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Article

Janina Zielińska

(b Warsaw, July 1, 1831; d Warsaw, Feb 25, 1901).

Polish painter. He studied (1844–50) at the School of Fine Arts in Warsaw under Jan Feliks Piwarski (1794–1859) and Chrystian Breslauer (1802–82), and then at the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg (1853–5) under Alexey Markov (1802–78). During a stay in Paris (1856–7) he trained for three months at Léon Cogniet’s studio, before returning to Warsaw in February 1858. Gerson was among the founders of the Towarzystwo Zachęta Sztuk Pięknych (Society for the Encouragement of Fine Arts), the first exhibition-organizing body in Warsaw, which was set up in 1860. He also influenced a generation of artists from his position as Chief Professor to the Drawing Class at the School of Fine Arts. Gerson led the class until 1896, teaching life drawing, which he believed to be the foundation of art, and discouraging copying and imitation. A number of outstanding 19th-century Polish artists, both the more conservative and those of the avant-garde, studied under Gerson....

Article

Stephen Stuart-Smith

(Rowton)

(b Brighton, Feb 22, 1882; d Harefield, Middx [now in London], Nov 17, 1940).

English sculptor, letter-cutter, typographic designer, calligrapher, engraver, writer and teacher. He received a traditional training at Chichester Technical and Art School (1897–1900), where he first developed an interest in lettering. He also became fascinated by the Anglo-Saxon and Norman stone-carvings in Chichester Cathedral. In 1900 Gill moved to London to become a pupil of William Douglas Caröe (1857–1938), architect to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. He took classes in practical masonry at Westminster Institute and in writing and illuminating at the Central School of Art and Design, where he was deeply influenced by the calligrapher Edward Johnston. Johnston’s meticulous training was to be a perfect preparation for Gill’s first commissions for three-dimensional inscriptions in stone, the foundation stone for Caröe’s St Barnabas and St James the Greater in Walthamstow, London, and the lettering for the lychgate at Charles Harrison Townsend’s St Mary’s, Great Warley, Essex. Further commissions followed after Gill left Caröe in ...

Article

American artists’ collective and support network formed in New York in 1990 by Ken Chu, Bing Lee and cultural critic, curator, and artist Margo Machida. The artists hoped to develop a network of artists and to document and build a discourse on Asian American art. The group disbanded in 2001.

The original members of the group included Tomie Arai, Ken Chu, Karin Higa, Arlan Huang (b 1948), Byron Kim, Colin Lee (b 1953), Bing Lee, Janet Lin, Mei-Lin Liu, Margo Machida, Stephanie Mar, Yong Soon Min, Helen Oji, Eugenie Tsai, and Garson Yu. This small group of artists, arts administrators and critics began by gathering in members’ apartments, but membership quickly grew to over 200 strong, which made it necessary for Godzilla’s meetings to be held in alternative art spaces throughout the city including Artists Space, The Drawing Center, and Art in General. Artists who later joined Godzilla included Allan deSouza (...

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b Strasbourg, Nov 3, 1929; d Princeton, NJ, Jan 8, 2011).

American historian of Islamic art. The son of the Byzantinist André Grabar, Oleg Grabar studied at the University of Paris, Harvard and Princeton, where he received his Ph.D. in 1955. He began his teaching career at the University of Michigan in 1954 and taught at Harvard from 1969, where he was named Aga Khan Professor in 1980. A decade later he was appointed to the Institute of Advanced Study, Princeton, from which he retired in 1998. He, along with Richard Ettinghausen, was largely responsible for the post-World War II explosion of interest in the study of Islamic art and the training of many scholars and teachers. Initially focused on the architecture of the Umayyad period and the excavation of the Syrian site of Qasr al-Hayr East, Grabar’s interests quickly burgeoned to encompass an unusually wide range of subjects, including how Islamic art developed out of and transformed earlier traditions, the city of Jerusalem and its monuments, Arabic and Persian illustrated manuscripts, Islamic palaces, the nature of ornament, as well as the practice of architecture in the Islamic world today. Many of his writings explored the theoretical aspects of Islamic art and its study....

