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Mechthild Muller


(b Nuremberg, bapt March 25, 1650; d Munich, Jan 1, 1703).

German engraver and draughtsman. He mainly produced portraits, in the form of engravings, drawings and grisaille miniatures executed with a brush. From 1671 he was copper-engraver to Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria, who supported him when he undertook further training in Liège under Michel Natalis (1610–68) and in Paris under Nicolas de Poilly. From the latter Amling learnt how to use and arrange line to produce a very wide range of effects; he also picked up the stiff, two-dimensional look of de Poilly’s figures. He must surely have come into contact with Robert Nanteuil in Paris; he shared with him a delight in detail that appears photographic and a veristic style of reproduction.

Amling generally shows his sitters in three-quarter view, following a formulaic composition. Sometimes their features are exaggerated, as for example in the portraits on parchment of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, and his wife ...


Ana Maria Rybko


(b Comunanza, nr Ascoli Piceno, 1660; d Oct 5, 1738).

Italian painter. He received public commissions and painted altarpieces for Roman churches, but he was primarily a genre painter, who specialized in paintings of youths and children. He was a pupil of Giuseppe Ghezzi, in whose workshop in Rome, alongside Pier Leone Ghezzi, he received a traditionally academic training between 1676 and 1687. The earliest work attributed to Amorosi is the signed portrait of a child, Filippo Ricci (c. 1690; New York, Weitzner priv. col., see Battista, 1954, pl. xxxi, fig.), and such portraits became a favourite theme. He collaborated with Pier Leone Ghezzi on the Virgin of Loreto for S Caterina at Comunanza, the confused composition of which, despite its poor conservation, reveals the artist’s immaturity. In 1699 he frescoed the Palazzo Comunale at Civitavecchia with Innocent XII Receiving the City Fathers and, opposite, the Virgin with St Ferma (both untraced), St Ferma being the patron saint of the city. In ...


Gordon Campbell

Dutch porcelain factory near Amsterdam, originally founded at Weesp (1764; see Weesp Porcelain Factory), then moved to Oude Loosdrecht (1771), Oude Amstel (1784) and Nieuwe Amstel (1799); it closed in 1810 (see Netherlands, Kingdom of the §VII 3.). The term ‘Amstel porcelain’ is sometimes used to denote the products of the period 1784–1810, when the factory was in Oude Amstel and Nieuwe Amstel, but is also used to denote all the products of the factory from 1764 to 1810. The original workmen were from Dresden, and the early pottery resembles white Dresden pottery with landscape and figure decorations; the late pottery tends to follow French models, especially Sèvres. Amstel tableware and utilitarian containers suited bourgeois tastes, and apart from a few busts in biscuit there was no attempt to mimic the refined technical mastery of Delft pottery. Decoration and shape were eclectic, so the pottery never developed a strong visual identity. Some pottery is entirely white, with ornament in low relief; piercings are sometimes outlined in blue; cartouches contained a wide variety of pictures, often portraying flowers or landscapes; Sèvres cornflowers are a common adornment....


David Tatham

(b New York, April 21, 1775; d Jersey City, NJ, Jan 17, 1870).

American wood-engraver. Anderson was the first important American wood-engraver. He was self-taught and made woodcuts for newspapers at the age of 12. Between c. 1792 and 1798, when he studied and practised medicine, he engraved wood as a secondary occupation, but following the death of his family in the yellow fever epidemic of 1798, he abandoned medicine and worked as a graphic artist. He was an early follower of Thomas Bewick’s white-line style. He usually engraved the designs of others, such as Benjamin West, but he was a skilful and original draughtsman, as can be seen in his illustrations for Durell’s edition of Homer’s Iliad (New York, 1808). He exhibited frequently at the American Academy and was a founder-member of the National Academy of Design (1825). Anderson spent his long and prolific career in New York, engraving mainly for book publishers and magazines but also producing pictorial matter for printed ephemera. He worked steadily until the late 1850s, cut his last blocks in ...


