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Article

James R. Simpson

Term commonly taken as describing a range of texts, genres, and traditions both in Latin and other languages, comprising translations and reworkings of Classical fables—short texts offering pithy reflections on social, moral, and political questions—as well as extended narratives, often comic or satirical, foregrounding well-known animal characters such as Reynard the fox. This material both reflects and inspires a wealth of visual representation, including manuscript illumination (one noteworthy example being the delightfully ludic marginalia in the Smithfield Decretals, mid-14th century, French, illuminated in England; London, BL, Royal MS. 10 E. iv), stained-glass windows, as well as the legion of carved animals peering mischievously down from church roof bosses or out from under misericord seats.

Although ‘Aesop’ is widely named as a prototype and source—indeed, a common medieval French term for a fable is Ysopet (‘little Aesop’)—no actual works by this probably legendary figure exist. Instead, the fable in western Europe is principally transmitted through a complex lineage of collections attributed to figures such as Phaedrus (Latin verse, 1st century ...

Article

John Williams

[Commentarius In Apocalipsin]

Commentary on the Apocalypse composed c. ad 775 by Abbot Beatus of the monastery of St Martin in Liébana, northern Spain. There is an ‘official’ biography of Beatus, by Juan Tamayo de Salazar (d c. 1662), a collector of legends, but his date for Beatus’ death in 798 is precocious. In his own time Beatus was principally recognized as a forceful opponent of the Christological doctrine labelled Adoptionism, promoted by the Archbishop of Toledo, Elipandus. The Commentary on the Apocalypse was composed, however, from an expectation of the end of ordinary time in ad 800.

Beatus divided the text of the Apocalypse into 68 sections of typically a dozen or so verses, termed Storiae. In grouping the biblical verses rather than introducing them singly, Beatus’ format departs from most medieval exegetical approaches. Each of the Storiae was followed by a series of exegetical passages that interpret in allegorical and anagogical terms the verses or figures in the ...

Article

(b London, 1734; d Twickenham, Surrey, 1808).

English painter and illustrator. The eldest daughter of Charles Spencer, 3rd Duke of Marlborough, she married the 2nd Lord Bolingbroke in 1757. They divorced in 1768, and two days later she married the scholar and man of fashion Topham Beauclerk. Her work as an illustrator included Horace Walpole’s Mysterious Mother...

Article

Patrick M. de Winter

[Biauneveu, Andrieu]

(b Valenciennes, c. 1335; d ?Bourges, 1401–3).

South Netherlandish sculptor, painter, and illuminator. He possibly trained with, or in the circle of, Jean Pépin de Huy. He is presumably the ‘Master Andrieu the painter’ mentioned in the accounts of Yolande, Duchesse de Bar, as working intermittently between 1359 and 1362 in the chapel of her castle at Nieppe (destr.). In 1361–2 ‘Master Andrieu the carver’ restored the console of a statue (both destr.) in the aldermen’s hall in Valenciennes. By October 1364 and until June 1366 he is recorded in Paris, working with assistants for King Charles V, who spoke of him as ‘our esteemed Andrieu Biauneveu, our sculptor’. The monarch commissioned from him four tombs for Saint-Denis Abbey, for which he paid 4700 gold francs: tombs for his paternal grandparents Philip VI (reg 1328–50) and Joan of Burgundy (1294–1348); for his father, John II; and for himself (first mentioned on 12 December 1364...

Article

Fiorella Sricchia Santoro

(di Giacomo di Pace)

(b Cortine in Valdibiana Montaperti, 1484; d Siena, between Jan and May 1551).

Italian painter, sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker and illuminator. He was one of the protagonists, perhaps even the most precocious, of Tuscan Mannerism, which he practised with a strong sense of his Sienese artistic background but at the same time with an awareness of contemporary developments in Florence and Rome. He responded to the new demand for feeling and fantasy while retaining the formal language of the early 16th century. None of Beccafumi’s works is signed or dated, but his highly personal maniera has facilitated almost unanimous agreement regarding the definition of his corpus and the principal areas of influence on it. However, some questions concerning the circumstances of his early career and the choices available to him remain unanswered. The more extreme forms of Beccafumi’s reckless experimentation underwent a critical reappraisal only in the later 20th century.

