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Article

Nelly Perazzo

(b Buenos Aires, Aug 28, 1897; d Buenos Aires, March 17, 1983).

Argentine painter, tapestry designer and stage designer. From 1922 to 1933 he lived in Europe, where he studied first in Germany at the artistic colony in Worpswede and then in Paris under André Lhote and Othon Friesz. He was untouched by the violence of German Expressionism, but he assimilated various influences in France, structuring forms in the manner of Cézanne, and combining these with the audacious colouring of Fauvism and the strict sense of order in Cubism, as in The Siesta (1926; Buenos Aires, Mus. N. B.A.)

On his return to Argentina, Butler applied these European influences to lyrical landscapes of the islands in the Parana Delta of the Tigre region near Buenos Aires, selecting unusual scenes into which he incorporated childhood reminiscences in the figures. Using arabesques to link nature and people in his essentially flat pictures, he projected himself on to the scenery of which he was so fond in pictures such as the ...

Article

Klaus Ottmann

(b Detroit, MI, May 10, 1932; d Cairo, Egypt, June 23, 1997).

American sculptor, performance artist, and installation artist. Byars spent his formative years in Japan (1958–68) where he learnt to appreciate the ephemeral as a valued quality in art and embrace the ceremonial as a continuing mode in his life and work. He adapted the highly sensual, abstract, and symbolic practices found in Japanese Noh theatre and Shinto rituals to Western science, art, and philosophy. One of his most important works of that period is Untitled Object (Runcible) (1962–4), also known as The Performable Square, a 46 cm cube consisting of 1000 sheets of white flax paper that unfold into a 15×15 m white plane divided by 32 parallel strips connected at the top with paper hinges. It was first exhibited, folded, in 1964 at the National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto, in the centre of the museum floor, placed on a sheet of glass, but not ‘performed’ (i.e. unfolded) until 14 years later, in ...

Article

Hugh Davies

(b Los Angeles, Sept 5, 1912; d New York, Aug 12, 1992).

American composer, philosopher, writer and printmaker. He was educated in California and then made a study tour of Europe (1930–31), concentrating on art, architecture and music. On his return to the USA he studied music with Richard Buhlig, Adolph Weiss, Henry Cowell and Arnold Schoenberg; in 1934 he abandoned abstract painting for music. An interest in extending the existing range of percussion instruments led him, in 1940, to devise the ‘prepared piano’ (in which the sound is transformed by the insertion of various objects between the strings) and to pioneer electronic sound sources.

Cage’s studies of Zen Buddhism and Indian philosophy during the 1940s resulted in a decision to remove intention, memory and personal taste from music, based on the Oriental concern with process rather than result. According equal status to both structured sound and noise, he treated silence (the absence of intentional sounds) as an element in its own right. In the early 1950s he began his close collaboration with the pianist ...

Article

Silvia Lucchesi

(b Ancona, Feb 22, 1910; d Rome, March 28, 1976).

Italian painter and stage designer. He studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Rome. Cagli exhibited for the first time as a painter in 1932 at the Galleria di Roma and the Galleria Il Milione in Milan, with Giuseppe Capogrossi and Emanuele Cavalli (1904–81). After a further group exhibition at the Galerie Bonjean in Paris in 1933, Cagli and his colleagues were among members of the second phase of the informal group the Scuola Romana. During this period Cagli became particularly close to Mirko, who married his sister in 1938. In an article of 1933 Cagli opposed the classical ideals of Novecento Italiano, putting forward his own preoccupation with the mythical and primordial. Nevertheless he expressed this within the current orthodoxy of a monumental figurative style. In the Battle of San Martino and Solferino (encaustic, 5.5×6.6 m, 1936; Florence, Uffizi), executed for the Milan Triennale, the re-expression of a mural technique and of an ancient epic form is fragmented into episodes that follow free associations and psychological analogies....

Article

Isobel Whitelegg

(b La Vega, Mantanzas, 1959).

Cuban painter, photographer, installation and performance artist, active also in the USA. Campos-Pons studied at the Higher Institute of Art, Havana (1980–85). Initially a painter, her graduation show Acoplamientos (1985; Havana, HIA) was concerned with representations of the female body as a device for prohibition and control, and her early work focused on the role of women in society and their representation within the history of art. In 1988 she went to the USA as a visiting artist at the Massachusetts College of Art, Boston, and in 1991 she settled permanently in Boston. Using shaped canvases, her first works displayed an interest in the interrelationship between painting and three-dimensional media. While living in the USA she also expanded her interest in sculpture and installation to include elements of video and performance.

