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Italo Zannier

(b Florence, April 6, 1822; d Florence, Nov 29, 1881).

Italian photographer and engraver. He began c. 1855 to deal in photographic prints, after working for some years as a copper engraver with the engraver (and later photographer) Achille Paris (1820–84). Brogi had also worked with the print publisher Batelli from the age of 11, and as the copper engraver and publisher Giuseppe Bardi’s print retoucher. He also attended, on a private basis, the school run by the engraver Perfetti. He probably learnt photography from the scientist Tito Puliti, whose photographic work at the Istituto di Fisica of the university from 1839 had pioneered the medium in Florence.

In 1860 Brogi set up his own photographic laboratory at Lungarno delle Grazie 15. He concentrated mainly on portraits, competing with the Alinari family whose studio was already flourishing but was devoted mainly to the reproduction of works of art, a field in which Brogi was less interested. He successfully exhibited a series of ‘natural and coloured artistic photographs’ at the first Esposizione Italiana, Agraria, Industriale, Artistica held in Florence in ...

Article

Constance W. Glenn

(b Hawker, Port Augusta, S. Australia, March 11, 1900; d San Francisco, CA, Aug 10, 1983).

American photographer of Australian birth. Bruehl trained as an electrical engineer in Melbourne, but in 1919 he emigrated to the USA. He developed his interest in photography while working for the Western Electric Company, New York. In 1923 he attended an exhibition by students of Clarence H(udson) White, who was then considered America’s most prominent Pictorialist photographer. White agreed to teach him privately, but by 1924 Bruehl had become both a regular student at White’s New York school and a member of his summer faculty in Canaan, CT. White encouraged the individualism shown by his students. Among them, Bruehl, Paul Outerbridge and Ralph Steiner became known for a crisp, graphic style that would distinguish the best commercial photography in the 1920s and 1930s.

In 1927 Bruehl opened his own studio, which prospered in New York until 1966. The photograph Untitled (Riverside, U. CA, Mus. Phot., see 1985 exh. cat., no. 20) of an apple, camera and lamp exemplifies his use of high contrast with black background and is an example of the table-top still-lifes that appeared in such magazines as ...

Article

Erika Billeter

(b San Francisco, CA, Oct 16, 1880; d London, May 8, 1945).

American photographer. He studied painting in Europe and trained as a photographer in New York with Frank Eugene. In 1905, after meeting Alfred Stieglitz and the photographers associated with the Gallery 291 gallery in New York, he became a member of the Photo-Secession. From then until 1918 he experimented with photography in San Francisco; some of his photographs appeared in Camera Work in 1916. In 1919 he opened his own photographic studio in New York. He became well known for his images of alienation—reminiscent of the Cubists—which he achieved by photographing subjects with the help of mirrors. He was an important pioneer of theatre photography, collaborating with Norman Bel Geddes and making an important contribution to the latter’s edition of Dante’s Divine Comedy in 1924. His preoccupation with light led him to create abstract photographs from elements of light, some of which were exhibited at the Sturm-Galerie in Berlin in ...

Article

Elizabeth Hutchinson

[Bessie]

(b Missouri, 1887; d Florida, 1965).

American artistic and commercial photographer. Working primarily in portraiture, she was an active participant in the Pictorialism movement and went on to produce photographs for illustration and advertising.

Buehrmann became interested in photography while studying art as a teenager. She left the Art Institute of Chicago to become a studio assistant to Eva Watson-Schütze (1867–1935) and progressed quickly, becoming an Associate of the Photo-Secession in 1904. Buehrmann spent 1906–7 abroad, studying photographic work in London and working for several months at the Photo-Club of Paris. Despite her youth, Buehrmann was included in many group exhibitions promoting Pictorialism, including Photo-Secession shows organized by Alfred Stieglitz in 1908 and 1909, the International Exhibition of Pictorial Photography at the Albright Art Gallery in 1910, and several of the annual salons of the Photo-Club of Paris. She was prominently featured in the Art Crafts exhibition at the Art Institute of Chicago in ...

Article

Richard Lorenz

[Percy Wingfield]

(b Chicago, IL, April 18, 1902; d Monterey, CA, Nov 16, 1975).

American photographer. Bullock was brought up in South Pasadena, CA, and he moved to New York in the early 1920s to attend Columbia University and to study singing and music. He was a professional tenor before moving in 1928 to Paris, where he lived for two years and became increasingly interested in the visual arts and photography. He bought his first camera to document his intermittent tours around the continent. Returning to the USA in 1931, Bullock briefly considered a career in real estate or law before enrolling in the Los Angeles Art Center School in 1938. There he studied photography with Edward Kaminski (1895–1964), who encouraged the creative use of the medium, in particular surrealistic experimentation.

