101-120 of 279 results  for:

  • Gardens and Landscape Design x
Clear all

Article

Het Loo  

K. A. Ottenheym

Royal palace at Apeldoorn, the Netherlands. In 1684 William, Prince of Orange and stadholder of the Netherlands, purchased the Oude Loo property and commissioned designs for a new hunting-lodge from the Académie d’Architecture in Paris. In the following year, work began on Het Loo; designed by van Swieten and Jacob Roman, it remains unknown to what extent they actually used the plans that had been prepared in Paris in 1685. The hunting-lodge (1685–6) initially consisted of a square main building, which was connected to the wings on the forecourt by arched colonnades. At this time the gardens probably extended no further than what are now the Lower Gardens on the rear side. After the Glorious Revolution (1688–9) Het Loo became too small for the extensive household of William and Mary, who had by that time been proclaimed King and Queen of England (reg 1689–1702). After ...

Article

Brent Elliott

English garden in Gloucestershire, 5 km north-east of Chipping Campden. It was laid out from 1907 by Lawrence Johnston (1871–1958), the owner of Hidcote Manor, who presented the property to the National Trust in 1948. The garden is arranged along an axis independent of the house and consists of a series of compartments connected by walks and steps, with areas of woodland gardens beyond their boundaries. Each compartment is a separate garden with individual planting; they are enclosed by hedges, many of them featuring copper-beech or a variety of foliage types for polychrome effect. Further uses of topiary range from the forms of peacocks and doves through to columns and a ‘stilt garden’—a rectangular enclosure bounded by an aerial hornbeam hedge. Numerous compartments, such as the White Garden or the Fuchsia Garden, are profusely planted with flowering shrubs and herbaceous plants, arranged in a deliberately unsystematic manner to contrast with the formal effects created by such features as the lines of hedge, the twin brick summer-houses, steps and gates....

Article

K. A. Ottenheym

Country house at Voorburg, The Hague. In 1639 Constantijn Huygens (i), poet, scholar and secretary to Frederick Henry, Stadholder of the Netherlands, purchased a plot just outside Voorburg with the intention of building a secluded country house. He named the house Hofwijck, which means ‘far from the court’. Huygens probably designed both the house and its gardens (destr.) himself in 1639–42, in collaboration with the architects Pieter Post and Jacob van Campen. The house is built of brick; its cubic form and pyramidal roof typify the simplicity of Post’s oeuvre. The façades have no explicitly classical features; they are decorated only with trompe-l’oeil paintings of statues between the windows, which are arranged in three rows, one above the other. Huygens’s poem about the house, Vitauliam: Hofwijck, provides the most complete description of the house and an explanation of its symbolism. The overall plan of the house and gardens was intended to symbolize the human form, with the house itself representing the head and the gardens the body....

Article

J. M. Richards

(b London, Jan 29, 1850; d Welwyn Garden City, Herts, May 1, 1928).

English social reformer, writer and shorthand-writer. He worked first as a clerk in the offices of various London merchants, stockbrokers and solicitors. In 1872 Howard emigrated to the USA where he worked as a shorthand-writer in the law courts, first in Nebraska then in Chicago. After returning to England (1877) he joined the firm of Gurney and Sons, official shorthand-writers to the Houses of Parliament, London, later becoming a partner in their successors, William Treadwell. Howard devoted his spare time to social reform, applying himself especially to problems of urban overcrowding and the depopulation of the countryside. His response was the idea of the economically self-sufficient satellite town, surrounded by agricultural land and limited to c. 30,000 inhabitants. In 1898 he published an influential book in support of his ideas: Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform. It set out not only his concept of the garden city but also his proposals for financing and administering it. The garden city was to consist of rural-like residential neighbourhoods surrounding a central park, an extensive cultivable green belt to prevent urban encroachment, and facilities for shopping, cultural pursuits, community activities and recreation, the whole laid out concentrically and linked to a large town of no more than 58,000 inhabitants. No railways or highways would pass through the garden city. The scheme was anticipated by two years by that of the German political theorist ...

Article

James Yorke

[Mayhew and Ince]

English partnership of cabinetmakers formed in 1758 by William Ince (b ?London, c. 1738; d London, 6 Jan 1804) and John Mayhew (b 1736; d London, May 1811). Ince was apprenticed to John West (fl 1743–58) of Covent Garden, London, from 1752 until West’s death. As the usual age to begin an apprenticeship was 14, he was probably born towards the end of the 1730s. In 1758 Ince formed a partnership with Mayhew. They operated from Broad Street, Carnaby Market, an address formerly occupied by Charles Smith (fl 1746–59), whose premises they had purchased. In Mortimer’s Universal Director (1763) they were described as ‘cabinet-makers, carvers and upholders’, and by 1778 they were styling themselves ‘manufacturers of plate glass’ (Ince’s father and brother were glass-grinders).

In 1759 the partners began to issue in serial form The Universal System of Household Furniture...

