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Alessandro Conti

Italian family of restorers. After a series of experiments dating from as early as the first half of the 18th century, Giacomo Succi (fl Imola, c. 1775; d Rome, 1809) and his sons Domenico Succi (fl c. 1826) and Pellegrino Succi (fl 1812–63) perfected a method of transferring frescoes from their original settings, with techniques that are the basis of those still in use. They generally removed only the painted layer (the strappo technique), which was then treated to ensure that it retained the correct degree of luminosity. Giacomo’s first experiments were made in 1775 on the frescoes by Bartolomeo Cesi in Imola Cathedral (two poorly preserved fragments, Imola, Mus. Civ.), and he is also known to have been responsible for the removal of two works by Guercino in 1791, the White Mare and Venus and Cupid (both Cento, Pin. Civ.)

A greater number of works were transferred by Giacomo’s sons, and these are often of far better quality than would be expected at such an early date. ...


Olgierd Czerner

(b Narva [now in Estonia], Sept 1, 1883; d Kraków, Oct 1, 1948).

Polish architect, designer, restorer, writer and teacher. He studied (1902–9) at the Academy of Fine Arts, St Petersburg, and subsequently studied the history of art in Kraków. His early buildings include a synagogue (1910), Kharkiv, a house (1912), at 7 Mariacki Square, Kraków, and cloisters for pilgrims at a convent in Jasna Góra, in Częstochowa, which reflect the requirement to use national forms of architecture. Above all, however, he was an advocate of a simplified, monumental, academic classicism, notably in the design for the Hotel Bristol (1912) and the house (1913) at 15 Zwierzyniecka Street, both in Kraków, and his design for a ministerial building (1921) in Warsaw. He applied classical ideas magnificently in the National Savings Bank Building (1925), Kraków, and in the building constructed to house its employees. Szyszko-Bohusz’s extensive simplification of classical designs, already evident in the design for the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy (...


M. S. Tite, Raymond White, Michael Duffett, R. W. A. Dallas, Graham Saxby and Marion Kite

Examination of a work of art by technical means; its aims are, first, to identify the raw materials used and, where appropriate, their geographic source or provenance; second, to investigate the techniques used in production; third, to establish the age and authenticity; and finally, to provide a full record of the surface appearance.

Clearly, the relative importance of these four aspects of technical examination, as well as the most appropriate scientific techniques to use, depends critically on the specific work of art under consideration, be it a building, a sculpture, a ceramic, a piece of decorative metalwork, a painting or a textile. Aspects of a work of art that are relevant in this context include its physical size, whether it is three-dimensional or two-dimensional and whether it is made predominantly from inorganic or organic material.

The first stage is to examine the work of art and provide a record of its surface appearance and macrostructure using entirely non-destructive methods (...


Codruţa Cruceanu

(b Ploieşti, June 28, 1894; d Bucharest, June 21, 1976).

Romanian architect, urban planner, restorer and theorist. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, until 1925, then studied (1926–8) at the Accademia di Belle Arti, Rome, where he specialized in the problems of restoration. On his return to Romania he worked with the Historical Monuments Commission and in 1931 was appointed a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts ‘Nicolae Grigorescu’, Bucharest. Among his most notable architectural achievements are the Dalles Foundation Building (1932; now altered and known as Sala Dalles), Bucharest, containing exhibition rooms and a concert hall; the replanning of I. C. Brătianu Square (1936; now Nicolae Bălcescu Square), Bucharest, in collaboration with the sculptor Ivan Mes̆trović; the design of the parish building and bell-tower (1939) in the Old Court, Bucharest, which are sympathetically constructed in brick, preserving and blending in with the original character of the site; and the planning of Constanţa, intended to improve the situation of the ancient city of Tomis. As a restorer Teodoru distinguished himself not only by introducing modern techniques but also by his synthesis of the different contributions of the architect, the urban planner, the archaeologist and the art historian, for example in the original restoration of the Old Court (...


