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Gordon Campbell

Article

The field of stained-glass conservation seeks to ensure the survival of historic stained glass for future generations using best practices established through collaboration with conservation scientists, art historians, conservation architects, and conservators from related disciplines such as stone and metal conservation. Strategies and philosophies for the treatment of stained glass should conform to guidelines for conservation in general which have stressed the need for minimal intervention.

See also Stained glass

In this traditional craft established over a thousand years ago, clear and colored glass, produced by a glassmaker, was supplied to the stained-glass artist. This glass was cut to conform to a design, originally employing a red-hot iron, and followed by a notched iron tool known as a grozing iron to achieve the desired shape. In the 16th century diamond cutters were developed, and more recently tungsten wheels have been used to cut glass. The glass was then decorated with vitreous glass paint (grisaille) which was fused to the surface by firing in a kiln. In the 14th century the use of silver-stain to produce a strong yellow color spread rapidly in Europe. The use of this revolutionary technique, in which glass was stained in the kiln with silver nitrate, allowed details such as the hair and nimbus of ecclesiastical subjects to be decorated, and the skill spread rapidly. Later in the 16th century, transparent enamels were developed and used to great effect in heraldic devices....

Article

Priscilla Boniface

Room or building for the display of plants, often used as a living area (sometimes known as a ‘winter garden’) and frequently attached to a house. The distinctions between the conservatory and other forms of glass house (see Greenhouse and Orangery) were blurred until well into the 19th century, when a conservatory was usually interpreted as an ornamental, glazed living room decorated with plants. On 30 October 1683 the diarist John Evelyn reported on the ‘greenhouses’ (destr.) containing myrtle and orange trees that were attached to the house of Sir Henry Capel (d 1696) at Kew; in the 19th and 20th centuries such buildings might well have been termed conservatories. The Conservatory (1787–90; later the Sculpture Gallery) at Woburn Abbey, Beds, designed by Henry Holland, was also called the Greenhouse, demonstrating the interchangeable nature of the two terms in the late 18th century. During the 18th century visits could be made to the plant houses and other garden buildings to escape the boredom resulting from over-long confinement in a country house. In the later 19th century the function of the conservatory as a retreat became so predominant that the plants became merely a decorative background in a glazed room intended for relaxation and entertainment....

Article

John Steen

(b Leerdam, Jan 11, 1901; d Wassenaar, Dec 19, 1991).

Dutch glass designer. He worked at the glass factory in Leerdam, where his father was head of the etching and decoration department, and designed a large amount of consumer glass (1914–70). He began there as a draughtsman. Between 1920 and 1925 he was taught by Jacob Jongert (1883–1942) at the Academie voor Beeldende Kunsten in Rotterdam. During 1920–21 he made his first glass designs. His Smeerwortel service won him the silver prize for industrial design at the Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes in Paris in 1925. In 1927 he had his first one-man exhibition at the Landesgewerbemuseum in Stuttgart. He met the architects of the Weissenhofsiedlung and started to design geometric abstract shapes, such as bulbs, cylinders and cubes. His bulb vases and cactus pots in red, yellow and blue graniver are particularly well known. Copier continually experimented with new materials and techniques. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Jane Shadel Spillman

American glass manufactory in Corning, NY. In 1851 Amory Houghton (1813–82), a Boston businessman, became a director of a glass company in Cambridge, MA, and subsequently owner of his own glass factory. Later he sold his Massachusetts glass interests and bought the idle Brooklyn Flint Glass Works in New York. Transportation and labour difficulties caused him to move the equipment and some employees to Corning in 1868. The factory’s chief product was blanks for glasscutting, and Houghton persuaded John Hoare (1822–96) to establish a branch of his successful Brooklyn cutting shop in Corning. This was the first of many cutting shops in the region, which became noted for the production of heavily cut glass. By about 1900 more than 500 glasscutters were employed in the Corning area.

In the 1870s Amory Houghton jr (1837–1909) of the renamed Corning Glass Works developed an exceptionally visible and stable red glass for railway signal lanterns, which later became a railway standard, and in ...

Article

Colum P. Hourihane

International scholarly organization dedicated to the study of medieval Stained glass. Although it is claimed that the organization was founded in 1949, it was not formally established until 1952 when a group of interested scholars met at the International Congress for the History of Art in Amsterdam under the guidance of Hans R. Hahnloser and where guidelines for the recording and cataloguing of stained glass were then structured. Hahnloser had already discussed the possibility of founding such an organization three years earlier at the 16th International Congress for the History of Art in Lisbon when an outline and draft were proposed.

This international project now has branches in 12 countries (Austria, Belgium, Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, and the US) with related committees in Portugal and Russia. Its aims are to record all medieval stained or painted glass, although some committees have also ventured into later periods. Each country has its own national committee that is financially dependent on securing its own funding. Most national committees are run by volunteers. These committees determine the research priorities and usually work in tandem with other organizations. The independent nature of these various committees and their dependency on securing their own finance has meant that the project does not have a uniform level of publication or activity....

