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A. Wallert

Medieval treatise and the most important source on the techniques of manuscript illumination (see Manual, manuscript). The manuscript (Naples, Bib. N., MS. XII.E.27) has no title or signature and was entitled De arte illuminandi by its first editor, Demetrio Salazaro. Containing recipes for the making, preparation and mixing of pigments and colorants, it is a simple and well-organized manual, clearly composed for teaching the illuminator’s craft. It describes consecutively the colours, gold, the temperas and various applications. Unlike most other medieval technical sources, De arte illuminandi is not a compilation of earlier treatises. The manuscript was probably written in southern Italy and dates from the end of the 14th century. No other copies of this text are known.

D. Salazaro: L’arte de la miniatura nel secolo XIV (Naples, 1877)A. Lecoy de la Marche: L’Art d’enluminer (Paris, 1890)D. V. Thompson and G. H. Hamilton: An Anonymous Fourteenth-century Treatise, ‘De arte illuminandi’: The Technique of Manuscript Illumination...


Sandra L. Hindman


(b Venice, c. 1364; d Poissy, nr Paris, ?c. 1430).

Italian writer and publisher, active in France.

At the age of four Christine went with her father, Tommaso di Benvenuto da Pizzano (whose name reflects the origin of his family in the small town of Pizzano in the foothills of Bologna), to Paris, where he served as physician and astrologer to Charles V. In 1379 Christine married a French nobleman, Etienne Castel, who became a royal notary and secretary. She bore him three children before his death in 1389. Since her father had also died between 1384 and 1389, Christine was forced to support both herself and her family. Many women in her situation might have taken religious vows or remarried, but Christine determined to earn her living through her skills as a writer.

Initially she wrote love poetry, which she gathered together at the end of the 1390s in a volume called Cent balades. Although she continued occasionally to write love poetry, such as the ...


Henry Adams

(b Veracruz, March 13, 1880; d Stamford, CT, Jan 10, 1961).

Mexican illustrator, writer, gallery owner, and publisher, active in the USA. He was the son of a wealthy Mexican lawyer and publisher. De Zayas started his career as an artist by providing drawings for his father’s newspaper in Veracruz. In 1906 he moved on to Mexico City’s leading newspaper, El Diario, but a year later, after the ascension of the dictator Porfirio Diaz, whom the newspaper had opposed, he fled to the USA. There he landed a position making caricatures for the New York Evening World. Shortly after his arrival in the USA, he came into contact with Alfred Stieglitz, who staged solo shows of De Zayas’s caricatures at his gallery Gallery 291 in 1909 and 1910, both of which proved to be huge popular successes.

In 1910 De Zayas traveled to Paris, where he stayed almost a year, scouting out adventurous forms of modern art for Stieglitz, notably the cubist work of Picasso and African sculpture. On his return, equipped with knowledge of European modern art and inspired by the work of the French modernist ...


Etrenne Lymbery

(b Paris, 1822; d Paris, July 26, 1907).

French printmaker. From the age of 12 he worked for the same jobbing printer, but c. 1840–41 he was employed by two well-known printmakers, Charles Jacque and Louis Marvy (1815–50), to handle their presses. Jacque and Marvy taught him how to paint and draw, and his experience with them turned him into an artist’s printer. He then set up his own studio. In 1848 he completed his first series of etchings, mainly landscape scenes. Although Delâtre was versatile in the various forms of etching, he is best known for the excellence and sensitivity of his work as a printer. He developed the ‘mobile etching’ technique, a way of painting ink on to the plate so that up to 40 unique impressions could be made from the same plate, rather than a uniformly wiped edition. This skill served the Impressionists and influenced the practice of monotype in such artists as Ludovic Lepic and Degas. It also inspired fierce debate on the question of printer intrusion. He quickly established a considerable reputation and soon became the only printer to whom the majority of talented etchers would entrust their work. His print shop became a meeting place for such etchers as Charles-François Daubigny and James McNeill Whistler. The cult of Japonisme is said to have begun there through the ...


Madeleine Barbin

(b Liège, Jan 19, 1722; d Paris, July 31, 1776).

