one sees is not necessarily true—or through mainstream assumptions about such topics as Asia, sexuality, and socially accepted behavior. Chang attributed her past stint in a cybersex company as the catalyst for exploring illusion as a theme. She realized that video flattened three-dimensional, live performances into a stream of two-dimensional images, enabling her to engage in visual deception.

Most of Chang’s early works investigated problems of gender and sexuality, using her own body and elements suggesting violence or transgression. The photograph Fountain (1999) depicted her inside a cubicle of a public lavatory, with a urinal visible on the far wall. Wearing a business suit, she knelt on hands and knees, seemingly kissing herself but actually slurping water off a mirror on the floor. The accompanying video focused on Chang’s face and her passionate interaction with her own reflection. While the photograph suggested female humiliation in a male world, the video complicated matters by implying that the act was motivated by narcissism....


Bent L. Pedersen

[ Chao Ch’ang ; zi Changzhi]

(b Guanghan, Sichuan Province, c. ad 960; d after 1016).

Chinese painter . He was a painter of birds, flowers and insects, following the style of Teng Changyou ( fl ad 907–20). Although paintings attributed to him are not genuine, they provide an indication of his style. These works can be divided into two groups: one of relatively small paintings of flowers and another of larger pictures, with birds, insects, trees, rocks and flowers.

Zhao is known to have studied his subjects thoroughly before painting them. The flowers he depicted tended to be the cultivated varieties he saw in the gardens of contemporary Sichuan Province or in the capital, Bianliang (now Kaifeng, in Henan). Although the flowers possess many realistic features, they are sometimes painted in a formal way, producing a decorative effect. Zhao was famous for rendering flowers in such a way that the thickness of the ink and colour pigment could be clearly seen. This is evident in the fan painting ...


Ralph Croizier

revised by Walter Davis

[Wu Ch’ang-shih; Wu Ch’ang-shuo; ming Jun, Junqing]

(b Anji, Zhejiang Province, 1844; d Shanghai, 1927).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, and seal-carver. The most prominent figure in the Shanghai school during the early 20th century, he rejuvenated the genre of bird-and-flower painting, contributed to the internationalization of the Chinese art world, and helped lead a national revival of traditional Chinese painting and calligraphy in the 1910s and 1920s. Although he initially aspired to become a scholar–official and passed the imperial civil service examinations at the county (xiucai) level, he later made his living as a professional artist, developing an international clientele and a reputation as a literati painter and calligrapher that continues to the present.

While pursuing a career in government service, Wu mastered the Confucian classics and studied poetry, epigraphy, and calligraphy (see China, People’s Republic of, §IV, 2, (vii)). Contact with such professional painters as Ren Yi in the cultural and commercial metropolis of Shanghai during the late 19th century opened up to Wu the possibility of a professional artist’s career. After a brief appointment as a county official in ...


Hong Sŏn-p’yo

(b Seoul, 1750; d Seoul, 1815).

Korean calligrapher and painter of the late Chosŏn period (1392–1910). Although he was a descendant of a distinguished family, because he was born out of wedlock his official post remained that of a civil servant. Along with fellow enthusiasts of pukhak (‘Northern [i.e. Chinese] learning’) such as Pak Chi-wŏn and Hong Tae-yong (1731–83), Pak urged that Korea should learn from the civilization of the Chinese Qing period (1644–1911). As a member of an official delegation he visited Beijing in 1790. His contact with the arts and letters, the ideology and scholarship and the literary style of painting of the Qing court enabled him to play a pioneering role in the emergence of the school of Kim Chŏng-hŭi, with its emphasis on innovation and feeling. Through his role as teacher to Kim Chŏng-hŭi, Pak’s influence stretched to later generations.

From childhood he showed a talent for poetry, calligraphy and painting. Whenever he saw a blank space, he is said to have filled it with his art. In calligraphy he excelled in cursive and semi-cursive scripts, and he introduced the format of paired phrases. In his painting he mainly used a neat and fresh literati style. Western painting influences are reflected in his ...


Hong Sŏn-p’yo

(fl 17th century).

Korean painter. He was born into a family of hereditary painters (hwawŏn) at the Bureau of Painting (Tohwasŏ). After he, in turn, entered the Bureau, he became an instructor. It is known that in 1682 he travelled with Korean envoys to Japan, with the job of recording the mission. In its characteristics Ham’s Dark Bamboo Drawing, held in Japan, confirms him as an artist active in the mid-Chosŏn period (...


Kim Kumja Paik

[cha Kyŏngdo ; ho Haksan, Ch’anha ]

(b P’ap’yŏng, Kyŏnggi Province, 1764; d after 1840).

Korean painter and scholar . He began his official career brilliantly in 1792 by coming first in the saengwŏn (classics licentiate) examination. Unfortunately his advancement was interrupted twice, first when he was banished to Ch’angwon, South Kyŏngsang Province, in 1806 for political factionalism, the second time when he was released from his post of magistrate because of charges brought against him in 1830 by the amhaeng ŏsa (‘secret inspectors’).