Living abroad also brought her relationship to Cuba into sharper relief; work produced in the early 1990s addressed her own displacement in relation to the enforced migration of her ancestors as slaves, and the way in which an imagined Africa is collectively created in contemporary Cuba by story-telling, the cultivation of traditional medicinal plants and the practice of the Afro-Caribbean Santería religion. Using performance and video as a form of self-portraiture, another aspect of her practice focuses on her attempt to build a coherent identity as an Afro-Cuban woman living in the USA. With the aim of achieving simultaneity between performance and its immediate capture in the production of an unalterable image, her self-portraits employ large-format colour Polaroid photography, as in the diptych ...

Article

Ana Maria Rybko

(b Turin, March 1, 1869; d Rome, June 8, 1959).

Italian sculptor, teacher, composer and musician. He studied sculpture from 1880 at the Accademia Albertina di Belle Arti in Turin, under Odoardo Tabacchi, and initially adhered to the traditions of Naturalism, with Romantic and Renaissance influences. He later turned to Realism, making no concessions to the more avant-garde artistic tendencies of the 20th century. He established his reputation with a series of portraits of society personalities, including Emily Doria-Pamphili (marble, h. 570 mm, 1904; Rome, Gal. Doria-Pamphili; copies, Rome, G.N.A. Mod. and Mus. Canonica) and Donna Franca Florio (marble, h. 1050 mm, c. 1903–4; Rome, Mus. Canonica), and also members of the British royal family, such as Edward VII (marble, h. 570 mm, 1903; London, Buckingham Pal., Royal Col.). His vast output includes many works with symbolic or sacred subject-matter, as well as numerous funereal and commemorative monuments. These include the model (plaster, h. 330 mm) and statue (marble, h. 3.28 m) of ...

Article

Giuliana Ricci

(b Viadana; d Mantua, 1700).

Italian architect, stage designer and writer. He was the brother-in-law of Giacomo Francesco Motta, superintendent of the Teatro Grande in Mantua, whose surname he adopted and who probably assisted him in his youth. He began working at the court of Mantua as a painter c. 1650, later becoming general superintendent of buildings and prefect of theatres. In 1668 he built a theatre (destr.) for Luigi Fedeli at Mantua, with a proscenium arch similar to that introduced by Giovanni Battista Aleotti at the Farnese Theatre (1618–19), Parma. It had a central space bounded by two stepped levels, three tiers of boxes and an upper balcony. This theatre was the site of Carini Motta’s only documented stage designs, those for the Torneo a’piedi (1674), recorded in engravings accompanying the libretto published in Mantua. In 1688 he designed the Teatro dei Comici, Mantua, with five tiers of boxes as well as the parterre. Carini Motta also produced a considerable number of stage devices and machines; firework displays and ceremonial structures for the coronations of Popes Clement IX (...

Article

Hélène Bocard

(b Fareins, Ain, April 1, 1828; d Paris, 1906).

French photographer, caricaturist, and writer. He was trained as an industrial designer, then, like Nadar, he embarked on a career as a caricaturist. He was passionately fond of the theatre and published a series of lithographs, Le Théâtre à la ville, in Paris in 1854. He founded literary reviews, among which was Le Boulevard (1861), which established his reputation. After an apprenticeship in 1858 with Pierre Petit, he began to photograph artistic, literary, and political personalities with whom he was associated politically, including the composer Gioacchino Rossini (pubd 1877; e.g. in Rochester, NY, Int. Mus. Phot.) and Emile Zola (pubd 1877; e.g. in Rochester, NY, Int. Mus. Phot.). He also photographed actors, including Sarah Bernhardt and the mime artist Charles Deburau on stage. Some friends, including Gustave Courbet (e.g. pubd 1878; Rochester, NY, Int. Mus. Phot.), were the object of a series of photographs. He was also the accredited photographer of ...

Article

Cesare Poppi

Term used to describe public revelling that includes music, dance or performance. It is characterized mainly by the elaborate costumes that are created specifically for it. In countries where the Roman Catholic tradition is dominant, carnival denotes a period of variable duration that ends at midnight before Ash Wednesday, although in some localities the latter day can also be included. In these contexts, therefore, it is a specific calendrical event generally associated with forthcoming Lent. It is often referred to with the French Mardi Gras, which properly applies to only Shrove Tuesday. The term has, however, become used more generally; it may entail demonstrating, occasionally with explicit, if satirical, political overtones. It also denotes indoor partying and feasting of the kind arranged by community organizations or private individuals. The English equivalent of carnival as an annual event, Shrovetide, seems to be disappearing with the decline of the activities customarily connected with the period in the popular culture of the British Isles....

Article

Anna Maria Fioravanti Baraldi

[Sellari, Girolamo; Ferrara, Girolamo da]

(b Ferrara, c. 1501; d Ferrara, ?Aug 1, 1556).