Article

Reinhard Zimmermann

In 

Article

[formerly Isola di San Vittore]

Island in Lake Maggiore, northern Italy, the principal of three islands near Stresa known as the Isole Borromeo, where the 17th-century Palazzo Borromeo was built; this is a significant example of the harmonious integration of architecture, sculpture and garden design in the Baroque style. Before the 17th century the island was a barren rock with a few cottages and a church, inhabited only by poor fishermen. Count Carlo III Borromeo (1586–1652) initiated a grand project of building and landscaping in 1632 and renamed the island Isabella (later corrupted to Isola Bella) in honour of his wife Isabella d’Adda. Carlo’s scheme was finished under his sons Vitaliano Borromeo and Cardinal Giberto Borromeo (1615–72), Vitaliano taking over most of the supervision of the project. Several artists collaborated on the scheme; Angelo Crivelli (d 1630), who conceived the original plan for the gardens and palace, Francesco Maria Ricchini, ...

Article

Hakon Lund

[formerly Abrahamstrup]

Castle and garden in north Zealand, Denmark, c. 50 km north-west of Copenhagen. The small castle, on a spur between Isefjord and Roskilde fjord, is partly medieval but dates mostly from the 16th and 18th centuries, the east wing having been built in 1730–32 by Johan Conrad Ernst (1666–1750). It is now a museum containing the furniture and collections of King Frederick VII (reg 1848–63) and his third wife, Countess Danner, who occupied it between 1854 and 1863. North and east of the castle is the memorial grove. In 1776 the heir presumptive to the Danish throne, Prince Frederick (1753–1805), excavated a Bronze Age tumulus, which he dedicated to his mother, the Dowager Queen Juliana Maria (1729–96). This was a time when there was an upsurge of interest in national history and origins, and the project was conceived of turning these ancient remains into a political monument to Denmark’s past. ...

Article

Barbara Mazza

(b Venice, May 14, 1783; d Venice, May 8, 1852).

Italian architect, engineer and landscape designer. He was a prominent Neo-classical architect but was also a noted eclectic, much admired, for example, by Pietro Selvatico, and he introduced the taste for the romantic garden to Italy. He attended courses in architecture and figure drawing at the Accademia Clementina, Bologna (1789–9). This school, which was in the forefront of theatre design and technique, provided a stimulating and enlightened cultural environment; his teachers included Angelo Venturoli (1749–1821) and Francesco Tadolini (1723–1805). After obtaining his diploma in 1800, he moved to Padua, and in 1803 he entered the studio of Giovanni Valle, a mapmaker, where he became a qualified surveyor. He collaborated with the engineer Paolo Artico between 1804 and 1806 on defence works on the River Piave, and in 1807, with the architect Daniele Danieletti (1756–1822), he restored the old prison in Carrara Castle. The same year he was also appointed as an engineer in the Regio Corpo di Acque e Strade in the Brenta region. His works of this period included decorating the town hall (...

Article

Kathleen Russo

In 

Article

Kathleen Russo

In 

Article

Françoise de la Moureyre

In 

Article

Robert Williams

(b London, Nov 29, 1843; d Godalming, Surrey, Dec 8, 1932).

English garden designer and writer. Best remembered for her books on horticulture and the gardens she made with the architect Edwin Lutyens, she first trained (1861–3) as a painter at the Kensington School of Art, London, and (c. 1870) under Hercules Brabazon Brabazon. Private means allowed her to concentrate on learning one art or craft after another, from embroidery to stone-carving. In 1882 she began contributing horticultural articles to magazines and advising acquaintances on planting schemes. She met the young Lutyens in 1889 and introduced him to some of his first important clients. He designed Munstead Wood, Godalming, for her in 1896. True to her Arts and Crafts background, Jekyll promoted the cottage-garden style of old-fashioned flowers, informally planted; her opinions and expertise made her a household name. Her first book, Wood and Garden, illustrated with her own photographs, appeared in 1899. Her schemes for about 300 gardens are known (numerous plans, Berkeley, U. CA, Coll. Envmt. Des., Doc. Col.), of which about 100 involved ...

Article

Michael Spens

(Alan)

(b London, Oct 8, 1900; d July 16, 1996).

English landscape designer, urban planner, architect and writer. He was educated in London at the Architectural Association School (1919–24). His book Italian Gardens of the Renaissance (with J. C. Shepherd), derived from student research, was published in 1925, the year in which he qualified as an architect. He soon established his practice in London. In the 1930s he was instrumental in developing the Institute of Landscape Architects (now the Landscape Institute) as a professional body. He taught at the Architectural Association School (1928–33), becoming its Principal in 1939. His projects of the 1930s include the village plan (1933) for Broadway, Hereford & Worcs, a model document under the Town and Country Planning Act of 1932, and, with Russell Page (1906–85), a pioneer modernist restaurant and visitors’ centre (1934) at Cheddar Gorge, Somerset. Important garden designs of these years include Ditchley Park (...