The primary sources of information concerning Beccafumi are Vasari’s biography (1568) and archival findings, mostly 19th century, relating to the artist. Vasari, although a direct acquaintance of Beccafumi in his last years and in a position to gather information from mutual friends, was, predictably, unreliable in regard to his early career. According to Vasari, Mecherino, the son of a poor farmer named Giacomo di Pace, became the protégé of ...

Article

Eberhard König

Richly illuminated Book of Hours (London, BL, Add. MS. 1885) made for an unknown patron of the French royal court (possibly the dauphin Louis, Duc de Guyenne (1396–1415). The manuscript may have been made in several stages between 1410–20.The Hours were adapted to the use of Anne of Burgundy and her husband John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford and governor of France, after their marriage in 1423. In 1430, the book was given by Anne to Henry VI as a Christmas gift, in Rouen, after he had been crowned King of France in Paris. But it stayed in France, bearing the arms of Henry II and Catherine de’ Medici. It has a Parisian text with a cycle of 33 large miniatures, the borders have additional scenes connected with the main subject, and all are by the painter called Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists family.

The text pages display more than 1200 marginal miniatures in a unique iconography. The calendar visually plays with the names of the months and the Offices are decorated with three cycles of paired medallions. The first cycle consists of scenes from the Gospels paired with scenes from the Old Testament; the second pairs scenes from the Acts and Epistles of the Apostles with scenes from later Christian history; and the third pairs scenes from the Apocalypse with their moralizations. The suffrages at the end are accompanied by scenes from the lives and martyrdom of the saints. All of these were painted by Parisian painters such as the ...

Article

Arthur Silberman

(d White Cone, AZ, Nov 15, 1917).

Native American Navajo painter. Begay was a prolific artist for over 50 years, and his work is familiar through paintings, book illustrations and screenprints, making him perhaps the best-known contemporary Native American painter. In 1934 he entered the Santa Fe Indian School (see Native North American art, §IV, 2) and joined the ‘Studio’ of Dorothy Dunn (1903–1990), where he was one of Dunn’s star students. In 1939, the year of his graduation, he painted one of the murals on the façade of Maisel’s trading post in Albuquerque, NM. With a scholarship from the Indian Commission, he went on to study architecture at Black Mountain College, NC.. Due to the public’s ready acceptance of his paintings, after his return from military service in World War II he became one of the first Native American artists to support himself by painting full-time. Widely exhibited, he was a consistent award-winner at exhibitions, and his work has been included in every important public and private collection of Native American art. In recognition of his contributions to Native American art he was awarded the French government’s Palmes Académiques in ...

Article

Tadashi Kobayashi

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1779; d Edo, 1858).

Japanese calligrapher. Together with Maki Ryōko and Nukina Kaioku, he was one of the Bakumatsu no Sanpitsu (‘Three Brushes of the late Edo period’). His powerful brushwork, known as the Beian ryū (Beian school or style), continued to be much admired into the Meiji period (1868–1912). He was the son of Ichikawa Kansai (1749–1820), a poet skilled in calligraphy and the head of the Shōheikō, the official Confucian academy in Edo. From his youth Beian concentrated on calligraphy, studying the works of such famous calligraphers as Yan Zhenqing (ad 709–85), Dong Qichang of the Ming period (1368–1644) and Mi Fu (see Mi family, §1) of the Song period (960–1279), and collecting such of their autographs as he could. He modelled himself in particular after Mi Fu, from whom it is said that he took his artist’s name, Beian. In ...

Article

Arthur J. Pulos

(b Adrian, MI, April 27, 1893; d New York, May 9, 1958).

American designer and writer. He studied at the Cleveland School of Art, OH, and the Art Institute of Chicago, and by 1914 he had established a reputation as an illustrator, making portraits of operatic luminaries for the New York Times. After producing plays in Los Angeles (1917), he joined the Metropolitan Opera in New York (1918) and became a leading stage designer; he invented the high-wattage spotlight and developed modern theatrical productions that blended the play, its lighting, its performers, and their costumes into a cohesive whole. He gained international attention for his stage set (1921; unexecuted) for Dante’s Divine Comedy, which revolutionized theatrical and operatic productions; it was conceived as a single, massive set with lighting coming first from below, signifying Hades, and then, as the play progressed, from high above, signifying Paradise. This led Max Reinhardt, the distinguished German producer, to commission him to design the settings for a production of ...

