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Carolyn Kinder Carr

(b Cincinnati, OH, July 9, 1857; d New York, June 8, 1903).

American painter and illustrator. The son of German–American parents, he probably became interested in magazine illustration while an apprentice at Gibson & Co., lithographers in Cincinnati, during 1873 and 1874. He began drawing lessons at the McMicken School of Design (now the Art Academy of Cincinnati) c. 1873, transferring to the Ohio Mechanics Institute in 1874. Blum visited the Centennial Exposition (1876) in Philadelphia and was impressed with paintings by Giovanni Boldini and Mariano Fortuny y Marsal and by Japanese art. He remained there for about nine months, studying at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.

In 1878 Blum moved to New York, where he contributed illustrations to such magazines as St Nicholas and Scribner’s Magazine. Two years later he took the first of numerous trips to Europe. In Venice he met James McNeill Whistler and Frank Duveneck and under their influence took up etching. He travelled frequently with ...


Mark Allen Svede

(b Riga, Sept 6, 1943).

Latvian painter, stage designer and graphic designer. After a childhood spent in Siberian exile, he studied decorative art and trained as a painter in the Latvian Art Academy (1963–72), preparing for a career as a stage designer. Stage design and the applied arts were less constrained by Socialist Realist dictates during the 1970s, and he quickly became one of Latvia’s most innovative artists. His fluency with process art and installation, for example, was already evident in his designs for a 1973 Riga production of Žanna d’Arka (Joan of Arc) by Andrej Upīts, the stage metamorphosing from Minimalist cavity to an assemblage in Arte Povera style. Abandoning the theatre in 1987, Blumbergs continued his prolific output. His compositions, sometimes abstract, often figurative and allegorical, are notable within Latvian art for their spare elegance and uncontrived expressiveness, successfully combining grand literary allusion and subtle metaphysical content. His graphic virtuosity earned him a degree of international celebrity rare among his Latvian peers. Exceptional, too, for his political candour, he was a harbinger of ...


Sascha Scott

(b Pittsburgh, PA, May 25, 1874; d Albuquerque, NM, June 6, 1960).

American painter and illustrator. Raised in Dayton, OH, Blumenschein showed an early aptitude for music, art, and sports. Upon graduating from high school, he began training as a musician on a violin scholarship at the Music Academy of Cincinnati. Blumenschein left the Academy after a year and enrolled in the Art Academy of Cincinnati, where he received a prize for illustration in Fernand Harvey Lungren’s class. In 1893, he moved to New York City and enrolled at the Art Students League, where his instructors included John Twachtman and Kenyon Cox. Over the course of the next 15 years, he moved back and forth between New York and Paris, periodically visiting other locales, including Taos, NM, Italy, and Giverny. He twice enrolled at the Académie Julian (1894–6 and 1899), where he studied with Jean-Paul Laurens and Benjamin Constant. In 1905, he married artist Mary Shepard Greene (1869–1958), and, with the birth of their daughter in ...


Amy Fox

(b St Petersburg, April 4, 1905; d New York, 1973).

American illustrator, graphic designer, and painter of Russian birth. Vera Bock moved to the USA in 1917 during the height of the Russian Revolution, arriving in San Francisco. The daughter of an American banker and a Russian-born concert pianist, she studied woodcutting, manuscript illumination, printing, and photogravure in England for a year, supplementing her training in painting and drawing. Her book illustration career began in 1929 with the publishing of two books, Waldemar Bonsels’s The Adventures of Maya the Bee and Elle Young’s The Tangle-Coated Horse, a book that was reviewed in 1930 for the Newbery Medal and in 1938 received retro-active Honor Book status.

During the Great Depression of the 1930s she was employed by the Federal Art Project (FAP) through the Works Progress Administration (later Works Projects Administration; WPA) of the US Government. During 1936–9 she illustrated and designed posters for the FAP New York City poster division. Most noted posters from this period are ...


Leslie Heiner


(b Riesbach, Switzerland, Feb 1809; d Barbizon, Seine-et-Marne, Oct 30, 1893).

Swiss painter and graphic artist, active in the USA and France. Bodmer’s earliest exposure to art probably came from his uncle, the landscape painter and engraver Johann Jakob Meyer (1787–1858). When he was 22, Bodmer moved to Paris, where he studied art under Sébastien Cornu. In Paris he met his future patron, Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied, who was planning an ambitious scientific expedition to North America. Bodmer was engaged to accompany the expedition and to provide sketches of the American wilderness. After touring the East Coast, the party made their way westward via the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to St Louis, MO, and in 1833 travelled up the Missouri River into country scarcely inhabited by white men. On the journey north to Ft MacKenzie, WY, Bodmer recorded the landscape and the groups of Indians they encountered. Having wintered in Ft Clark, ND, they returned to New York and then Europe in ...