Article

Robert E. Grese

(b Dybbøl, Denmark, Sept 13, 1860; d Ellison Bay, WI, Oct 1, 1951).

American landscape architect of Danish birth. He began building his reputation as a designer in 1888 when he delighted the Chicago public with his design for the American Garden in Union Park. With it he set the tone for a lifetime of creating natural parks and gardens. During a stormy career with Chicago’s West Parks, Jensen reshaped Union, Humboldt, Garfield, and Douglas parks. His work on Columbus Park (1916) is generally regarded as the best of his designs for Chicago’s West Parks System. During the same period he designed numerous residential gardens for the élite of Chicago and across the Midwest. He established close friendships with the architects of the Prairie school and occasionally collaborated with them on projects.

Throughout his career Jensen attempted to relate forms and materials to the surrounding native landscape. Designs were not intended to be copies of nature, but symbolic representations using colour, texture, sunlight and shadow, seasonal change, and careful manipulation of space to evoke a deep emotional response. He saw a value in plants then thought to be common weeds and used them in ecological patterns as found in the wild. His design of ...

Article

Article

Joan Marter

(b New York, Sept 8, 1940).

American environmental artist. Johanson is known for art projects created in the natural landscape that solve environmental problems. She is considered a pioneer in ecological art and has made permanent installations in gardens and parks in the United States and abroad. Johanson was born in New York City, where she was a frequent visitor to parks designed by Frederick Law Olmsted. She graduated from Bennington College where she studied with sculptor Tony Smith. While at Bennington (1958–62) she also met artists Kenneth Noland, David Smith, Helen Frankenthaler, Franz Kline and Philip Guston. In 1964 Johanson completed a master’s degree in art history at Hunter College.

A publishing project offered her the opportunity to catalogue the art of Georgia O’Keeffe, who became her mentor. Johanson’s paintings from the 1960s were Minimalist, as she explored the optical effects of colors. In 1966 she began producing large-scale sculpture, also Minimalist in style. ...

Article

Bruce A. Coats

[Kūtaiji; Kūdaiji; Kubonji]

Buddhist temple and garden near Nara in the Sōraku District, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. It is a temple of the Pure Land (Jōdo) sect of Esoteric Buddhism. The present compound contains a honden (main hall), a pagoda and a pond garden. Alone among Pure Land temples, Jōruriji retains its original 12th-century garden designed to look like the Western Paradise. Temple records indicate that the temple was established in 1047 with the construction of a honden dedicated to Yakushi (Skt Bhaishajyaguru; the Buddha of healing). It was reconstructed in 1107 as a hall for the worship of Amida (Skt Amitabha; Buddha of the Western Paradise) and moved to its present position in 1157.

The Amida Hall (Amidadō) stands on the western side of the pond. It is a wooden post-and-beam structure in the yosemune zukuri (‘hipped-gable roof construction’) format, 11 bays long and 4 bays deep, and is the only extant example of a ...

Article

Hans-Christoph Dittscheid

(b Kassel, Dec 9, 1754; d Kassel, July 26, 1825).

German architect. He studied architecture from 1778 at the Collegium Carolinum in Kassel under Simon Louis Du Ry. His earliest surviving designs show a close allegiance to the architecture of the Prussian court in Berlin and Potsdam. At about this time he taught architecture under Du Ry. In 1783 Jussow received a bursary from Landgrave Frederick II of Hesse-Kassel (reg 1760–85), which enabled him to stay in Paris until 1785. There he was a pupil of Charles de Wailly, who had produced various designs for a new residential palace and a pleasure palace, both at Weissenstein (later Wilhelmshöhe), for the Kassel court. In de Wailly’s studio Jussow drew up his first scheme for Schloss Wilhelmshöhe, which exhibits the direct influence of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, who was also working on projects for Landgrave Frederick at the time. Jussow also spent a year in Italy (1785–6) and was one of the first German architects to study and draw the ancient temples at Paestum. Landgrave ...

Article

Bruce A. Coats

[Jap.: ‘garden with a multitude of pleasures’]

Japanese garden in the city of Mito, Ibaraki Prefecture. Together with the Kōrakuen in Okayama (see Okayama, §2) and the Kenrokuen in Kanazawa (see Kanazawa, §2, (ii)), it is considered one of Japan’s three notable daimyo gardens. In 1665 Tokugawa Mitsukuni (1628–1700), the second-generation head of the Mito branch of the Tokugawa family, rulers of Japan during the Edo period (1600–1868), created a pond garden on the site, which imitated the famous Western Lake in China. He also constructed the Kōchintei (Pavilion of Deep Contemplation). The present Kairakuen was created as a private garden by Tokugawa Nariaki (1800–60), the ninth-generation Mito head. It was completed in 1842 and named Kairakuen.

The Kairakuen site, originally 33,487 tsuba (110,478 sq. m), consists of several low hills and broad valleys densely planted with trees, especially ume (Japanese plum). Nariaki reportedly brought 10,000 ume...