(b Bristol, c. 1775; d London, 1860).

English wax modeller. She taught herself the techniques of wax modelling; being orphaned, she was adopted by the miniature painter Robert Bowyer and his wife. Andras worked at the Historical Gallery in London and also produced wax models for James Tassie. Through the Bowyers, Andras was introduced to various celebrities, of whom she made wax portrait models in relief or in the round; and she exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1799 to 1824. In 1802 she was appointed Modeller in Wax to Queen Charlotte (1744–1818), producing wax portraits, such as that of the Queen’s granddaughter Princess Charlotte of Wales (1802; London; V&A). The same year Andras was awarded the Larger Silver Pallet by the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts, Manufactures and Commerce. After the death of Lord Nelson in 1805 Andras, who had earlier modelled him from life, was commissioned to provide a life-size effigy for Westminster Abbey in London (...


F. Hamilton Hazlehurst



Cathrin Klingsöhr-Leroy

(b Paris, 1662; d Paris, April 14, 1753).

French ecclesiastic and painter. He entered the Dominican Order at the age of 17. He may have begun his artistic training only in 1687, when he was given leave to travel to Rome; he seems to have spent several years there. According to tradition, it was Carlo Maratti’s painting that most influenced him; however, the classical stylistic elements in André’s paintings would seem to reflect the general influence of contemporary Roman and French art, rather than that of any particular artist. Apart from a few portraits, such as his Self-portrait with Rosary (after 1731; Paris, Louvre), André painted works with an exclusively religious content. Many of his surviving monumental paintings may be seen in churches in Lyon and Bordeaux, as well as in several in Paris, for instance the Supper at Emmaus (1741) in St Nicolas du Chardonnet, St Dominic Expounding the Rules of the Order (1738...


Alexandra Skliar-Piguet

[Père André]

(b Châteaulin, Finistère, May 22, 1675; d Caen, Feb 26, 1764).

French priest, philosopher and writer. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1693, studied theology in Paris, then philosophy at the Collège de Clermont, and he was ordained a priest in 1706. He was a great scholar, who knew Greek, Latin and Hebrew; he devoted himself to philosophical research and poetry, at the same time teaching for the Society of Jesus in numerous institutions of learning in France. A staunch Cartesian, Père André inevitably incurred the hostility of the Society, which was wedded to Scholastic doctrines and Aristotelian philosophy. His innovative philosophical opinions and his suspect theology caused him to suffer various penalties, including imprisonment (1721). Under duress, he made a submission and in 1726 was appointed Royal Professor of Mathematics at Caen, where he remained for the rest of his life.

Père André is best known for his Essai sur le beau (1741), one of the earliest ...


Susanne Kronbichler-Skacha



Lucia Battista

(b Florence, 1650; d Florence, 1729).

Italian abbot, writer and collector. The son of Girolamo Andreini and Maria Bussini, in 1670 he married Isabella Marsuppini, who bore him two daughters. Widowed at an early age, he devoted his time to his studies, becoming a connoisseur of antique objets d’art. He was frequently consulted by famous collectors and erudites, including Cardinal Leopoldo de’ Medici, who often approached him for valuations of coins and gemstones. From 1674 to 1687 he lived in Naples as the Consul to the Florentine Nation. Subsequently he moved to Venice and then to Rome, returning eventually to Florence. He was a friend to such important figures as Queen Christina of Sweden, Filippo Buonarroti, Antonio Francesco Gori and Antonimo Magliabechiano. He was also interested in matters of chivalry, which forms the subject-matter of many of his surviving writings. A dedicated collector, he gathered Etruscan and Roman archaeological finds, including ancient funerary inscriptions, bronzes, coins, gems and sculptures, enjoying to the full the contemporary fashion for the study of antiquity. Alongside such artefacts, he also acquired several paintings by ...


Mark Jones

(b Bordeaux, Nov 4, 1761; d Paris, Dec 10, 1822).