Catherine Hassall

Process of conveying an image from one surface to another. Preparatory drawings or designs can be transferred to another support by several methods: see Cartoon, Counterproof, Pouncing, Squaring up, Stylus and Tracing. For the history of transfer printing in the decoration of ceramics (a process in which an engraved copperplate is printed on to paper, which is then pressed while still wet against the ceramic surface to be decorated) see Ceramics §I 4.. The article below discusses the conservation technique of transferring paint layers on to a new backing following the complete removal of an irretrievably deteriorated support. It concentrates on the use of transfer for panel and canvas supports; for information on the detachment of frescoes see Fresco §2.

The process of transfer was developed in France in the mid-18th century by Robert Picault, a restorer who worked on many of the large altarpieces brought to Paris from Italy. Since then, it has been a regular part of conservation practice, though it is now used only in extreme circumstances, when all other courses of treatment have been tried and found to fail. The transfer of a painting is a long and laborious task, but a relatively straightforward one. The reluctance to carry it out is partly due to the fact that it goes against the conservation principle that all treatment should be reversible. A transfer is clearly not reversible: the panel, board, paper or canvas is removed in little pieces, and an important part of the historical record of the painting is lost. Another reason for caution is that the appearance of the painting is inevitably slightly altered, however carefully the process is carried out. Paintings transferred from wooden supports are worst affected. Old ...


(b Conflans, Oct 24, 1804; d Paris, May 11, 1874).

French sculptor and designer of Italian descent. He studied painting with Louis Hersent in Paris before embarking on a career as a sculptor. He made his début at the Salon of 1831 with a bronze relief of the Death of Charles the Bold (untraced); closely based on 15th-century models, it identified him as one of a new generation of Romantic sculptors who rejected the Neo-classical teaching of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in favour of learning from medieval and early Renaissance examples.

Triqueti occasionally put his knowledge of medieval art into practice as a restorer, working on the famous bone and marquetry reredos from the abbey of Poissy (Paris, Louvre) in 1831, and in 1840–48 on the restoration of the Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, under the supervision of the architect Félix-Jacques Duban. Numerous drawings provide further evidence of his interest in medieval and Renaissance monuments (e.g. Romanesque Portal of Basle Cathedral, 1831, Montargis, Mus. B.-A.; ...


Jacqueline Colliss Harvey

(b Carmarthen, Dec 27, 1882; d Newton Abbot, Devon, Jan 11, 1952).

English art historian, writer, and conservator. He trained under Professor W. R. Lethaby at the Royal College of Art, London, and rose to become Professor of Design there from 1925 until his retirement in 1946, when he was made Professor Emeritus. He was an acknowledged expert on medieval wall paintings, particularly their preservation, although his technical methods are now known to have been unsound. He was also a highly influential teacher on the subject and did much to bring the interest and value of medieval painting to public attention. He worked on the preservation and restoration of wall paintings at Westminster Abbey, the Palace of Westminster, and Eton College (Berks), among other sites, and in the cathedrals of Norwich, Exeter, Winchester, and Christchurch, Oxford, as well as on the Pre-Raphaelite murals in the Oxford Union Library. He gave a large collection of his drawings of medieval wall paintings to the ...


Peter L. Laurence

Although the theory and practice of renovating cities is ancient, and although the term is still used to refer to similar practices today, “urban renewal” typically refers to the large-scale, federally funded redevelopment projects that took place in US cities in the 1950s and 1960s. Such projects wrought dramatic physical transformations and caused controversial social upheaval. Urban renewal in this sense came into being with the US Housing Act of 1954, although it evolved out of a history of government-funded slum clearance and housing project construction dating back to the 1930s. Following two decades of slum clearance and model housing projects including First Houses (1935), Williamsburg Houses (1937) and Stuyvesant Town (1947), all in New York, the US Housing Act of 1949 was signed into law with broad political support due to a national postwar housing shortage. As the immediate legislative predecessor of urban renewal legislation, the Housing Act of ...


Ana Maria Rybko

(b Rome, 1538; d Rome, Oct 26, 1605).

