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Duncan Richards

(Waller Gervase)

(b Wokalup, W. Australia, Sept 11, 1903; d Perth, W. Australia, Dec 3, 1975).

Australian architect and watercolourist. He trained as an architect at the Public Works Department of Western Australia in Perth (1922–6). In 1930 he travelled to England and worked for E. Vincent Harris in London. This experience reinforced Clifton’s belief in the classical tradition as a basis for contemporary design. He was also influenced by vernacular building forms, which he studied during travels in Spain. After returning to Western Australia in December 1932 he formed a partnership (1933–7) with George Herbert Parry (1887–1951). In 1937 he established his own practice, which focused on domestic architecture: the Day house (1939), 166 Victoria Avenue, Claremont, Perth, is a fine example of Clifton’s use of Spanish precedent. After wartime military service and a partnership (1946–53) with Eric Leach, a former pupil, Clifton re-established his practice in 1953. The Faculty of Arts building (1962...


Philip Goad

Australian architectural partnership formed in Melbourne in 1967 by Robin Cocks (b Melbourne, 25 Nov 1941) and Peter Carmichael (b Melbourne, 18 July 1942). In the late 1960s and 1970s Cocks and Carmichael designed some of Australia’s most innovative project houses. Their design for the award-winning Civic Growth House (1974) was the most advanced; clients were provided with a modular grid and a range of components that allowed choice in location, size and character. Some of their one-off designs in Victoria, such as the Falk house (1972), Eastern View, and the Woodley house (1974), Sorrento, were influenced by Charles Gwathmey’s architecture. The later designs for the Johnstone house (1974), Mt Eliza, Carmichael house (1979), Sandringham, and Liberman house (1981), Toorak, depart from this source to create a distinctly local interpretation of Modernism. Larger commissions included the Ministry of Housing Estate (...


Ian Molyneux

(b London, April 20, 1881; d Perth, June 20, 1938).

Australian architect of English birth. He was articled to Thomas Lockwood and Sons at Chester, and later he worked for Guy Dawber. In 1904 he emigrated to Western Australia due to ill-health; he practised architecture in Bunbury (1906–13) and then established a partnership with Joseph Herbert Eales (b1864) in Perth. Cohen was largely instrumental in bringing the ideas of the Arts and Crafts Movement direct to Western Australia. His earliest Australian work included interpretations of the local vernacular homestead in the Arts and Crafts manner, for example Reynolds Homestead (1906), Busselton. His work was later also influenced by vernacular revivals in other countries such as South Africa, for example Kings Park Grandstand (1925) in Perth, as well as by the Georgian Revival in England, which inspired his own house (1922) in Karoo Street, South Perth. His skill as a designer made him prominent in the search for an Australian style suited to a predominantly British society living in a Mediterranean climate. Another example of his work is the Crowther House (...


Betzy Dinesen

Term applied to an architectural and interior design style prevalent in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the USA and Australia, countries formerly colonized by Britain. The style, used mostly for domestic architecture, was based on buildings of early colonial periods and had much in common with the contemporary Neo-Georgian tendency in Britain (e.g. Annie Longfellow Thorp House, 1887); later developments on the west coast of the USA drew on Spanish styles. It became popular in response to a reaction against the ornate eclecticism of late 19th-century architecture and the search for a new aesthetic: Colonial Revival was promoted as a ‘national’ style, rooted in the foundations of the nations and suited to their environment and culture. A similar stimulus produced revivals of colonial styles in other countries, such as South Africa, where the Cape Dutch style was revived in work by Herbert Baker around the end of the 19th century, and Brazil, where features of Portuguese colonial architecture appeared in the work of ...


Ursula Hoff


(b London, Oct 24, 1868; d Virginia Water, Surrey, Feb 9, 1909).

English painter, active in Australia and France. He was sent to Australia in 1884 to learn surveying under his uncle W. J. Conder. After about two years in survey camps, he attended evening classes at the Royal Art Society, Sydney; in 1887 he worked as a lithographic draughtsman for the Illustrated Sydney News. Tom Roberts, then in Sydney on a visit from Melbourne, was among the open-air landscape painters that he knew at this time. He taught Conder some of the principles of Impressionism, such as truth to the momentary effect of light and to colour values, and the rejection of the academic ideal of high finish. The most important painting of Conder’s Sydney years, the Departure of the ‘SS Orient’ from Circular Quay, 1888 (1888; Sydney, A.G. NSW), already showed a distinct personal style, combining humour with nostalgia and selective observation with decorative finesse of handling and design. In ...