Bullock’s early work reflected the experimental approach of his teacher. He developed a solarization technique, patenting it in 1948, which photographically produced a line drawing of the outlines of objects rather than a conventional continuous tone image. He also worked in the carbro colour print process, a complex technique used to produce brilliant, highly focused colour prints (...

Article

Hilary Gresty

(b Sheffield, July 24, 1941).

English conceptual artist, writer and photographer. He studied painting at the Royal College of Art from 1962 to 1965 and philosophy and fine art at Yale University from 1965 to 1967. From the late 1960s he adhered to Conceptual art using combinations of photographic images and printed texts to examine the relationship between apparent and implicit meaning. In his ...

Article

Erika Billeter

(b Zurich, April 9, 1933; d Zurich, Oct 20, 2014).

Swiss photographer and film maker. He studied photography under Hans Finsler at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Zurich (1949–53), where he also studied film making. After 1955 he worked as a freelance photojournalist for large-circulation illustrated magazines such as Life, Paris Match and Stern. In 1956 he became a correspondent for Magnum Photos in Paris and New York. His reputation as a photojournalist was based on his ability to grasp situations requiring a rapid response, while retaining in his photographs a clear structure and composition in such a way that chance itself appears to be constructed. This is apparent in the work undertaken on foreign assignments in the 1950s and 1960s, to places such as Egypt during the Suez crisis (1956), Greece and Turkey (1957), Korea and Japan (1961) and Vietnam (1963). As a film maker he is best known for What’s It All About?...

Article

Monica McTighe

(b St Louis, MO, 1948).

American photographer and multimedia artist. Using newly developed computer technologies in the 1970s, Burson designed ways to manipulate photographs digitally. She relied on this technique to produce images of people at an older age, fantastical composites of humans and animals, as well as composites of celebrities and politicians. She has also worked in the media of painting, drawing, and printmaking.

Burson began her career as a painter, studying for two years in the mid-1960s at Colorado Women’s College in Denver, CO. In 1968 she moved to New York City where she saw the Museum of Modern Art exhibition titled The Machine as Seen at the End of the Mechanical Age, which focused on the connections between art and technology. This exhibition helped inspire her development of ‘The Age Machine’, an interactive device that allowed viewers to see images of their aged faces. For help with this project, she approached Experiments in Art and Technology...

Article

William Main

(Henry)

(b England, 1834; d Dunedin, 1914).

New Zealand photographer. At the age of 34 he travelled to join his younger brother, Walter Burton, who had established a photographic business in Dunedin, New Zealand. Under the name of Burton Bros. they practised photography together until their partnership was dissolved by mutual consent in 1876. Alfred continued to trade under the firm’s name until 1898, at which point he sold his remaining interests to two former associates, Muir and Moodie. A great deal of anecdotal information about his life can be found in the self-promoting articles that he supplied to various Dunedin newspapers and publications. He is remembered above all for his trip up the Wanganui River in April and May in 1885. This North Island river gave access to the hinterland known as the King Country, a place where Maori tribes had retreated after the New Zealand Wars of the 1860s. Photographing as he went, Burton documented the villages and people of the area in 250 plates. These images are among the most important social documents on Maori life to have survived from this period. Burton marketed his views in albums, which he called ...

Article

Aurélie Verdier

(b Toulouse, 1952).

French photographer and sculptor. Bustamante studied economics at the University of Toulouse. In 1972 he went to Provence to study photography for two years, before becoming assistant to William Klein, at which time he produced his own first portfolio. His first independent work was a series of 120 colour cibachromes named Tableaux, begun in 1977 and pursued over the five next years. Conceived like paintings in their frontality and highly detailed depiction of desolated landscapes, their 8-by-10-inch formats recall those of commercial photography as well as easel painting. Selectively framed and therefore always incomplete, they lack any documentary or narrative value. Bustamante's interest in the object became evident from his five-year collaboration (1983–87) with the French sculptor Bernard Basile (b 1952), whose free-spirited reinterpretation of visual codes were called BasileBustamante. At the 1987 Documenta in Kassel, Bustamante exhibited alone. In the same year, he redirected his attention to sculpture and installation: ...

Article

Jocelyn Fraillon Gray

(b Morges, Vaud, March 3, 1814; d Melbourne, Victoria, May 30, 1888).