Article

Costrel  

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

Modern term for a type of 18th-century American mirror, sometimes given as a courting gift and often hung in hallways for last-minute grooming; early examples were imported (sometimes from the Netherlands), but thereafter most were made in New England. The frame typically consisted of painted glass strips, often in a metal moulding; some were surmounted with a crested area containing a picture....

Article

Anne Hagopian van Buren

(b ?Burgundy, c. 1420; d Bruges, before 1502).

Franco-Flemish painter and designer. He is first documented painting stained glass in Philip the Good’s Burgundian castle of Argilly in 1448 and 1452. He was appointed a painter to the Duke in January 1454, just before he worked with Colard le Voleur, Master of the Entertainments at Hesdin, on fountains and other machines for the Banquet of the Pheasant in Lille. During the next years, Coustain was responsible for painting the banners and heralds’ tabards for several court festivities and funerals. He coloured statues of St Philip and St Elizabeth on the ducal palace in Brussels in 1462 and painted a Crucifixion and a Virgin and Child on the panels placed at the head and foot of the Duke’s catafalque in 1467.

Coustain was most active under Charles the Bold. In 1468 he and the Duke’s other painter, Jean Hennecart, were in Bruges, supervising 166 painters and sculptors in the production of the decorations for the meeting of the Order of the Golden Fleece as well as decorations, mechanical devices, props and sets for ...

Article

Wouter Th. Kloek and Leonard J. Slatkes

Dutch family of artists. With a striking, personal style that sets him apart from his contemporaries, (1) Dirck Crabeth was the most important Dutch stained-glass artist of the 16th century. His younger brother (2) Wouter Crabeth (i) was a less individual designer, whose work has a pleasant spaciousness, but the rendering of detail is not always satisfactory. The impressive windows (1555–71) of the St Janskerk, Gouda, executed largely by the Crabeth brothers, constitute one of the highpoints of Dutch art of that period. Their father was the glass painter Pieter Dircksz., nicknamed Crepel Pier. Van Mander devoted a few lines to Adriaen Pietersz. Crabeth (d 1553), apparently the eldest son and a painter who has so far remained obscure and is said to have been apprenticed to Jan Swart. Wouter Crabeth’s son, Pieter (Woutersz.) Crabeth, fulfilled many important political functions in Gouda, including that of burgomaster. Pieter’s son ...

Article

Crackle  

Gordon Campbell

[crazing]

Patterns of small cracks produced intentionally as a decorative effect in glazes, particuarly on ceramics; the term ‘crazing’ is sometimes used to denote unintended crackle, but is also used to denote crackle that is deliberate. Crackle first emerged as a decorative feature in the Guan and Ru wares of the Song dynasty. Crackled glazes in Chinese pottery first became fashionable in Europe in 18th-century France, but were not used in European and American pottery and porcelain until the late 19th century; one of the pioneers was Hugh Cornwall Robertson, whose glazes in the late 1880s included a crackled apple-green turquoise. In 1895 a new pottery was established in Dedham, MA, using Robertson’s distinctive crackled glaze for dinnerware, decorated in cobalt blue with stylized flowers and animals. In Demark, the Kongelige Porcelainsfabrik began experimenting with crackled glazes c. 1904.

Crackle has also been used to decorate glass. The techniques for producing crackle glass (also known as ‘ice glass’) were developed in Venice in the 16th century. In the late 19th century ...

Article

Criblé  

Gordon Campbell

[Fr. crible: ‘sieve’]

Type of engraving on metal or wood or glass; such engravings depict shade or half-tones through the use of small dots. Dotted prints (Fr. criblé; Ger. Schrotblatt) made by relief-engraving on metal were produced by goldsmiths in the second half of the 15th century in the Netherlands, parts of the Rhine, Cologne, Basle and Lake Constance....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Article

Fintan Cullen

(b Dublin, Dec 6, 1819; d London, Nov 4, 1857).

Irish painter and designer of stained glass. He began his training at the Dublin Society’s Art Schools in 1827 (aged eight) and in 1837, when only eighteen, was made a Royal Hibernian Academician. He was a highly successful portrait painter and received much of his patronage from the Roman Catholic hierarchy, which had been liberated as a result of the Catholic Emancipation Act (1829). From the age of ten or eleven he exhibited portraits of these senior churchmen at the newly formed Royal Hibernian Academy, and he showed regularly there until his early death. His portraits of distinguished leaders of Irish Catholic society include that of Daniel Murray, Archbishop of Dublin (1846; Dublin, N.G.). Crowley also designed stained-glass windows for a number of the new post-Emancipation Roman Catholic churches in Dublin, for example the Baptisterium in St Nicholas of Myra (1840). In 1836 Crowley moved to London, where he exhibited at the British Institution (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Article

Crystal  

Gordon Campbell

[crystal-glass; Ger. Krystallglas; It. vetro di cristallo]

Colourless glass with a high degree of transparency achieved by ther admixture of manganese to the Frit. It is normally used for glass vessels, decanters and wine glasses, and is often cut. The technique was known in ancient Rome and rediscovered in 15th-century Venice, from where it was transmitted all over Europe....