Alan Powers

English architectural partnership formed in 1933 by Amyas Douglas Connell (b Eltham, Taranaki, New Zealand, 23 June 1901; d London, 19 April 1980), Basil Robert Ward (b Wellington, New Zealand, 22 July 1902; d Ambleside, Cumbria, 2 Aug 1976) and Colin Anderson Lucas (b London, 29 Dec 1906; d London, 25 Aug 1984). Connell and Ward were both articled pupils in New Zealand and travelled together in 1923; Ward later married Connell’s sister. They studied at the Bartlett School of Architecture, University of London; Connell won the Rome Scholarship in Architecture and Ward the Henry Jarvis Studentship (second prize Rome Scholarship) in 1926, resulting in prolonged study in Italy for them both. Despite his classical training, Connell was inspired by modernism and the work of Le Corbusier in particular, and in 1928 he designed High and Over, Amersham, Bucks, for Professor Bernard Ashmole, Director of the British School at Rome, where he had studied; this is regarded by many as the first significant house of the ...



Pamela Takiora Ingram Pryor

[formerly Hervey Islands]

Group of 15 Polynesian islands comprising a southern group (Rarotonga, Mangaia, Atiu, Takutea, Mauke, Mitiaro, Aitutaki and Manuae) and a northern group (Palmerston, Suwarrow, Manihiki, Rakahanga, Pukapuka, also known as Danger, Tongareva, also known as Penrhyn, and Nassau). Part of New Zealand from 1901, the islands have been self-governed since 1965. Cook Islanders continue to be citizens of New Zealand. The Cook Islands have a total population of 17,185 (Dec 1986).

The northern group is a chain of small atolls with irregular rainfall and typical atoll vegetation consisting mainly of coconut trees and shrubs. Manihiki, Rakahanga and Tongareva are linked culturally to the southern group (especially to Rarotonga and Aitutaki). Pukapuka, however, is more closely linked culturally and geographically to Samoa. The southern group islands are largely volcanic, and the good soils permit the growth of a variety of trees, including the paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera...


David Cohen

(b London, Feb 20, 1911; d London, April 1, 1984).

English collector and writer. Born into a wealthy family that had made its fortune in Australia, he studied at the universities of Oxford and Freiburg and at the Sorbonne in Paris. When, in 1932, he resolved to spend one third of his inheritance (approximately £100,000) on art, he decided to amass the best examples of paintings, drawings, sculptures and prints by Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Juan Gris and Fernand Léger, concentrating on their Cubist works of 1906 to 1914. The high calibre of his collection must be attributed in part to this early and consistent focus of attention. He also collected other works by these four artists as well as works by artists unconnected with Cubism, but his principal energies and resources always reverted to this primary objective. After World War II, for example, he sold off most of his works by Joan Miró and Paul Klee to finance the acquisition of superior pieces within his preferred area, but the core of his ...


Rory Spence


(b Daylesford, Victoria, May 6, 1939).

Australian architect and stage designer. He graduated from the University of Melbourne (1966) and then studied at Yale University, New Haven, CT (1966–9), and worked briefly for several notable architectural firms in the USA, including those of Paul Rudolph and Philip Johnson. He was impressed by Robert Venturi’s attempt to use popular culture to forge a new regional idiom (see Venturi, Rauch & Scott Brown), and, on his return to Australia in 1974, he began to develop a new ‘poor architecture’ based on a provocative, angular reinterpretation of everyday suburban forms and materials, combined with elements from canonical works of Modernism. In 1975, together with Maggie Edmond (b 1953), he formed the firm of Edmond & Corrigan; and he also began to teach at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology in the late 1970s. His work and teaching subsequently had a powerful influence on younger architects in the city. Corrigan typically used bright clashing colours, patterned brickwork and awkward colliding and distorted forms in his buildings. Notable early work included the Resurrection Church, primary school and housing (...


(b Sydney, April 22, 1892; d Roseville, NSW, Dec 20, 1984).

Australian painter. From 1910 to 1912 she attended drawing classes at the studio of the Australian painter Anthony Dattilo Rubbo (1871–1955) in Sydney. Early in 1912 she travelled to England, where she attended drawing classes at Winchester School of Art, returning to Sydney in 1914. She then worked again at Rubbo’s studio and began to paint. Cossington Smith was quick to absorb the principles of Post-Impressionism, which she learnt from Rubbo. In 1915 she exhibited the Sock Knitter (1915; Sydney, A.G. NSW), the first fully Post-Impressionist work to be exhibited in Australia, at the Royal Art Society of New South Wales annual show. She continued to attend Rubbo’s studio until 1926 and c. 1920 her painting became darker as she concentrated on tone and perspective. In 1925 she returned to colour and modernism in her painting and associated with Roy de Maistre and Roland Wakelin after their return from Europe. She also exhibited with the ...