Swiss painter, lithographer and photographer, active in Brazil and Australia. He attended a drawing school in Lausanne, where his teacher may have been Marc-Louis Arlaud (1772–1845), and is thought to have spent some time with the landscape painter Camille Flers in Paris c. 1836 en route to Bahia (Salvador), Brazil. In 1840 he moved to Rio de Janeiro, where he established himself as a painter of local views and exhibited with the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, Rio. His Brazilian landscapes, of which the View of Gamboa (1852; Rio de Janeiro, Mus. N. B.A.) is an example, received critical acclaim for their vivacious lighting. As a photographer he fulfilled commissions in daguerreotype for Emperor Peter II, and with the figure painter Auguste Moreau he produced a set of 18 lithographs, Picturesque Rio de Janeiro, published in 1843–4. From 1852 to 1864 he worked as a portrait photographer in Switzerland and from ...

Article

Catherine M. Grant

[Schwob, Lucy ]

(b Nantes, Oct 25, 1894; d St Hélier, Jersey, Dec 8, 1954).

French photographer, writer, and sculptor. She changed her name around 1917 and studied at the Sorbonne in Paris and briefly at Oxford before settling in Paris in the early 1920s with her stepsister, lover, and lifelong companion Suzanne Malherbe. Her early self-portraits show Cahun with shaved hair and mannish clothes, as in Self-portrait (c. 1920; St Helier, Jersey Mus. Service), creating a persona that was confrontational to contemporary ideas of femininity. During the 1920s Cahun and Malherbe were a prominent lesbian couple in Parisian avant-garde circles. During this time Cahun created numerous self-portraits that played with the notion of a fixed identity, dressing up as various characters including a weight-lifter, aviator, dandy, and doll. The theatricality of these portraits, such as Self-portrait with Masks (c. 1928; Nantes, Mus. B.-A.), has been seen as a precursor to the performative work of later 20th-century artists such as Cindy Sherman. Cahun was also active within the Surrealist movement during the 1930s, signing many of their statements and writings on art, revolution, and sexuality. She made sculptures using found objects, such as ...

Article

Robert Smith

(John)

(b Guernsey, Channel Islands, Feb 28, 1837; d Melbourne, Feb 13, 1918).

Australian photographer of Guernsey birth. After his arrival in South Australia c. 1858, he pursued his interest in photography while working as a hairdresser, becoming a professional photographer in Adelaide in 1867. Economic recession led him to move in 1870 to the neighbouring colony of Victoria, where he worked as hairdresser and photographer in the goldfields settlement of Talbot. By 1871 he was able to open a studio in the larger town of Bendigo, achieving commercial success with carte-de-visite portraits and local views. He had an interest in art, having tried his hand at painting, and became a precursor of Pictorial photography, converting the formally posed group portrait into the conversation piece and producing landscape scenes with human interest genre subjects and picturesque effects to meet a growing nationalistic demand.

To take advantage of his increasing success Caire moved to Melbourne in 1876 to exploit its rapid urban growth as subject-matter, and to use it as a base for forays into the countryside, seeking novel or spectacular subjects. Expansion of the railway system and his adoption of the dry plate process gave him greater mobility, and he was able to photograph increasingly remote localities, culminating in an expedition to Mt Buffalo, in ...

Article

Merry A. Foresta

(b Detroit, Oct 22, 1912; d Atlanta, GA, March 15, 1999).

American photographer. Callhan took up photography in 1938, at the relatively late age of 26. Ansel Adams visited the Detroit Photo Guild in 1941 and Callahan was inspired by his emphasis on craftsmanship and his majestic images. Callahan’s earliest works focused on the calligraphic details of landscape, such as the patterns of grass against snow or telephone wires against the sky, or explored the effects of multiple exposures. Later subjects included studies of his wife Eleanor, a series of portraits made on Chicago’s State Street in 1950, a series of houses at Providence, RI, and Cape Cod beachscapes begun in the 1960s. Whether working in black and white or, later, in colour, as in Harry Callahan: Color (New York, 1980), Callahan was committed in all his work to what he called ‘the moment that people can’t always see’.

In 1946 Callahan joined the staff at the Institute of Design in Chicago. Colleagues such as the architect Mies van der Rohe, the artist Hugo Weber (...

Article

Eduardo Serrano

(b Yarumal, 1869; d Medellín, 1934).

Colombian photographer. After studying photography with Emiliano Mejía, he established a photographic studio in Yarumal in 1898, working there until his move in 1903 to Medellín. He added the prefixes to his surname, Calle, to declare his identification with other people ‘of the street’: nonconformists, bohemians and those marginalized by society. He openly aligned himself with the underprivileged social classes in his photographs, stating his opposition to the arbitrary and vengeful aspects of his society by recording some of the most moving events of his day, including the last executions by firing squad to take place in Colombia. This series included photographs of prisoners awaiting their deaths while facing their coffins and as bullet-ridden corpses.