Article

Nigel J. Morgan

Service book of Dominican use (240×170 mm; Paris, Bib. N., MSS lat. 10483–4). It was made for Jeanne de Belleville, wife of Olivier de Clisson, later passing to Charles V, King of France, and then to his brother Jean, Duc de Berry. Liturgical evidence indicates that the book was probably made for Jeanne in the years 1323–6, before her marriage to Olivier. Notes in the margins refer to names of illuminators and include ‘J. Pucelle’ (fol. 33r) undoubtedly the well-known Parisian illuminator Jean Pucelle, who worked c. 1319–34. His exact role in the decoration of the Breviary is unclear, but at the very least he coordinated the book’s production. Despite losses, there remain 79 illustrated folios, on many of which there are richly decorated borders. It is one of the most profusely decorated medieval Breviaries and parts of its illustrative scheme were copied in manuscripts made for its subsequent owners: for example, the ...

Article

Louise Noelle

(b Mexico City, March 22, 1923; d Mexico City, April 20, 2002).

Mexican painter, printmaker and illustrator. He studied at the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas and with Carlos Alvarado Lang. Although he painted some murals and a good number of easel pictures, he was active primarily as a printmaker and as an illustrator of books, magazines and journals. He founded the satirical newspapers Ahí va el golpe (1958) and El coyote emplumado (1960) and from its inception in 1962 acted as art director and illustrator for the newspaper El día. From 1945 to 1959 Beltrán was associated with the Taller de Gráfica Popular in Mexico City, acting as its president for several years and sharing its populist, political and nationalist principles. Placing his art at the service of social concerns and using protest as his main weapon, he expressed himself with particular force in his prolific production of drawings and in masterful linocuts such as Exodus (...

Article

(b Bergamo, c. 1458; fl Venice, 1543).

Italian printer and publisher of books and prints. He settled in Venice c. 1480 and in 1483 was running a bookshop at the sign of St Jerome in the Merceria and published the Supplementum chronicarum of Jacobus Philippus Foresti (Bergomensis; 1434–1520). Between then and 1543, the year of the publication of Girolamo Savonarola’s Trattato dell’amor di Gesù, he published (alone or with other publishers) over 100 texts of Classical and contemporary authors, treatises on law and medicine, as well as several books of a religious nature, mostly in Latin. Among the most famous illustrated works are those of Dante Alighieri (1491) and Ovid (1493–4). After c. 1500 Benalio’s publishing activity declined (c. 40 post-1500 publications are known), perhaps pushed into second place by his new interest, the publication and marketing of prints. For this purpose he opened a branch at Padua, entrusting its management to a relative, ...

Article

Adam S. Cohen

revised by Shirin Fozi

Illuminated manuscript (292 × 225 mm; London, BL, Add. MS. 49598) containing liturgical prayers recited by the bishop, produced in Winchester between ad 971 and 984 for Aethelwold, Bishop of Winchester, a leader of Anglo-Saxon monastic reform. It is a sumptuous work, with 28 full-page miniatures (another 15 have been lost) and 2 historiated initials lavishly executed in gold and vibrant colours (see Initial, manuscript). The decoration includes the finest examples of Winchester school borders, consisting of acanthus designs that fill the frame and shoot forth from the corner medallions. An inscription describes the manufacture of the book by the scribe Godeman and refers specifically to the ‘many frames well adorned’. The figural style, like the decorative and iconographic elements, is derived primarily from Carolingian models and is consistent with contemporaneous Anglo-Saxon art; what distinguishes the manuscript is its extremely luxurious illuminations and the complexity of its iconographic programme....

Article

[Benig; Beninc; Bieninc; Binnink].