Article

Gilbert Herbert

(Adolf Georg)

(b Berlin, May 18, 1883; d Boston, MA, July 5, 1969).

American architect, industrial designer and teacher of German birth. He was one of the most influential figures in the development of the Modern Movement, whose contribution lay as much in his work as theoretician and teacher as it did in his innovative architecture. The important buildings and projects in Gropius’s career—the early factories, the Bauhaus complex at Dessau (1925–6), the Totaltheater project for Berlin, the housing estates and prefabricated dwellings—were all more than immediate answers to specific problems. Rather, they were a series of researches in which he sought prototypical solutions that would offer universal applicability. They were also didactic in purpose—concrete demonstrations, manifestos, of his theories and beliefs. His theories sought to integrate the individual and society, art and industry, form and function and the part with the whole. He left Germany for England in 1934; three years later he emigrated to the USA, where he continued to teach, write and design for the rest of his life....

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. May 9, 1932).

Art historian of Austrian birth. After obtaining his Ph.D. at the Freie Universität, Berlin in 1955, he became assistant to Ernst Kühnel at the Museum für Islamische Kunst, Berlin. In 1958 he moved to New York, where he joined the Metropolitan Museum of Art, becoming curator of Islamic art (1962–8). He also taught at Columbia University and Hunter College in New York until 1972, when he was appointed Professor of Islamic Art at the University of Padua. In the following years he taught at the universities of Naples and Venice (from which he retired in 1988) and was a member of the Italian Archaeological Mission in Iran during the 1970s. In 1980 he established the journal Islamic Art, which he has edited with his wife and colleague, Eleanor Sims. His scholarship has focused particularly on Islamic ceramics, questions of representation in Islamic art, and the arts of Iran, especially of the Timurid period....

Article

Jean-Paul Midant

(b Paris, Dec 25, 1834; d Paris, May 17, 1908).

French architect and teacher. He was an outstanding student for 11 years at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris (1853–64), where he was taught by Henri Labrouste and Jules André (1819–90). While there he amassed awards and in 1864 won the Grand-Prix de Rome with a project for a hospice in the Alps. The previous year he had found himself at the head of the huge majority of students at the school who opposed the attempt at reform made by Napoleon III’s government. In 1871 he began teaching architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, and from 1894 until his death he taught theory there. Although he agreed with Viollet-le-Duc on the principles of a reasoned and analytical study of architecture, Guadet’s vision of architectural education was founded on the relationship of mutual trust between master and pupil within an independent study-group. He believed that ‘in all things the first studies must be classical’ and rejected the idea that the teaching of aesthetics should be obligatory and founded exclusively on the study of medieval architecture. He was also opposed to the exercises in restoration that were imposed on the ...

Article

Mayching Kao

[ Wu Kuan-chung ]

(b Yixing, Jiangsu Province, July 5, 1919; d Beijing, June 25, 2010).

Chinese painter and art educator . Wu trained at the Hangzhou National Academy of Art between 1936 and 1942, studying modern Western painting with Chinese artists returned from France, and Chinese painting with Pan Tianshou , from whom he gained a deep understanding of Chinese aesthetics. From 1947 to 1950, Wu studied oil painting in Paris at the atelier of Jean Souvérbie (1891–1981) of the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts. After his return to China in 1950 he took up a series of teaching positions, the final one at the Beijing Central Academy of Art and Design, from which he retired in 1989. The dominating influence of Socialist Realism in China after 1949 led to criticism and suppression of Wu’s Western formalist approach. Nevertheless, he persisted in his search for ways to make his French experience take root in China. Travelling the country, he captured its beauty in a manner that displayed unique sensibility. By the early 1960s he had evolved a personal style fusing the rich colours of the oil medium and Western formal elements with the fluidity and spiritual vitality of traditional Chinese aesthetics. From the early 1970s he experimented with Chinese ink and colours on paper, successfully introducing new themes and stylistic innovations to a time-honoured tradition. Since the late 1970s he has exhibited and travelled widely overseas, finding new inspiration for his work. Wu enjoys critical acclaim for his vibrant synthesis of Chinese and Western art; his numerous writings shed light on his own artistic struggles, as well as his perceptions of modern Chinese art and artists....