French engraver and print publisher. He was descended from a family of gunsmiths. In 1739 he went to Paris to join a brother who had established himself there as a goldsmith. Beginning as an engraver and chaser, in 1746 he obtained the rank of master. As early as 1757 he began to specialize in crayon manner (see Crayon manner §2) using a roulette, a process that brought him success; Jean-Charles François contributed in developing this process, but Demarteau, because of his superior skill, outstripped his rival. At a time when drawing was greatly in vogue, he offered the public faithful reproductions, first of red chalk drawings and then of drawings intended for decoration or teaching, in two or three colours, by contemporary artists. His oeuvre comprises 560 numbered plates, half of them after specially provided drawings by François Boucher (for illustration see Crayon manner) or after drawings owned by collectors such as ...


David Alexander

(b London, 1747; d Paris, 1823).

English engraver and print publisher. He worked first for the painter Robert Edge Pine, exhibiting mezzotints of Pine’s pictures at the Society of Artists between 1769 and 1773. He then began publishing some of his own mezzotints independently: his portrait of Joseph Banks (Chaloner Smith, no. 4), made in 1774, was the first of 22 excellent mezzotints made after Sir Joshua Reynolds, 12 of which appeared during the 1770s. His 100 or so portrait mezzotints were well drawn and finely scraped; their brilliance was often enhanced by the use of warm brown inks. From 1776 to 1781 Dickinson published prints with Thomas Watson from New Bond Street, London; they engraved and published stipples as well as mezzotints and became the principal publishers of humorous stipples after the amateur artist Henry William Bunbury. In the decade after 1783 Dickinson engraved only two mezzotint portraits, while publishing plates by other engravers, such as his pupil ...


Linda Whiteley

French family of typographers, printers, publishers and collectors. The first to settle in Paris was Denis Didot (2nd half of 17th century), whose son François Didot (1689–1759) founded in 1713 the family publishing business. His sons François-Ambroise Didot (1730–1804) and Pierre-François Didot (1731–93) developed the business, adding a type foundry and a paper-mill. The elegance of their publications brought them the patronage of the brothers of Louis XVI: Monsieur (later Louis XVIII) and the Comte d’Artois (later Charles X). The sons of François-Ambroise included (1) Pierre Didot, a publisher, among whose illustrators were some of the most distinguished artists of the day, and Firmin Didot (1764–1836), who designed the Didot typeface for his brother’s use. Firmin Didot’s son (2) Ambroise Firmin-Didot was a notable collector of prints. The cadet branch of the family, Didot Jeune, the descendants of Pierre-François Didot, included (3) ...


Jonathan Lipkin

The process of creating, storing, manipulating, and displaying photographic images through electronic devices such as digital cameras, computers, and printers. By the late 20th century digital technology had largely replaced traditional chemical photographic processes. That digital photographs are easier to produce, manipulate, and distribute than their analogue predecessors has led to significant changes to vernacular, artistic, and commercial photographic practices. The boundaries of what constitutes Photography—once defined quite clearly through its optical and chemical nature—have also expanded, to the point where many question whether digital photography is an incremental step in the evolution of the medium, or a radical leap into an entirely new form of image production.

While a traditional photograph is an image embodied in physical form, a digital photograph exists as a computer file that describes the image. Most digital photographs today are composed of bitmaps, grids filled with numbers that represent the colour and tonal characteristics of each square, which is called a pixel. Most commonly, each pixel is described by three numbers that can range from 0 to 255 (or 2...


Timothy Riggs


Dutch family of etchers. The brothers Jan [Johannes] van Doetechum (i) (b Deventer, fl 1554–c. 1600) and Lucas van Doetechum (b Deventer, fl 1554; d before March 1584) worked extensively for Antwerp print publishers, first Hieronymus Cock and later Gerard de Jode (i). They may have learnt etching from Cock, but their style is distinct from his; they combined firmly drawn, and frequently ruled, shading lines, the weight of which was controlled by variable biting, with the occasional use of an engraver’s burin. Their earliest signed work is the Funeral Procession of Charles V (1559), designed by Cock and published by Christoph Plantin. They appear to have worked entirely from the designs of other artists. They produced a few large figure compositions (e.g. the Resurrection, 1557, after Frans Floris) but specialized in landscape (after Pieter Bruegel, I and Hans Bol, among others), architectural and ornamental designs (especially after ...


Penny Sparke and Gordon Campbell

(b New York, March 2, 1904; d South Pasadena, CA, Oct 5, 1972).

American industrial designer and writer. Dreyfuss was a member of the generation of American consultant designers—which also included Norman Bel Geddes, Raymond Loewy, and Walter Dorwin Teague—who emerged in the 1920s from both theatrical and commercial backgrounds and who, in the 1930s and beyond, applied their visualizing skills to a wide range of industrially manufactured goods.