Yun Che-hong’s contemporary Sin Wi, who wrote extensively about painters and their works, only mentions briefly that Yun preferred to paint landscapes. This suggests that, as a result of his turbulent official career, Yun might not have mingled with men of letters and arts of his time. Yun Che-hong’s extant works prove that he was an innovative and unconventional painter. An album of eight leaves containing Yun’s landscape paintings (Seoul, Ho-am A. Mus.) reveals that he experimented with such unusual techniques as using the tip of his finger or a stick. On one of the album leaves—that depicting ...


Kim Kumja Paik

[cha Chungsa ; ho Ikjae , Siljae , Yok’ong ]

(b Kyŏngju, 1287; d 1367).

Korean painter, connoisseur, scholar and statesman. In 1301 he won first place in the state examination. Thereafter his official career took him steadily to the post, in 1356, of Chief Minister of the Chancellery for State Affairs. Active in the Koryŏ period (918–1392), he served five sovereigns during his years in office and made many trips to Yanjing and to Dadu, the capital of the Yuan dynasty (1279–1368), on behalf of his country. After King Ch’ungsŏn (reg 1308–13), who spent more time in Yanjing than in the Koryŏ capital of Songdo, had built the Man’gwŏndang (Hall of Ten Thousand Volumes) in Yanjing, Yi Che-hyŏn was called to China in 1314. There he met many eminent Chinese scholars, among them the painters Zhao Mengfu ( see Zhao family §(1) ) and Zhu Derun . Yi Che-hyŏn is credited with having brought Zhao Mengfu’s calligraphic style to Korea, where it remained popular until the 16th century (...


Carol Michaelson


Chinese dynasty that ruled in southern China between ad 557 and 589. It was the last of the so-called Six Dynasties (222–589), who were the ‘legitimate’ successors to the Han dynasty (206 bcad 220) and made Jiankang (now Nanjing) their capital.

In 557 Chen Baxian (later Emperor Wudi; reg 557–9) deposed the Liang (502–57) emperor and established the Chen dynasty. The government attempted to resuscitate the economy but the area under its rule was the smallest of the southern dynasties, with fewer territories than its predecessors and a northern border reaching only to the southern bank of the Yangzi River. The Chen government was strong enough initially to resist incursions by the Northern Qi (550–77) and Northern Zhou (557–81) but was not in a position to take advantage of the divisions in the north.

Jiankang continued to be a cultural and political centre to which merchants and Buddhist missionaries came from South-east Asia and India, and it became one of the world’s greatest cities. The capital was also a major Buddhist centre; several Buddhist temples, many of them caves or niches, had been constructed in the preceding Liang period. To the north-east of the city lay an imperial burial ground, notable for its carved tomb guardians in the form of chimeras (...


Celia Carrington Riely

[Ch’en Chi-ju; zi Zhongshun; hao Meigong, Meidaoren, Migong]

(b Huating, Jiangsu Province [modern Songjiang, Shanghai Municipality], 16 Dec 1558; d 19 Oct 1639). Chinese editor, writer, calligrapher and painter. He exemplified the literati ideal of the accomplished gentleman–scholar who rejected the sordid world of political involvement and devoted himself to a life of literary, artistic and philosophical pursuit. At the age of 28, having passed the prefectural examination, the first important step leading to a career in government office, Chen renounced official life in a dramatic gesture, by burning his Confucian cap and gown. Thereafter he lived at country retreats at Kunshan and then Mt She, near Huating in Jiangsu Province: entertaining guests; writing and editing; composing the poems, prefaces, epitaphs and biographies for which he was in constant demand; and travelling to places of scenic beauty in the company of friends.

Chen followed the lead of his close friend Dong Qichang, the foremost painter, calligrapher and connoisseur of the late Ming period (...


Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

[Chou Ch’en; zi Shunqing; hao Dongcun]

(b Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, c. 1470; d c. 1535).

Chinese painter . Zhou Chen was a pre-eminent professional painter of the Ming period (1368–1644), alongside masters such as Dai Jin. Zhou learnt a conservative style based on Southern Song period (1127–1279) landscape painting from his teacher Chen Xian (1405–96), who specialized in the ‘plain-line’ (baimiao) technique of painting. Zhou later taught Tang Yin for whom Zhou is reported to have worked as a ‘ghost painter’, displaying his versatility.

An example of Zhou Chen’s technically finished early style is North Sea (handscroll, early 16th century; Kansas City, MO, Nelson–Atkins Mus. A.). The influence of 12th-century painting, such as Li Tang’s late works, made during the Southern Song period, can be seen in the strong diagonal composition and the juxtaposition of dark, intricate foliage against lighter eddies and whirlpools of the water. Similarly, the artist’s strict attention to details such as the outline of each leaf, the ‘axe-cut’ texture strokes (...