William McAloon

(b Upper Hutt, Oct 3, 1964).

New Zealand painter of Maori descent. Cotton studied at the University of Canterbury, graduating with a Bachelor of Fine Arts in 1988. He is prominent amongst a generation of Maori artists that emerged in the 1980s and 1990s including Michael Parekowhai (b 1968), Lisa Reihana (b 1964), and Peter Robinson, all of whom were schooled in contemporary Euro-American art styles and debates and then explored their Maori identities in relation to globalization and post-colonialism. Cotton’s early 1990s works were contemporary history paintings, locating New Zealand’s conflicted past firmly in a bicultural present. Drawing upon Maori figurative styles from the late 19th-century, particularly in meeting-houses inspired by the prophet and resistance leader Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki, Cotton’s sepia-toned works juxtaposed these images with customary Maori carved forms, written Maori script, the coastal profiles of early European explorers, and appropriations from contemporary artists as diverse as Imants Tillers, Bridget Riley, and Haim Steinbach....


Robert Smith

(b Melbourne, Oct 4, 1913; d Melbourne, July 5, 1986).

Australian painter, printmaker, draughtsman, sculptor, cartoonist and illustrator. Largely self-taught, he began printmaking in 1931 and worked as a caricaturist, cartoonist and illustrator for the weekly and left-wing press, his outlook influenced by experience on the dole and political struggle during the Depression. In 1941 he began oil painting, his first pictures being mainly a celebration of Australian working-class tenacity during the 1930s: for example At the Start of the March (1944; Sydney, A.G. NSW). A founder-member of the Contemporary Art Society in 1938, he initiated its 1942 anti-Fascist exhibition and helped organize an Artists’ Unity Congress, receiving awards for his paintings of miners in the ensuing Australia at War exhibition in 1945. From 1939 to 1940 he was in New Zealand and from 1949 to 1952 in Europe, mostly London. Later he made frequent trips to Britain and France, as well as visiting the USSR and Mexico.

Counihan’s imaginative and creative versatility enabled him to produce extended pictorial metaphors for inherent contemporary crises, embodying potent artistic responses to specific conditions of oppression and discrimination, the nuclear threat and attendant social alienation. From the late 1960s he created images in numerous interrelated series challenging Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War, for example ...


Miles Lewis


(b Sydney, Sept 10, 1939).

Australian architect and writer. He graduated in architecture at the University of Sydney in 1962, began a private practice with Ian McKay (1963–6) and won a number of major awards. The firm of Philip Cox & Associates was established in 1967, and Cox developed a substantial interest in conservation and in Australian architectural history, with publications from 1968. These reflected his interest in the Australian vernacular, although they sometimes resorted to nostalgic stereotyping in the manner of his first co-author, Professor J. M. Freeland.

Cox’s early executed designs, for example the C. B. Alexander Agricultural College (1964), Tocal, New South Wales, combined the natural materials, earthy colours and textures of the Sydney ‘nuts and berries’ school (see Sydney school) with vernacular elements such as verandahs. He rebuilt Cadman’s Cottage (1972), Sydney, a work criticized by specialist conservationists, and he was involved in a major restoration programme on the early 19th-century buildings of Norfolk Island from ...


Philip Goad

(b Melbourne, May 18, 1944).

Australian architect. After training with Bernard Joyce (b 1930) from 1967–71, he travelled overseas in 1971 to study Le Corbusier’s buildings. After his return in 1973 and a brief partnership with Max May (b 1941), Crone commenced private practice in 1977. His early works, the Huebner house (1974), Olinda, and Coakley house (1975), Hampton, were highly acclaimed examples of progressive domestic design in Melbourne. These concrete-block houses blended bold chamfered roof forms and angled glazing with a meticulous sense of detail and spatial manipulation. The later Porrit house (1978), Mt Martha, Briggs house (1979), Lancefield, and Robson house (1987), Point Lonsdale, employ abstracted vernacular forms similar to the transformed Corbusian vocabulary of American architect Charles Gwathmey. Major commissions that developed this regionalized Modernism include the Administration Building (1977) and Mater Christi College, Belgrave, Victoria; Visitor Information Centre (...


(William Archibald)

(b Melbourne, Australia, May 1, 1914; d London, Dec 16, 1983).