Laura Suffield

(b Saluzzo, Feb 16, 1740; d Nov 29, 1813).

Italian typographer. He was born into a family of typographers and at the age of 18 moved to Rome, where he was introduced to Cardinal Spinelli. In 1766 Bodoni set out for England, but illness forced him to return home. He started printing and received some local commissions; then, through the offices of Cardinal Spinelli’s librarian, Paolo Maria Paciaudi (1755–1829), he was employed as head of the Stamperia Reale of the dukes of Parma. His early books show the influence of the types used by Pierre-Simon Fournier. He developed a dramatic, bold style, exemplified by the Epithalamia (1775), which celebrates the wedding of the sister of the French king Louis XVI. His mature style achieved a stark brilliance and Neo-classical purity, and from the 1780s he worked with his brother Giuseppe Bodoni (d 1825) to produce his own types. Bodoni made three main innovations in ...



M. N. Sokolov


(b Feodosiya, Ukraine, Jan 12, 1872; d Feodosiya, Feb 17, 1943).

Ukrainian painter and graphic artist. He studied at the Academy of Arts, St Petersburg, from 1891 to 1897 under Arkhip Kuindzhi, and he was profoundly influenced by Kuindzhi’s ideas of national romantic landscape. Bogayevsky was a member of the World of Art (Rus. Mir Iskusstva) Society and of the Union of Russian Artists (Soyuz Russkikh Khudozhnikov). Most of his work was devoted to the Eastern Crimea, and he became a master of the epic historical landscape. He was dedicated to depicting ‘Kimmeriya’ (the poetic name for the Crimea, after ‘Kimmerians’, ancient tribes that inhabited the peninsula in 8–7 bc), as was his friend, the poet and artist Maksimilian Voloshin (1877–1932).

On a number of occasions Bogayevsky approached a fine stylization in his work in the spirit of the Italian quattrocento (e.g. Memories of Mantegna, 1910; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.), but he usually worked from the motif, which he made monumental in the tradition of ‘heroic landscape’ (e.g. ...


Christoph Tannert

(b Berlin, July 26, 1938).

German painter and graphic designer. He studied at the Werkkunstschule, Charlottenburg, Berlin, from 1957 to 1961, and thereafter worked on a freelance basis in Berlin. He soon became distanced from the propagandist formulae and stylistic narrowness of the Socialist Realism decreed by the Staatspartei and officials of the Künstlerverbandsfunktionären in the DDR in the 1950s and 1960s. The ‘Cézannism’ that spread into art in East Berlin c. 1962 had a strong influence on him. His awareness of the sensuality of the painting material and the universality of the simple object resulted in a long course of internal exile. Because he refused to allow art to be misused to illustrate ideological or social concepts, he remained in the shadows of official art in the DDR for c. 20 years, his work being a far cry from historical painting, representation of the working class and approval of Socialist society.

With almost obsessive concentration, Böhme aimed for his artistic goal through the standing, sitting or kneeling female figure with a strong pictorial quality and colours confined to earthy brown tones (darkening to black) and grey, with green and red for accentuation. He occasionally painted self-portraits, still-lifes and landscapes. Again and again, however, he found emotional support in the female nude, which appears not as a sensual erotic reflection but exclusively as a problem of the form of the sensuous fullness of existence or as a pictorial representation of intoxicated rapture. The series of this pronounced artistic figure elaborated by Böhme gives the impression of a silent battery of silhouettes emerging out of nature and then flowing back into it again. It frequently looks angular in outline and the impasto makes it look modelled. Böhme used colour to intensify his figures through to their core. The figure itself is usually shrouded in darkness, but this cover opens up at the edge of the picture to reveal the white of the canvas or the paper background. Stillness, persistence and melancholic reticence radiate from this art, which speaks of intellectual awareness and thus also of emotional conflicts....


Hella Robels

Family of Dutch engravers and publishers. Both (1) Boetius Bolswert and (2) Schelte Bolswert began their careers in Amsterdam but moved south c. 1617–18, working as book illustrators in Antwerp and Brussels and producing religious prints (e.g. the joint work on Saints of the Order of the Jesuits, Hollstein, p. 85, nos 278–82). The brothers are chiefly known for the excellence of their reproductions of paintings by Rubens, which they began to produce c. 1630.