Italian sculptor of Spanish descent. Although an accomplished artist, he has been neglected and at times categorically condemned by critics. His few surviving works reveal the influence both of Classical models, to which he was passionately devoted, and of the Florentine manner derived from Michelangelo. He studied with the Florentine Vincenzo de’ Rossi, who was in Rome between 1546 and 1560, and at first worked on restorations and adaptations of antique sculptures. Around 1572 he was listed among the members of the Congregazione dei Virtuosi al Pantheon. His period of greatest creative productivity began in the last years of the pontificate of Pope Gregory XIII. In 1583 he carved the Pope’s coat of arms in the two large marble escutcheons for the Collegio del Gesù, the rich curves of which are meticulously carved in the Florentine style of Bartolomeo Ammanati. In 1587–8 he worked with Pietro Paolo Olivieri to complete an ...


Jean van Cleven

(b Ghent, July 26, 1826; d Ghent, Feb 24, 1907).

Belgian architect, writer and restorer. He was the son of a carpenter-builder, and his studies at the Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Ghent under the direction of Louis Joseph Adrien Roelandt, J. Van Hoecke (1803–1862) and Adolphe Pauli were crowned by a first prize in 1855–6. His first works included several designs for houses and a published project for a museum (‘Ontwerp van een Museum van beeldende kunsten’, in Album uitgegeven door hat kunstlievend geselschap der Gentsche Academie (Ghent, 1856)) in the classical taste, as well as work in the Rundbogenstil advocated by his teachers. When Jean-Baptiste-Charles-François Baron Bethune settled in Ghent in 1858, Van Assche became his pupil and collaborator, teaching at the St Luke Schools and becoming a member of the archaeological society, the Gilde de St Thomas et de St Luc. Under Bethune’s influence, from c. 1865 he increasingly developed his own practice as a protagonist of the Gothic Revival movement. His personal interpretation of Bethune’s architectural principles, distinguished by a preference for a strong visual impact sometimes resulting in a striking constructional polychromy, are evident in St Joseph’s (...


Stefano Della Torre

(b Milan, Dec 29, 1828; d Milan, April 16, 1877).

Italian architect. He studied engineering at Pavia and architecture at the Accademia di Belle Arti, Milan, qualifying as an architectural engineer in 1853. In 1854 he entered the Ufficio delle Pubbliche Costruzioni, Milan, where, after 1858, he worked with Giacomo Tazzini (1785–1861), from whom he took over as Ispettore dei Palazzi di Corte in 1863. In 1861, on Tazzini’s advice, Vandoni was appointed Architetto della Fabbrica del Duomo di Milano and held both positions until his death. As Ispettore dei Palazzi di Corte, Vandoni was responsible for the furnishing and maintenance of the Palazzo Reale in Milan, the Villa Reale in Monza and the castle of Cassano Magnago, Lombardy. He was also responsible for minor alterations to the fabric of these buildings. As Architetto della Fabrica del Duomo, he directed the continuation of work on the crowning of the flanks of the building, the restoration of the stained glass and began the south-east turret containing the bells which was completed after his death by Paolo Cesa Bianchi. He designed the façade of the church at Lomagna, Lombardy, and between ...


Alberto Villar Movellán

(b Burgos, 1843; d Madrid, July 31, 1923).

Spanish architect and art historian. He was one of the best-qualified exponents of late 19th-century architecture in Spain. Although his training had a historical bias, he was influenced by contemporary developments in European architecture. His work had links with that of the Belgian Joseph Poelaert, and he also assimilated aspects of the aesthetic of John Ruskin, introducing into his architecture red brick, with its various hues, and strips of polychrome ceramic, generally fabricated by Daniel Zuloaga (1852–1921). He was also acquainted with the Dutch architecture of the school of P. J. H. Cuypers. He drew extraordinarily well, and it was for this reason that he took part in the expedition to the Far East of the frigate Arapiles. His merits were soon recognized, and he was to become the favourite architect for state projects. In 1881 he obtained the chair of history of art in the Escuela de Arquitectura in Madrid, becoming a director of this centre from ...


Françoise Bercé

(b Paris, Jan 27, 1814; d Lausanne, Sept 17, 1879).