Dreyfuss came from a Brooklyn-based family that supplied theatrical materials, and he moved naturally to the world of theatre as a designer of sets; he was apprenticed to Bel Geddes until 1924. Three years later he was asked by the department store Macy’s to work as a consultant, but his real breakthrough came when he won a ‘phone of the future’ competition in 1929, the year in which he set up his own design office in New York. His design creatively combined the receiver and transmitter in a single handset, thereby establishing a new format for the object which was to remain in place for decades. Dreyfuss worked for Bell Telephone Laboratories for many years, creating, among others, his Princess telephone in ...


Véronique Meyer

(b Paris, April 1662; d Paris, Jan 6, 1757).

French printmaker, print-seller and print publisher. He was a pupil of Guillaume Vallet (1632–1704). He was appointed Graveur du Roi and accepted (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1704; he was received (reçu) in 1707 with his portraits, both after Hyacinthe Rigaud, of Charles de La Fosse (Roux, no. 10) and François Girardon (r 9). He enjoyed a considerable reputation: according to Claude-Henri Watelet he was one of the printmakers who were able to produce the softest effects in engraving and who knew how best to suggest the velvety texture of a woman’s skin; in this domain he was often imitated but never equalled. His reproductions of Corregio’s Io (r 8), Leda (r 16) and Danaë (r 33) are among the most celebrated of his works, which are not numerous; only 58 have been identified, probably owing to his activities as a print publisher. He distributed works by Laurent Cars and his family, by Jacques-Philippe Lebas and by the Audran family. He also collaborated with ...


(b Paris, Oct 5, 1733; d Versailles, Sept 3, 1796).

French painter. The son of a copperplate printer, he worked with the sculptor Jean-Baptiste Defernex before entering the Académie Royale in 1754, where he studied under Jean-Baptiste Pierre. After three unsuccessful attempts he won the Grand Prix de Rome in 1757 with Elijah Raising the Shunammite Woman’s Son from the Dead (Paris, Ecole B.-A.). He studied (1757–60) at the Ecole des Elèves Protégés in Paris under Carle Vanloo, afterwards transferring to the Académie de France in Rome. During his time in Rome (1761–4) Durameau completed his artistic education, while also making copies after the Old Masters for Pierre-Jean Mariette and studying antique art for the Abbé de Saint-Non. In addition, he painted the genre work, the Saltpetre Factory (Paris, Louvre), which is one of the first industrial landscapes and in its invention and authority worthy of the finest passages of Jean-Honoré Fragonard.

After his return to Paris Durameau pursued the traditional career of a history painter and was accepted into the Académie Royale in ...


Maxime Préaud

(b Antwerp, bapt Oct 20, 1640; d Paris, April 2, 1707).

French engraver and print publisher of Flemish origin. He was the son of a tailor in Antwerp and trained as an engraver with Gaspar Huybrechts (1619–84) and Cornelis Galle the younger. On arriving in Paris in 1666, he worked with his compatriot Nicolas Pitau the elder, and then with François de Poilly, Robert Nanteuil and Philippe de Champaigne. In 1672 he married the daughter of Nicolas Regnesson, the Parisian engraver and print publisher, thus himself becoming a print publisher. In 1675 he became a naturalized Frenchman and in 1677 was admitted (reçu) to the Académie Royale. In 1695 he was made a Chevalier of the Order of St Michel and a Papal Knight. He became both a councillor at the Académie and Premier Dessinateur du Cabinet du Roi. Among his pupils were his brother Jean Edelinck (b Antwerp, c. 1643; d Paris, 14 May 1680...


Julieta Ortiz Gaitán

(b Mexico City, June 27, 1943).

Mexican painter, printmaker, performance artist, writer, teacher and publisher. He qualified as a printmaker at a very early age, then as a painter and engraver under the tutelage of several masters, among whom the most influential on his life was José Chávez Morado. Although he at first worked with traditional media, he possessed a constantly innovative and critical attitude and experimented with performances, installations, happenings, correspondence and media art, as well as writing, lecturing and publishing on such themes as artistic experimentation, cultural promotion, professional management for artists, collective mural painting and the publishing process. From 1968 to 1972 Ehrenberg lived in England where, with the architect Martha Hellion and the critic and historian David Mayor, he founded the Beau Geste Press/Libro Acción Libre in Devon, to propagate the work of artists involved with the Fluxus movement of the 1970s. He was also instrumental in the rise of many artistic groups, workshops and small publishing houses, such as ...