(b Bolsward, c. 1580; d Brussels, March 25, 1633).

His first dated engraving, Interior of the Exchange in Amsterdam (1609; Hollstein, no. 362), was published by the Amsterdam publisher Michiel Colyn (fl c. 1609). Boetius Bolswert executed four engravings of the Horrors of the Spanish War after David Vinckboons (1610; Hollstein, nos 314–17) and several series after Abraham Bloemaert, with whom he must have had a close relationship (e.g. ...


José-Augusto França

Portuguese family of artists. Manuel Maria Bordalo Pinheiro (1815–90) was a successful amateur painter, specializing in genre paintings on historical themes. The work of his son (1) Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro is sharp, graphic and witty, caricaturing intellectuals and politicians, while that of his younger son (2) Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro is more introverted, expressing in many portraits a notably sombre image of Portuguese life in the late 19th century. Rafael’s son Manuel Gustavo Bordalo Pinheiro (1867–1920) continued his father’s work, with less distinction.

(b Lisbon, March 21, 1846; d Lisbon, Jan 23, 1905).

Draughtsman, caricaturist and ceramic designer. He attended drawing classes at the Academia de Belas-Artes in Lisbon. He also had a great and lasting passion for the theatre and a degree of acting talent that helped his early success as a caricaturist. His first humorous publication was the album O Calcanhar de Aquiles...



Nóra Aradi

(b Marosvásárhely [now Tîrgu Mureş, Romania], July 3, 1893; d Budapest, Dec 3, 1976).

Hungarian painter, printmaker and poster designer. He was a leading figure in the avant-garde and a member of the group centred round the journal MA edited by Lajos Kassák. Bortnyik started his career as a poster designer; one of his first successes, the Unicum poster (1915; see 1986 exh. cat., p. 52), remained in print for decades. During 1918–19 his linocuts (e.g. Red Star, Lenin and Liebknecht) adorned the title page of MA. His paintings of that period, Red Locomotive (Budapest, N. Mus., Dept Mod. Hist.), Red Factory (Pécs, Pannonius Mus.) and Yellow-green Landscape (priv. col., see Borbély, 1971, illus. 10), show his attempts to achieve harmony and order through an increasingly abstract use of colour symbolism and form. Forced to emigrate when the Council Republic fell in 1919, he went to Vienna, then to Weimar; he also worked in Berlin and Kassa (now Košice, Slovakia). In 1921...


Stephen Addiss

[Kameda Chōkō; Kameda Hōsai]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1752; d Edo, 1826).

Japanese painter, poet, calligrapher and book illustrator. The son of an Edo merchant, he studied calligraphy from a very early age under the noted Chinese-style calligrapher Mitsui Shinna (1700–82). He also received a Confucian education, unusual at that time for a merchant’s son. From about 1765 to 1774 Bōsai trained under Inoue Kinga (1732–84), an influential Confucian scholar of eclectic doctrines as well as a painter and calligrapher, at the Seijūkan, a private academy near Yokohama. Bōsai opened a Confucian academy in Edo in 1774. In 1790, however, the Tokugawa shogunate issued an edict aimed at curtailing the popularity of such schools as Bōsai’s, where students were encouraged to develop their own moral philosophy rather than accept the government-sponsored Confucianism of the Chinese Song-period (ad 960–1279) philosopher Zhu Xi. Bōsai gradually lost his pupils and in 1797 closed his school.

Bōsai’s artistic activity increased from ...


Ruth Rosengarten

(António Teixeira Bastos Nunes)

(b Lisbon, Sept 18, 1899; d Lisbon, Aug 18, 1982).

Portuguese painter, printmaker and designer of tapestries and tile panels. Known primarily as a ‘painter of Lisbon’, he began his artistic career as an illustrator and cartoonist as well as writing a weekly satirical page (1928–50) in the newspaper O sempre fixe. He visited Paris in 1929, 1930–1 and again in 1937, when he was impressed by a retrospective exhibition of the work of van Gogh, whose influence is evident in Botelho’s scenes of urban squalor of the late 1930s. He had begun to depict calm, unpopulated views of Lisbon in the early 1930s, for example Side View of the Castle (1935; Lisbon, Mus. Cidade), and from the early 1940s concentrated almost exclusively on this theme. The compositions became increasingly crisp and planar and the piling up of volumes and compression of space increasingly stylized, especially after he began to paint from memory in 1949. The tonalities of Botelho’s paintings remained consistently pale, as in ...