Article

Guild  

Richard Mackenney

[Gild]

Sworn association, typically of merchants, craftsmen, or tradesmen. Most guilds were associated with a particular town or city. They flourished in Europe in the medieval period and had considerable social, political, economic, and religious power. Additionally, craft guilds often monitored training, standards of production, and the welfare of their members. Significant patronage was provided by religious, social, and commercial confraternities. Information on the activity of specific guilds is given in this dictionary within the relevant articles on cities and on countries (in the latter, especially under ‘Painting and graphic arts’ or ‘Art education’).

The origins of guilds remain obscure, as in their medieval form they appeared to combine characteristics that recall both the social solidarity of the Roman collegium and a concern for skilful craftsmanship that is more easily identified with Germanic societies in the early Christian centuries. Following the expansion of towns and trade after c. ad 1000, the social strata of the commune—a sworn association of equals—developed into subgroups of people who practised a common trade. This was particularly true in Europe’s towns and cities, although it must be seen in the context of an overwhelmingly rural society. From the 13th century guilds became essential to most aspects of civic life and reflected the advance of the division of labour. They were responsible for, among other trades, the production of leather and textiles (e.g. cloth merchants, dyers, stretchers, fullers, weavers, tailors, tanners, and cobblers) and for building (e.g. masons, tilers, plasterers, carpenters, and blacksmiths). In ...

Article

Thomas P. McNulty

(b Cleveland, OH, Aug 13, 1938).

American patron and collector. Born the second of six children to wealthy parents in Cleveland, Gund was exposed to the arts—and to art collecting in particular—by her father, George Gund (1888–1966), a banking and investment professional. Gund received a BA in art history from Connecticut College, New London, in 1960, and an MA, also in art history, from Harvard University in 1980. The mother of four children with her first husband, Albrecht Saalfield, she is perhaps best known for her work in museum administration and governance. She has served on the Board of Trustees of the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA), New York, since 1976, as the Board’s President from 1991 to 2002, and subsequently as a Member Emerita. As President of the MOMA board, she built upon the progress made by her predecessor Donald Marron (an executive at Paine Webber). She also served as Chairwoman of the Board of Directors at MOMA PS1—an affiliation that began in ...

Article

Hsio-Yen Shih

revised by Sandy Ng

[Liu Hai-su; ming Pan; zi Jifang; hao Haiweng]

(b Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1896; d Shanghai, Aug 6, 1994).

Chinese art educator and painter. Liu Haisu came from a merchant family that had supported the Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864). He began to learn painting at the age of 6 by studying line drawings in the style of Yun Shouping. At the age of 13, he went to Shanghai to study Western painting but did not find any established art school. Instead he discovered the works of Diego Velázquez and Francisco Goya, which he copied in order to learn Western oil and watercolor techniques. In 1912 he established the Shanghai Academy of Painting, predecessor of the Shanghai Academy of Fine Arts, with Wu Shiguang and Zhang Yuguang (1885–1968). He was an active member of Tianmahui (The Heavenly Horse Society), a prominent art organization originated in Shanghai that promoted Western-style paintings, design, and photography through exhibitions and publications.

Liu was progressive about art education: he introduced mixed-sex education, started a summer school and correspondence courses in art, instituted public exhibitions of works by members of the academy, and took students on excursions to learn outdoor sketching. In ...

Article

Roy R. Behrens

(b Flint, MI, Sep 13, 1940).

American book designer, typographer poet and teacher . His father was from Lebanon and his mother was an American-born paediatrician and bibliophile. He studied art at Wayne State University in Detroit, MI (1964) and at the nearby Cranbrook Academy of Art (1966). While visiting Iowa City, IA as an undergraduate, he met Harry Duncan (1917–97), a printer and typographer at the University of Iowa, who was also a leading participant in the revival of interest in letterpress printing. It was during that visit that he first saw a hand-crafted letterpress book. In Detroit he founded The Perishable Press Limited in 1964, followed soon after by the Shadwell Papermill at Cranbrook; involvements that gradually led to the publication of about 130 limited edition books by such well-known writers as Paul Blackburn, Robert Creeley, Robert Duncan, Loren Eiseley, Denise Levertov, W. S. Merwin, Howard Nemerov, Toby Olson, Joel Oppenheimer, Jonathan Williams, William Stafford and Paul Auster. In ...