Júlia Papp


(b Pozsony [now Bratislava, Slovak Republic], 1784; d Vienna, July 13, 1852)

Hungarian engraver, publisher and dealer. He studied under his father József Ehrenreich (1765–1842), a seal engraver, and in 1800 went to the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna, where in 1806 he won a prize. In the same year he made a portrait of Imre Marczibányi. When he had completed his studies he moved to Buda and worked in the Trattner Press. In 1807 he advertised himself as an engraver, letter engraver and seal engraver, and in 1809 he started dealing. In 1814 he engraved a picture of King David, after a drawing by Johann Nepomuk Hoefel (1788–1864). He did portraits of a number of important people in national political and cultural life, including Johan Spissich, József Ürményi, Miklós Wesselényi, László Kollonits, Archduchess Henrietta, István Ferenczy, Ferdinánd Jakab Miller and Benedek Virág. He also engraved several illustrations for the first Hungarian scientific periodical, the Tudományos Gyüjtemény...


Arsène Bonafous-Murat

(b Mulhouse, Aug 17, 1788; d Mulhouse, April 25, 1839).

French lithographer and publisher of German birth. After commercial training in Switzerland and in France at La Rochelle and Bordeaux, he studied painting and drawing in Jean-Baptiste Regnault’s atelier in Paris. In July and August 1814 he visited Munich to study the new art of lithography. In March 1815 he founded La Société Lithotypique de Mulhouse, and in June 1816 he opened a workshop in Paris. Engelmann was instrumental in introducing lithography to France. He developed numerous improvements (see Lithography, §I), including lithographic wash in 1819 and a frame for registration (patented in 1837), which gave chromolithography the technical means needed for its commercial and artistic development. His presses produced large numbers of prints; particularly noteworthy are numerous plates for Baron Taylor’s monumental work Voyages pittoresques et romantiques dans l’ancienne France (1820–63).

Manuel du dessinateur lithographe (Paris, 1823) Traité théorique et pratique de la lithographie...


Tapati Guha-Thakurta



Laura Suffield

(b Paris, 1503; d Geneva, Sept 7, 1559).

French printer and publisher. After training with his father, the printer and publisher Henri Estienne (?1460–1520), and then with his stepfather, Simon de Colines (fl 1520–48), he checked and proofread the family editions of the Epistles, Apocalypse, Acts and Psalms in 1522–3. Between 1525 and 1530 he produced the Latin Grammar of Philipp Melanchthon (1497–1560). In 1526 he produced the works of Terence, which ran to four editions, the last with notes by Erasmus (other early Classical texts produced subsequently include editions of Plautus in 1529 and Virgil in 1532). His first major work was the 1527 Bible, reissued in 1528 and 1532. In 1528 he embarked on a major project: a Thesaurus linguae latinae, the definitive edition of which appeared in 1543. Estienne’s entire output is estimated to have been between 460 and 470 editions, and he printed books for other publishers as well as his own works. From ...


Richard Green

(b York, March 10, 1787; d York, Nov 13, 1849).

English painter. Born into a Methodist family, he was the seventh child of a miller and baker in Feasegate, York, and in 1798 he was apprenticed as a printer to Robert Peck, publisher of the Hull Packet. Financial support from his uncle, a banker, allowed him to go to London in 1805, where he entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1806. For a year, in 1807–8, he was a pupil of Thomas Lawrence, who greatly influenced him. Following the death of his uncle in 1809 he became financially secure. From 1811 he exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy and the British Institution and in 1816 worked in the studio of Jean-Baptiste Regnault in Paris.

At the Royal Academy in 1820 Etty exhibited his first substantial figure composition, the Coral Finders: Venus and her Youthful Satellites Arriving at the Isle of Paphos (London, priv. col., see Farr, pl. 12). He visited France, Italy and the Low Countries and, in ...


Justine Hopkins


(b Southwark, London, Feb 23, 1826; d Ventnor, Isle of Wight, Aug 21, 1905).

English printer. He established his printing firm (still operating in the late 20th century) in 1847. Working with Routledge Publishers he specialized in illustrated children’s books, including the ‘toy books’ of Walter Crane, and also printed a range of illustrated textbooks, poetry and novels. His sensitive line and capacity to translate effects from drawing to woodblock while retaining the style and spirit of the original made him justly popular with his clients. His ingenious combination of pigments and engraving techniques made him a pioneer in colour printing, greatly enlarging the scope of the art....