Christian Dittrich

(b Sangerhausen, July 30, 1641; d Dresden, May 29, 1706).

German painter, draughtsman, graphic artist and writer on art. He was a son and pupil of Andreas Bottschild II (c. 1590–1657), a painter and engraver, who decorated churches in Sangerhausen. Samuel had further training with his brother Johann Andreas Bottschild (b 1630; d after 1670), with whom he went to Saxony. In 1658–61 they worked jointly on gallery paintings of 19 scenes from the Passion (heavily restored 1852) in the Dorfkirche at Hohnstädt, near Leipzig. The decorations for the banqueting hall of Schloss Rötha, near Leipzig (c. 1668–70; destr.), were Bottschild’s first complete programme of mythological themes. At Rötha he also completed two group portraits of the female and male lines of the Friesen family (Dresden, Inst. Dkmlpf.)

In 1673 Bottschild painted a Presentation in the Temple for Freiberg Cathedral. It was probably after this that he left for Italy with his cousin and pupil ...


(b Zéprégühe, Nov 11, 1923).

Ivoirian graphic artist. He was a volunteer in the French National Marines in 1941, and from 1946 to 1958 he worked for the Judicial Identity Department of the General Security of French West Africa. During the 1950s he became intrigued with the patterning of red and black stones near Daloa and began exploring other pattern and information systems, such as scarification and gold weights. He set about composing a pictographic alphabet for his language, Bete, creating over 400 ideograms in all. His small drawings are done in pen and coloured pencil, and almost all have the same format: an image, centered in each piece, is bordered by text written in French, English and/or Bete. Bouabré sees himself first as a philosopher and linguist, and his work is about contextualization and its lack. Aesthetically closer to the outsider or art brut, he was brought into the contemporary art world against his will. His art forces the consideration of such very old questions as ‘What is art?’ and ‘What is an artist?’. He participated in international exhibitions from ...


Michael Howard

(b Vercelli, Piedmont, March 11, 1806; d Dijon, March 5, 1867).

French painter, illustrator, set designer and poet. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris under Guillaume Lethière from 1821. The Punishment of Mazeppa (1827; Rouen, Mus. B.-A.), inspired by the scene from Byron’s poem, in which Mazeppa is tied to the back of a wildly stampeding horse, is his most important early painting and one of the key images of the Romantic movement.

Early in his career Boulanger became friendly with Eugène and Achille Devéria. Through them he met Victor Hugo, who became his ardent supporter and the source of many of his most typical works. Among Boulanger’s illustrations were those for Hugo’s Odes et ballades (1829), Les Orientales (1829), Les Fantômes (1829) and Notre-Dame de Paris (1844). Boulanger interpreted the macabre and romantic quality of Hugo’s texts with an imaginative power and freedom that anticipated Redon (e.g. ‘...


(b Paris, March 9, 1883; d Paris, May 17, 1943).

French painter and illustrator. He was trained in Paris at the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs and then at the Académie Julian. In 1901 he studied lithography and from 1902 to 1903 did his military service, through which he met André Dunoyer de Segonzac. In 1904 he studied under Luc Olivier Merson and Jean-Paul Laurens at the Académie Julian with Dunoyer de Segonzac and there met Luc-Albert Moreau. These three artists became close friends and adopted a similar naturalist style that was maintained through the rise of Cubism. From 1906 to 1908 Boussingault shared a studio with Dunoyer de Segonzac, and in the summer of 1908 all three went on a painting trip to St Tropez.

Boussingault was rarely satisfied with his work and destroyed many of his paintings. He first exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants in 1909 and later at the Salon d’Automne and regularly at the Galerie Marseilles in Paris. From ...


(b Orléans, Oct 18, 1851; d Nemours, Seine-et-Marne, March 16, 1913).

French painter and illustrator. From 1869 he took a course at the De Rudder school of art and in the following year was admitted to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he worked in the atelier of Alexandre Cabanel. He took part in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71) and afterwards studied under Jules Lefebvre, Gustave Boulanger and Carolus-Duran. From Carolus-Duran he acquired a liking for portraiture (e.g. Rachel Boyer as Diana, 1886; Paris, Louvre) and for the works of Ribera, which he admired particularly for their dark and resinous tones. From 1873 he exhibited at the Salon and in 1885 he created a stir with his Apotheosis of a Scoundrel (or Apotheosis of Robert Macaire; Orléans, Mus. B.-A.), a work imbued with a violently anti-republican spirit. As well as painting, he illustrated children’s literature, beginning with the successful La France en zig-zags (1881). Other collections followed: ...