Article

Edwin Lachnit

(b Brno, Moravia [now Czech Republic], March 22, 1875; d Vienna, Jan 7, 1934).

Austrian sculptor. He came from a poor family and moved to Vienna in 1889, becoming an apprentice wood-carver there until 1893. He spent the following years as a journeyman in Austria and southern Germany. In 1898 he began to study sculpture with Edmund von Hellmer at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna, completing the course with honours in 1904. From 1901 he lived with his wife at her parents’ house in Langenzersdorf, near Vienna. There he came into contact with the Primavesi family, who supported the artists of the Vienna Secession and also gave Hanak generous financial assistance. After the completion of his studies he was awarded the Akademie’s Rome scholarship and travelled to Italy in 1904–5. He subsequently became an independent sculptor, carrying out commissions for his patron, the industrialist and banker Otto Primavesi, and taking part in exhibitions by the Vienna Secession, of which he was a member from ...

Article

Ingeborg Kuhn-Régnier

(b Vienna, Dec 4, 1914; d Mödling, Feb 25, 1995).

Austrian painter. He studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna from 1931 until 1936. During this period he also travelled to England, France, Italy, Greece, Turkey and Egypt. After he was designated a ‘degenerate’ artist in 1938 (see Entartete Kunst), exhibition of his work was forbidden in Germany. From 1941 until 1945 he was a soldier. Before allying himself with the style of Phantastischer Realismus, based in Vienna, his works were mainly Expressionist-influenced images of suburbs, still-lifes and female models, most of which he destroyed.

In 1946 Hausner joined the Art-Club and had his first one-man exhibition in the Konzerthaus, Vienna. A key work of this period, It’s me! (1948; Vienna, Hist. Mus.), shows his awareness of Pittura Metafisica and Surrealism in a psychoanalytical painting where the elongated being in the foreground penetrates what was apparently a real landscape, until it tears like a backdrop; another painting, ...

Article

Luc Verpoest

[Georges]

(b Ghent, Aug 31, 1852; d Leuven, Feb 22, 1925).

Belgian architect and politician. In 1873 he obtained his diploma in civil engineering at the Ecole Spéciale de Génie Civil of the State University of Ghent. In 1874 he was appointed assistant professor and from 1878 to 1907 was full professor at the Catholic University of Leuven (Ecoles Spéciales de Génie Civil, des Arts et des Manufactures et des Mines), where he developed a training programme in architectural engineering. While a student he met Louis Cloquet and was influenced by the Belgian Gothic Revival movement, which was founded by Jean-Baptiste Bethune, also the founder (in 1862) of the St Luke School, Ghent. Helleputte’s architecture is similar to that of the first generation of St Luke architects in its almost undecorated and rather stern style. Its formal characteristics, modelled on the local Late Gothic style and traditional brick and limestone architecture, are strictly determined by constructional and functional needs. His most important works were built in Leuven for the Catholic University: the Anatomy Theatre (...

Article

Mónica Martí Cotarelo

(b Alava, Spain, 1810; d Mexico City, 1872).

Spanish architect, painter and teacher, active in Mexico. He graduated as an architect from the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando, Madrid, but also worked in painting, sculpture and pastel miniatures. In 1836 he worked in Paris under Henri Labrouste, and in 1838 he went to Mexico City, where he opened a school of drawing. As one of the outstanding architects in Mexico at the time, he was made an académico de mérito of the Academia de S Carlos and its director of architecture. His chief work was the Teatro de Santa Anna (1842–4; later Teatro Nacional; destr. 1901), Mexico City, a Neo-classical building that was for a long time the most costly in the city. The principal façade had a portico with four large Corinthian columns rising through two storeys. He also rebuilt the dome (1845–8) of the side chapel of the church of S Teresa la Antigua, Mexico City. His solution was a Neo-classical dome supported by a double drum, producing interesting light effects in the interior. The windows of the upper drum, concealed by an incomplete vault rising from the lower one, illuminate paintings around the bottom of the dome. Few of his other works have survived....