Italian painter, architect and stage designer. His father Tommaso (fl 1503–23) was a painter and decorator at the court of the Este in Ferrara, and Girolamo was trained in the workshop of Garofalo. He visited Rome in the early 1520s (Fioravanti Baraldi) and in 1525 was in Bologna, where he worked with Biagio Pupini and Giovanni Borghese on the decoration of the sacristy of S Michele in Bosco. Around this time (1525) he painted the altarpiece of the Virgin Enthroned with Saints (Dresden, Gemäldegal. Alte Meister; destr.) for S Biagio in Bologna.

From these early works onwards, da Carpi developed a pictorial language that combined the Ferrarese models of Garofalo and Dosso Dossi with the influence of such works by Raphael as the St Cecilia (Bologna, Pin. N.), which he saw in Bologna, the Madonna of Foligno (Rome, Pin. Vaticana) and the frescoes in the loggia of the Villa Farnesina in Rome. Da Carpi’s ...

Article

Leonor Morales

(b Mexico City, Nov 2, 1930; d Mexico City, Jun 6, 1974).

Mexican painter and stage designer. She studied at the Escuela de Pintura y Escultura “La Esmeralda” in Mexico City and later in Paris at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière. One of the pioneers of Art informel in Mexico, like her husband, Manuel Felguérez (whom she married in 1960), she formed part of a group of young painters who rebelled against the Mexican art establishment in the 1950s. Exhibiting her work widely during the 1960s, she aroused controversy by winning second prize with an abstract work at the Salón Esso (1965; Mexico City, Pal. B.A.). In 1968 she also helped set up the Salón Independiente as a protest against the government-subsidized Salón Solar on the occasion of the Olympic Games in Mexico City. She made several murals, but her most important works were her abstract easel paintings, displaying a fine use of color. In the 1960s she also worked as a stage designer....

Article

Giles Waterfield

(bapt London, Jan 1, 1606; d London, Dec 17, 1686).

English actor and collector. He was the son of an actor who was a friend of Edward Alleyn, founder of Dulwich College. He was himself first recorded on the stage in Norwich in 1635, but when the theatres closed down during the Commonwealth period he seems to have made his living as a bookseller in London. In 1658 he apparently published Actor’s Vindication, a version of Thomas Heywood’s Apology for Actors. With the Restoration of Charles II in 1660 he returned to the stage as a member of the refounded King’s Company, in which he played a prominent part as both actor and shareholder.

Cartwright was a keen collector, especially of pictures, and he bequeathed to Dulwich College his collection of 239 paintings, together with an inventory in his own hand. Only about 75 of these paintings survive in Dulwich Picture Gallery, the remainder having been stolen by his servants or subsequently lost. They constitute a remarkably important survival, from a late 17th-century collection made by a person of adequate but not great means. The surviving pictures include works by ...

Article

Judith L. Carmel

Italian family of artists. The travelling Venetian actors Gaetano Giuseppe Casanova (d 1733) and Giovanna Zanetta Farussi produced six sons, the second of whom was the adventurer Giovanni Giacomo Casanova (b Venice, 2 April 1725; d Château Dux, Bohemia, 4 June 1798), notorious for his amorous pursuits. He is best-known for his Mémoires, which include generally reliable information about the lives and careers of two of his brothers: (1) Francesco Casanova, known for his battle and equestrian pictures, and (2) Giovanni Battista Casanova, a Neo-classical draughtsman, painter, forger and writer.

There have been numerous editions of the Mémoires of Giovanni Giacomo Casanova. The two given here represent the earliest, as well as an acclaimed modern edition.

F. A. Brockhaus, ed.: Histoire de ma vie, 6 vols (Wiesbaden and Paris, 1960–62) DBI; Thieme–Becker C. van Heyden de Lancey: ‘Les Portraits de Jacques et de François Casanova’, ...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

(b London, Oct 23, 1948).

English poet, sculptor and performance artist. He studied at the North East London Polytechnic (1968–71) and then under the sculptor Bernard Meadows at the Royal College of Art, London (1971–4). His first solo exhibition, at the Air Gallery, London, in 1977, was followed by shows at the Camden Arts Centre, London (1979), and the Arnolfini, Bristol (1980). From 1982 to 1985 he lived and worked in Norwich as Henry Moore Fellow. In the 1990s he became head of sculpture at the Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art. Catling’s sculpture and performances are often based on a metaphysical view of ordinary materials and objects, dwelling on their spiritual and emotive presence. His performances involve intense, symbolic activities made in a state that he has described as ‘the chrysalis of mania’; he also made oracular readings using props invested with ‘magical properties’, suggesting comparisons with the performances of Joseph Beuys. During ...

Article

Article

A. V. Ikonnikov

[Chekanauskas, Vitautas]

(b Šiauliuose, Lithuania, May 13, 1929).