French medallist, engraver and illustrator. He was first apprenticed to the medallist André Lavau (d 1808) and then attended the Académie de Peinture et de Sculpture in Bordeaux. In 1786 he travelled to Paris and entered the workshop of Nicolas-Marie Gatteaux. His first great success was a large, realistic and highly detailed medal representing the Fall of the Bastille (1789); because it would have been difficult and risky to strike, he produced it in the form of single-sided lead impressions or clichés, coloured to resemble bronze. The following year he used this novel technique again, to produce an equally successful companion piece illustrating the Arrival of Louis XVI in Paris. Andrieu lay low during the latter part of the French Revolution, engraving vignettes and illustrating an edition of Virgil by Firmin Didot (1764–1836). He reappeared in 1800, with medals of the Passage of the Great St Bernard...


Olivier Michel

(b Rome, July 9, 1697; d Rome, 1773).

Italian painter, draughtsman and engraver. He was the son of Pietro Anesi, a silk weaver from Venice. Paolo studied figure painting with Giuseppe Chiari and, in 1715, landscape painting with Bernardino Fergioni (1674–?1738), who was also teaching Andrea Locatelli at that time. Sebastiano Conca was another of Anesi’s teachers. In 1723 Anesi married the daughter of the architect Giuseppe Sardi. His earliest known work is a drawing (1719; Florence, Uffizi), but he made his reputation with the only known example of his engraved work: Varie vedute inventate ed intagliate, dedicated to Cardinal Giuseppe Renato Imperiali and published in Rome in 1725.

Anesi visited Florence at least twice and made drawings of the local countryside. After his first journey at the beginning of 1729, four of his drawings (Florence, Uffizi), belonging to Francesco Maria Niccolò Gabburri, were exhibited at SS Annunziata, Florence. During another visit, in 1737, after Anesi had been there for six months, several admirers of his art, including the Marchese Carlo Rinuccini, submitted eleven of his works to the Accademia, of which he duly became a member. He also had a few lines devoted to him by Gabburri in the ...


Christopher Tadgell



Rosanna Cioffi

(b Santa Giusta degli Abruzzi, Sept 22, 1760; d Naples, June 22, 1853).

Italian draughtsman and painter. He trained in Rome under Marco Caprinozzi and was a pupil of Domenico Corvi at the Accademia di San Luca. The greatest influence on his work, however, was the style of Jacques-Louis David. Angelini soon distinguished himself as a skilled draughtsman and collaborated with the engravers Giovanni Volpato and Raphael Morghen on Principi del disegno tratti delle più eccellenti statue antiche (Rome, 1786), a work that was of fundamental importance in disseminating the Neo-classical style, particularly through the teaching of the academies. About 1790 Angelini travelled to Naples at the request of William Hamilton (i), the British Consul, in order to draw the antique vases in his collection (published Naples, 1791–5). His work was admired by several other collectors in Naples and in 1799 he was commissioned to draw the antique vases of the Marchese Vivenzio (published c. 1900).

With the introduction of French Neo-classicism in Naples, Angelini became the artist best able to respond to the demands of the new taste. In ...


(b Dunkirk, Nov 5, 1685; d Rennes, 1734).

Flemish painter, active in England. The fact that his style is heavily dependent on the work of David Teniers the younger suggests that Angellis may have been apprenticed to him. According to Walpole, the artist arrived in London in 1712, but in 1725 Vertue, who knew him, wrote in his notebook that Angellis was 40 years old, had been in England for nine years and had lived for a time before 1712 in Düsseldorf, where he had studied the collection of John William von Wittelsbach, the Elector Palatine. Van Gool, who had met Angellis in London, confirmed the visit to Düsseldorf. Angellis was first listed as a Master in the Antwerp Guild of St Luke in 1715–16, but in 1716 he was in London. The years 1719–28 were the most active of his career and his market scenes, conversation pieces (e.g. c. 1715–20; London, Tate) and still-lifes with vegetables proved popular in English aristocratic circles. The style of these works reflects his origins, combining the narrative vigour of Teniers the younger with an elegant refinement derived from Watteau, resulting, as Walpole said, in ‘more grace than the former, [and] more nature than the latter’. Queen ...