Article

American library in Saint John’s University, Collegeville, MN, founded in 1965. The Hill Museum & Manuscript Library (HMML; formerly the Hill Monastic Manuscript Library) contains over 115,000 microfilm and digital images of medieval, Renaissance, early modern and Eastern Christian manuscripts. To fulfil its mission of preserving endangered manuscripts and making them more accessible to scholars, HMML photographs entire manuscript libraries that lack the resources to preserve their own collections, are inaccessible to researchers, or are in immediate danger of destruction. Until 2003, HMML photographed entire manuscripts on black and white microfilm and shot selected illuminations in colour. When the Library switched to digital photography in 2003, it shot entire volumes in colour and recorded codicological information.

The vast majority of HMML’s holdings reproduce texts predating 1600. Nearly half of HMML’s Western manuscripts derive from libraries in Austria and Germany, but HMML also houses significant collections from Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, and England. The Maltese collections are particularly important and include the Archives of the Knights of Malta. HMML has photographed collections of Eastern Christian manuscripts since the 1970s, and its collections of Armenian, Syriac, and Christian Arabic manuscripts are becoming the most significant resource for the study of Eastern Christian manuscripts in the world. HMML has by far the world’s largest collection of Ethiopian manuscripts preserved on microfilm and in digital form....

Article

G. Lola Worthington

(b Buffalo, NY, 1950).

Tuscarora artist, writer, educator, and museum director. Hill studied at the Art Institute of Chicago (1968–70), and was awarded a Master of Arts degree from SUNY, Buffalo, NY (1980).

Intrigued with Seneca General Ely Parker (General Grant’s Military Secretary), Hill investigated Parker’s life, which took him to Washington, DC, for two years. Hill began to identify with Parker’s experience and realized he would devote himself to enlightening others about Native American arts, knowledge, education, and culture.

Hill was skilled in painting, photography, carving, beading, and basket weaving, and many of these works are located at the Canadian Museum of Civilizations, Quebec; the Woodland Indian Cultural Center, Brantford, Ontario; the Cleveland Museum of Art; the Philbrook Museum of Art, Tulsa, OK; the Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Washington, DC; and the Seneca Iroquois National Museum, Salamanca, NY. He taught at McMaster University, Mohawk College, Six Nations Polytechnic, and SUNY at Buffalo. Hill developed a culturally based Seneca Language curriculum and training models for teaching....

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. 2 Aug. 1941, Damgarten, Germany).

British historian of Islamic art and architecture. Hillenbrand was educated at the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, earning his D.Phil. in 1974. Three years earlier he had begun teaching in the Department of Fine Art in the University of Edinburgh, where he occupied the position formerly held by D. T. Rice. He remained there throughout his career, being awarded a chair in 1989. He trained several generations of younger scholars from Europe, the USA and the Middle East. His home in Edinburgh was where he and his wife Carole, a noted historian, entertained scholars in diverse fields of Islamic studies. Holder of visiting professorships at several universities in Europe and the United States, he delivered the 1993 Kevorkian Lectures at New York University. One of the most versatile and eloquent scholars of his generation, his interests focused on Islamic architecture, painting and iconography, with particular reference to Iran and early Islamic Syria....

Article

Genre of narrative painting depicting multi-figure scenes, particularly that which emerged with the foundation of royal and national academies of fine arts in Europe and the Americas, beginning in France in the mid-17th century.

Academies of fine arts in Europe and its colonies abroad as well as those of emerging nations designated history painting as the most noble and highest form of artist expression, as the main priority for an academy. History painting gained this status for the technical virtuosity it required and because it existed as an important vehicle for official and elite propaganda as well as the construction of state, imperial, and national identity.

The ability to produce a history painting began with a rigorous drawing education to master techniques of Western naturalism, including chiaroscuro, proportion, and linear perspective in order to enliven and valorize historical subjects that usually contained moral messages for a “public” audience. What began as a vehicle for nationalism and empire in Europe spread to the Spanish colonies by the late 18th century....