Lithuanian architect. He studied from 1949 to 1955 in the architectural faculty of the Artistic Institute, Vilnius. His first major work, the residential buildings for the Union of Composers and the House of Composers (1961–6) on Mitskevichus Street, Vilnius, is a group of blocklike detached houses, which blends organically with its site, a pine grove on the bank of the River Neris. The contrast between surfaces of red brick, stucco and wooden panels adds to the picturesque effect. The Palace of Exhibitions (1964–7) on Muzējus Street, in the historic centre of Vilnius, was specifically designed to blend in with the context of the old quarter, partially destroyed during World War II. Its form balances internal factors, such as the functional arrangement of the main exhibition halls on the first floor as an adaptable system, against its external image determined by its environment. The residential district (...

Article

Antonello Negri

(b Castelfrentano, nr Chieti, May 17, 1938).

Italian sculptor and stage designer. He trained at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Rome and between 1954 and 1958 worked with the highly experienced teachers Leoncillo Leonardi, Pericle Fazzini and Ettore Colla. He produced a series of non-representational ceramic sculptures during this early period, but his more characteristic style was established during the early 1960s, when such subjects as people and the artefacts of modern daily life were treated, using unseasoned planks of wood carved in simple shapes in a craftsman-like manner, uncoloured, undecorated and often repeated in series (e.g. Last Supper, 1965; Rome, G.N.A. Mod.). This new style was shown for the first time in 1964 in an exhibition at the gallery La Tartaruga in Rome. Ceroli’s work at this time was influenced by Pop art, by the work of Louise Nevelson and Joe Tilson, and also by Arte Povera. His interest in the relationship between sculpture and its surroundings led him in the late 1960s to work in the theatre, designing and creating sets for numerous productions including Shakespeare’s ...

Article

Catherine M. Grant

(b Paris, after 1945).

French performance and installation artist, painter, bookmaker, furniture and interior furnishings designer. Chaimowicz moved to England as a child, studying at Ealing College of Art (1963–5), Camberwell College of Art (1965–8) and the Slade School of Art (1968–70). Whilst completing his MA at the Slade, Chaimowicz decided to abandon painting, and started to make performance work, such as Celebration? Real Life (1972; performed at the Ikon Gallery, Birmingham and Gallery House, London). For the duration of each show, Chaimowicz lived within the domestic space that he had created, serving coffee to visitors to the gallery. His work during the 1970s and early 1980s concentrated on performances in imaginary, idealised domestic spaces, with fragmented narratives and symbolic actions. Partial Eclipse (1980–82) consisted of Chaimowicz walking in a figure of eight in front of and behind a screen on which slides of his apartment/studio were projected, whilst a female voice recounted fragments of meetings, situations and relationships (see ...

Article

Aileen June Wang

(b San Leandro, CA, Feb 3, 1972).

American performance and video artist of Chinese ancestry. Chang earned a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of California, San Diego in 1994. She showed her first solo exhibition at Jack Tilton Gallery, New York, in 1999. Her body of work focused on how people can be deceived, either through sight—what one sees is not necessarily true—or through mainstream assumptions about such topics as Asia, sexuality, and socially accepted behavior. Chang attributed her past stint in a cybersex company as the catalyst for exploring illusion as a theme. She realized that video flattened three-dimensional, live performances into a stream of two-dimensional images, enabling her to engage in visual deception.

Most of Chang’s early works investigated problems of gender and sexuality, using her own body and elements suggesting violence or transgression. The photograph Fountain (1999) depicted her inside a cubicle of a public lavatory, with a urinal visible on the far wall. Wearing a business suit, she knelt on hands and knees, seemingly kissing herself but actually slurping water off a mirror on the floor. The accompanying video focused on Chang’s face and her passionate interaction with her own reflection. While the photograph suggested female humiliation in a male world, the video complicated matters by implying that the act was motivated by narcissism....

Article

Reinhold Misselbeck

[Hargesheimer, Carl-Heinz]

(b Cologne, May 19, 1924; d Cologne, Dec 31, 1971).

German photographer, sculptor, stage designer and theatre director. He studied graphic design and photography at the Cologne Werkschulen. In 1948 he made his first sculptures in metal, but he made his name shortly afterwards with experimental photographs and other experimental works. A member of the young German avant-garde, from 1951 he taught experimental photography at the photographic school BIKLA (Bild und Klang) in Cologne. In 1957 his first book, Cologne intime, appeared, and a year later he published Im Ruhrgebiet and Unter Krahnenbäumen (both with texts by Heinrich Böll), whose new photographic structures provoked violent reactions and public debate. His photography during this period was based on the collection of images, and he always attempted to penetrate the façades of buildings and of people.

After a series of publications about Berlin, the Rhineland and stocktaking, Chargesheimer turned to the theatre, working as a stage designer, director and photographer for theatres in Cologne, Vienna, Brunswick, Hamburg, Bonn and Kassel. He summed up this achievement in ...