De la Calle was also an exceptional portraitist, usually of anonymous and unsophisticated people to whom he gave great dignity, such as proudly barefooted peasants who boldly displayed the instruments and tools of their work. He sometimes presented his figures with elements such as revolvers and cartridge belts to indicate his political and social rebellion. Through such perceptive images he recorded the urban, industrial and commercial development of Medellín....

Article

Marta Zarzycka

(b Paris, Oct 9, 1953).

French photographer, writer, and conceptual artist. Calle’s work engages with absence of others, either loved ones or strangers. Her frequent use of street photography, scene-of-the-crime photography, surveillance cameras, and archival photography lend a documentary character to her work. The stories she tells in that documentary mode, however, are often mysterious and their relationship to reality remains uncertain.

In her art, Calle often acts as the pursuer or voyeur; on other occasions she places herself directly under the observation of others. One of her early works, Suite Vénitienne (1980), involved following someone that she had met at a party in Paris to Venice, without his knowledge. The photographic documentation of the project raised questions as to whether the man’s identity could be revealed by his day-to-day movements through the city, as well as imitating ironically the behaviour of unrequited love. The French philosopher Jean Baudrillard wrote an essay (...

Article

Sérgio B. Martins

(b Rio de Janeiro, Jul 11, 1970).

Brazilian painter and photographer. Camargo was formally trained at the Escola de Belas-Artes (EBA) of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro in the late 1990s, and is best known for her pictorial meditations on urban and cinematic landscapes.

The EBA was an artistically conservative institution during Camargo’s tenure as a student, but she was nevertheless able to develop a visual language that differed from the school’s general preference for academic and early modernist styles. She was part of a group of students who concentrated on issues of urban experience and visual culture in Rio de Janeiro. Unlike most of her classmates, though, who engaged mostly with the multimedia language of urban intervention, Camargo remained a painter, with sporadic forays into photography and photocollage.

The mediated image plays a crucial role in her painting, as Camargo often reread fragments of urban imagery through the lens of cinematography. Filmmakers Andrei Tarkovsky and Werner Herzog are two of her most recurrent references. Camargo’s cinematic approach is most evident in her first solo show ...

Article

Judith Zilczer

Journal devoted to photography that was published from 1903 to 1917. Camera Work evolved from a quarterly journal of photography to become one of the most ground-breaking and influential periodicals in American cultural history. Founded in January 1903 by photographer Alfred Stieglitz as the official publication of the Photo-Secession, the journal originally promoted the cause of photography as a fine art. As Stieglitz, its editor and publisher, expanded the journal’s scope to include essays on aesthetics, literature, criticism and modern art, Camera Work fueled intellectual discourse in early 20th-century America.

Camera Work mirrored the aesthetic philosophy of its founder Alfred Stieglitz. The journal resulted from his decade-long campaign to broaden and professionalize American photography. Serving for three years as editor of American Amateur Photographer (1893–6), Stieglitz championed the expressive potential of photography and advocated expanded exhibition opportunities comparable to those available in European photographic salons. In 1897, when the Society of Amateur Photographers merged with the New York Camera Club, Stieglitz convinced the enlarged organization to replace their modest leaflet with a more substantial quarterly journal, Camera Notes, which he edited until ...

Article

(b Calcutta, June 11, 1815; d Dikoya Valley, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka], Jan 26, 1879).

English photographer and writer. Her father was an official in the East India Company. She therefore spent a number of years in Calcutta, but she was educated by her maternal grandmother in France and in England. In 1838 she married Charles Hay Cameron, a distinguished jurist. She brought up six children, who were born between 1839 and 1852. In 1848 the Cameron family settled permanently in England, living first in London and from 1860 at Freshwater, Isle of Wight. Cameron was a frequent visitor to the literary and artistic salon conducted by her sister, Sara Prinsep, at Little Holland House, Kensington, London. In 1847 she published a translation of Gottfried August Bürger’s Leonora; she also wrote poetry, and apparently began a novel.

Julia Margaret Cameron was given her first camera in 1864 to occupy her time while her husband and sons were on the family coffee estates in Ceylon. Photography was not a common amateur recreation in the 1860s; she described her eventual commitment to the difficult wet collodion negative and albumen print positive process in a letter to Sir John Herschel (...

Article

Marta Gili

(b Arbucies, nr Gerona, March 15, 1906).

Spanish photographer. After finishing his studies as a commercial technician in Barcelona, he started work at the age of 16 as a photographer’s assistant. This early contact with photography made Campaña aware of the need to broaden his knowledge of the medium. In 1934 he moved to Munich to study with ...