English architect and sculptor. He studied at the University of Oxford (1932–5) and the Architectural Association, London (1935–40), and then served with the Royal Engineers in West Africa and Asia. In 1948 he set up in practice in London with Fello Atkinson (1919–82), Dick Maitland (1918–69) and Stefan Buzas (b 1913). From the outset Cubitt drew on his acquired knowledge of tropical countries, designing several schools and colleges in Ghana between 1951 and 1954. The practice rapidly gained a pioneering reputation in this field and, after designing some schools in Sowerby Bridge and Pontefract, Yorkshire (1954–7), it was appointed to plan the University of Nigeria at Nsukka, a project that was not completed until 1971. Other work in the 1950s and 1960s included a factory in Rangoon, office buildings in Sierra Leone and Nigeria and the Faculty of Medicine and Teaching Hospital (...


Edward Hanfling

[William] (Franklin)

(b Port Chalmers, Jan 23, 1935).

New Zealand photographer, sculptor, installation artist, and painter, active also in France and Great Britain. Culbert consistently explored the workings of both natural and artificial light in his works, as well as the transformation of found objects and materials. A student at Hutt Valley High School, his artistic ability was fostered by the radical art educator James Coe. From 1953 to 1956, Culbert studied at the Canterbury University College School of Art in Christchurch. Moving to London in 1957 to attend the Royal College of Art, he became interested in the photographic works of László Moholy-Nagy and Man Ray, while his paintings were informed by Cubism. In 1961 Culbert moved to Croagnes in Provence, France; he remained in France and the UK for the rest of his career.

During 1967–8, Culbert shifted his focus from the analysis of form and light in painting to the analysis of actual light, often arranging light bulbs in grid formations. In ...


Graeme Sturgeon


(b Stanmore, NSW, Jan 18, 1908; d Sydney, Nov 7, 1986)

Australian sculptor and teacher. He studied at the Julian Ashton Art School (but was asked to leave), and at East Sydney Technical College. Dadswell claimed that his real training took place during his period (1929–35) as assistant to Paul Montford (1868–1938), then chief sculptor for the Shrine of Remembrance (Melbourne, south of the River Yarra). Here Dadswell undertook his first commission: 12 large relief panels depicting the activities of the Australian Imperial Forces during World War I. On the strength of this work he won a scholarship to attend the Royal Academy Schools, London (1935–6), returning to Australia in 1937 to take up an appointment as teacher of sculpture at the National Art School, Sydney.

Dadswell was wounded during war service in the Middle East (1941–2), his eyesight permanently impaired. Nevertheless, he resumed teaching in 1945, and, apart from one year spent travelling in the USA and Europe, he continued to teach in Sydney until his retirement in ...


Robert Smith

(b Hemingford Abbots, Hunts [now Cambs], Dec 13, 1832; d Beckenham, Kent, June 20, 1878).

Australian photographer and geologist of English birth. In 1852 he withdrew from studies at Christ’s College, Cambridge (1851–2) for health reasons, joined the Australian gold-rush, and spent two unproductive years prospecting in Victoria. The experience inspired an interest in geology, and in 1854 he joined the Victorian mineralogical survey as an assistant surveyor. During six months’ stay in London in 1856 and 1857 to study assaying at the Royal School of Mines, he became interested in photography. On his return to Victoria in 1858 he collaborated with Antoine Julien Fauchery (1823–61) in producing Sun Pictures of Victoria, a series of photographs illustrating various aspects of the life and scenery of the colony. Having rejoined the newly named Victorian Geological Survey (1859), in 1860 he began regularly using photography as a substitute for hand-drawn diagrams, and as a topographical record. With government financial support he produced photographs publicizing the colony for the International Exhibition in London of ...


Anna Rubbo

(b Melbourne, Sept 18, 1941).

Australian architect. She graduated from the University of Melbourne in 1965, and from 1970 she worked as a sole practitioner in Melbourne. She developed an active association with community groups and professional bodies, both as a founding member of a free ‘store-front’ service to people unable to afford the services of architects and as a member of various committees and juries of the Royal Australian Institute of Architects (RAIA). Her practice primarily involved residential and conservation schemes, including work of the Ministry of Housing, but she also designed community and commercial buildings. Work in the interstices of the inner city, carried out on a tight budget, was typical of a large part of her practice; the Elderly Citizens’ Centre (1984), Fitzroy, is an example. Here the new is compressed between two existing but disparate post-war buildings; while the autonomy of the older buildings is maintained, they are physically linked through the intervention and by an overlay of exaggerated 1950s detailing distilled from the two. Dance worked closely with clients to produce finely crafted results. She was the first woman architect to receive an RAIA medal for housing (...