Camillo Semenzato



Maria Helena Mendes Pinto

(fl c. 1766; d Lisbon, 1814).

Portuguese wood-carver and cabinetmaker. From 1766 he worked uninterruptedly on commissions from the royal family or under their patronage, even after the court had gone into exile in Brazil in 1807. His name is recorded from 1803 in the book of those receiving communion in Rua S Roque in the Encarnação parish where he, like many other wood-carvers, lived or had his workshop. He was licensed as a wood-carver of the Casa do Infantado and later of the royal palaces (1805). When he applied for the latter qualification, he made a list (possibly chronological) of his works prefaced by the statement: ‘As I show here, I have been serving the royal household for thirty-three years’. This key document in Ângelo’s own hand allows a fuller survey of his work than has previously been feasible (Correira Guedes, 1971). Ângelo worked principally in executing the designs of architects of the royal household or the Casa do Infantado, sometimes on his own with complete freedom and responsibility, as in the construction of the tower for fireworks on the occasion of the inauguration (...


David Blayney Brown

(b St Petersburg, 1735; d Blackheath [now London], Jan 22, 1823).

Merchant, philanthropist and collector. He was supposedly the natural son of the Empress Anna of Russia and an English merchant. In the course of his career in the City of London he established Lloyd’s on a new footing. He amassed a fortune that he expended on charity and, from about 1790, on collecting paintings, guided by Benjamin West and Thomas Lawrence. Angerstein’s first acquisitions were English pictures: family portraits commissioned from Joshua Reynolds from 1765, and William Hogarth’s Self-portrait with a Pug (1745; London, Tate), bought in 1789. After 1790 he took advantage of the dispersal of Continental collections after the French Revolution and the Napoleonic campaigns to secure Old Masters in prime examples, sometimes at record prices. His early purchase (1794) of Aelbert Cuyp’s Hilly River Landscape (c. 1655–66; London, N.G.) proved to be untypical of a taste that inclined to figure paintings by Raphael, ...


Andrew McClellan

[Billarderie d’Angiviller, Comte de la; Flahaut, Charles-Claude]

(b Saint-Rémy-sur-l’Eau, Jan 24, 1730; d Altona, nr Hamburg, Dec 11, 1809).

French administrator. His brief but distinguished military career led to the Dauphin Louis, son of Louis XV, by whose side he had served at the Battle of Fontenoy (1745), entrusting him with the education of the royal princes, including the Duc de Berry, the future Louis XVI. Flahaut’s many years of faithful service were rewarded with his appointment as Directeur-Général des Bâtiments du Roi after Louis XVI’s accession in 1774. Although nothing in his background had prepared him for his new responsibilities—he was of pure military stock and unlike his predecessor, the Marquis de Marigny, had not been groomed in the arts—he proved an excellent civil servant: efficient, imaginative and, above all, devoted to the King. Of all 18th-century Directeurs des Bâtiments, he alone merits comparison with Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Louis XIV’s great minister.

D’Angiviller is best known for his attempts to revitalize history painting and sculpture (see...


Pilar Benito

(b Barcelona, 1755; d Barcelona, Sept 7, 1822).

Spanish writer and painter. He was a member of the Real Escuela de la Junta de Comercio in Barcelona, where he was primarily active in a political capacity rather than as an artist and professor in its Escuela de Nobles Artes. He was expelled from the Junta in 1814 because he had taken the oath of loyalty to the usurper King Joseph Bonaparte, and as a result of accusations of favouring the French he spent his last years in total isolation from public life. His work as a writer on art is of considerable interest. He strongly defended French Neo-classicism and, in particular, the artists François Gérard and Jacques-Louis David. In a lecture he gave to the Junta de Comercio in 1810 he proclaimed the absolute validity of academic classicism, and this belief also pervades such manuscript pamphlets as the Discurso sobre la enseñanza del dibujo, Máximas generales para la pintura...