South Netherlandish family of illuminators. No documented work is known by (1) Sanders Bening, but he was undoubtedly a successful artist. Work previously attributed to various unknown masters has now provisionally been accepted as by him. He married Kathelijn van der Goes, probably a sister or niece of the painter Hugo van der Goes, and his own sister married Goswijn van der Weyden. Sanders and his wife had two sons, (2) Simon Bening, who was trained in his father’s craft, and Paul Bening, whose profession is unknown. For Simon Bening, unlike his father, there is not only documentary evidence from numerous sources but also a reconstructed oeuvre that distinguishes him as one of the finest illuminators of his time. Both names have been mentioned as among the artists who produced illustrations for the Grimani Breviary (Venice, Bib. N. Marciana, MS Lat. I.99). Simon was twice married; by his first wife, Katherine Scroo (...

Article

Article

Henry Adams

(b Neosho, MO, April 15, 1889; d Kansas City, MO, Jan 19, 1975).

American painter, illustrator, and lithographer. One of the most controversial personalities in American art, both in his lifetime and today, Thomas Hart Benton was a key figure in the American Regionalist movement of the 1930s, when he focused on working-class American subject-matter and was outspoken in his denunciation of European modern painting. Today he is best remembered for this phase of his life, and much criticized because of it. But Benton’s long career is not easily reduced to a single moment or achievement: his legacy was more complex. As a young struggling artist in Paris and New York, he was a leading American modernist and abstractionist, and in his early maturity he became the teacher and lifelong father figure for Jackson Pollock, the most famous of the Abstract Expressionists. He was also a major American writer, who wrote on art and whose autobiography of 1936 became a best-seller. He was also a notable figure in American music who collected American folk songs and devised a new form of harmonica notation that is still in use....

Article

Etrenne Lymbery

(b Paris, Feb 6, 1849; d Paris, 1931).

French writer. In 1866 he entered the Ministry for the Colonies, which he left in 1886 to devote himself to book collecting, building up a remarkable library of French prints. He was guided by the bibliophile Eugene Paillet, a greater part of whose library he purchased in 1887. Beraldi’s talent and well-developed critical sense were obvious, and he quickly established his reputation. He was the author of numerous works on artists and printmakers, such as L’Oeuvre de Moreau le Jeune (Paris, 1874), published under the pseudonym Draibel, the first catalogue of the works of Jean-Michel Moreau, Les Graveurs du XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1880–82) in collaboration with R. Portalis, and Mes Estampes (Lille, 1884), a catalogue of the prints, portraits and books belonging to him and to his father. He also compiled a catalogue of Paillet’s library, but his most famous book is the invaluable Les Graveurs du XIXe siècle...

Article

(b Salzburg, May 1, 1753; d Prague, June 25, 1829).

Austrian painter, printmaker, draughtsman, illustrator and teacher, active in Bohemia. He was taught by his father, the sculptor and painter Josef Bergler the elder (1718–88), and, during his stay in Italy, by Martin Knoller in Milan and Anton von Maron in Rome. An accomplished portrait painter, he was employed as official painter by bishops and cardinals at Passau and painted a number of altarpieces in Austria and especially in Bohemia. He helped establish the Academy of Fine Arts, Prague (1800), which placed a new emphasis on draughtsmanship, composition and Classical subjects and models. As the first Director of the Academy, Bergler won new academic prestige for art in Bohemia and, for himself, a privileged position in obtaining commissions such as the Curtain at the Estates Theatre (sketches, 1803–4; Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes). He also published albums of engravings intended as models (Compositions and Sketches...

Article

Jan Minchin

(Vladimir Jossif)

(b Vienna, Oct 13, 1920).

Israeli painter of Austrian birth, active in Australia. He grew up in Warsaw. His father, the pseudonymous Jewish writer Melech Ravitch, owned books on German Expressionism, which were an early influence. Conscious of rising anti-Semitism in Poland, Ravitch visited Australia in 1934 and later arranged for his family to settle there. Bergner arrived in Melbourne in 1937. Poor, and with little English, his struggle to paint went hand-in-hand with a struggle to survive. In 1939 he attended the National Gallery of Victoria’s art school and came into contact with a group of young artists including Victor O’Connor (b 1918) and Noel Counihan, who were greatly influenced by Bergner’s haunting images of refugees, hard-pressed workers and the unemployed, for example The Pumpkin-eaters (c. 1940; Canberra, N.G.). Executed in an expressionist mode using a low-toned palette, they were among the first social realist pictures done in Australia.

In 1941...

Article

Maria Clelia Galassi

In