French architect, restorer, designer and writer. He is one of the few architects whose name is known to the general public in France, although his fame as a restorer of medieval buildings is often accompanied by a somewhat unflattering critical judgement: a restoration ‘à la Viollet-le-Duc’ is usually understood to be abusive in terms of the original work and is often confused with the type of eclectic architecture that he himself particularly disliked. Through his published writings, particularly his Dictionnaire raisonné de l’architecture française du XIe au XVIe siècle (1854–68), he made a substantial contribution to contemporary knowledge of medieval buildings. In addition, his writings and theories had an enormous impact on attitudes to restoration ( see Architectural conservation and restoration ) and on contemporary design, not only for the Gothic Revival movement but also in the development of rationalism, providing an important stimulus to new movements in architecture both in France and abroad (...


Evita Arapoglou

(b Athens, June 23, 1843; d Athens, Dec 1908).

Greek sculptor. He studied at the School of Fine Arts in Athens and at the Accademia di S Luca in Rome. His works were based on classical academic principles, except perhaps for the controversial Spirit of Copernicus (1877; Athens, N.G.), which was greatly criticized for its unorthodox composition. Influenced by the school of Canova (Vroutos’s Athenian studio was full of plaster copies and photographs of Canova’s works), his sculpture remained conservatively classicist throughout his career, both in his funerary monuments (e.g. tomb of Papadakis, 1881; Athens, First Cemetery) and his lighter genre sculptures (e.g. Eros Breaking his Bow, c. 1900; Athens, Záppeion). Vroutos taught sculpture at the School of Fine Arts and was also involved in the restoration of ancient Greek sculpture.

S. Lydakes: E ellenes glyptes [The Greek sculptors] (Athens, 1981), pp. 60–63, 297 C. Christou and M. Koumvakali-Anastasiadi: Modern Greek Sculpture, 1800–1940 (Athens, 1982), pp. 51–2, 178–80...


Tracy Fitzpatrick

( New York )

The Whitney Museum of American Art, located in New York City, is “dedicated to collecting, preserving, interpreting, and exhibiting American art.” It was founded by Whitney family §(1) in 1930 and opened to the public in the fall of the following year. Whitney, a sculptor and collector, began exhibiting contemporary, avant-garde art in her art studio in Greenwich Village on West 4th Street in 1912. Six years later, she moved her studio to new quarters on West 8th Street and formally established the Whitney Studio Club. The Club served not only as an exhibition space, but also as a salon for its members. In 1929, Whitney revamped the Club, calling it the Whitney Studio Galleries and continuing to exhibit avant-garde art.

While running these spaces and with help from Juliana Force, who directed the Whitney Studio Galleries and became the first director of the Whitney Museum of American Art, Whitney began collecting avant-garde art by American modernists. In particular, she amassed a large body of work by artists of “the Eight,” also known as the ...


Olgierd Czerner

(b Urdomin, March 16, 1881; d Warsaw, Oct 26, 1958).

Polish architect and building restorer . He began his studies in Warsaw (1899) continuing them in L’vov (now L’viv, Ukraine) in 1900–01 and Munich (1901–4), and he was active in socialist politics until 1919. His friendship with the eminent writer Stefan Żeromski (1864–1925) was an important inspiration in his work. His early buildings reflected the neo-vernacular Zakopane style created by his uncle, Stanisław Witkiewicz (1851–1915), for example the Villa Na Antałówce (1904), Zakopane, and a house and study for Żeromski (1905), Nałȩczów, near Puławy. Between 1906 and 1925 Witkiewicz-Koszczyc lived in Nałȩczów and Kazimierz Dolny, with a period (1916–18) in Moscow and Mińsk Litewski (now Minsk, Belarus). During this time he designed and built a variety of different provincial buildings, using an original combination of forms well suited to the landscape of the Lublin hills. He used natural, undressed stone or brick, roofs with broken gables and eaves sometimes reaching the ground (influenced by his German studies), with dormer windows and small columns with exaggerated entasis. Examples include a nursery school in Nałȩczów (...


(b Feldhausen, Dec 31, 1893; d Cologne, May 25, 1978).

German art historian and conservator . He wrote his dissertation in Bonn on Early Renaissance art on the Lower Rhine, and from 1928 to 1951 he was in charge of conservation for the Rhineland. In 1933 he began teaching the care of monuments and Rhenish art at the Universität Bonn, where he was appointed honorary professor in 1939. During World War II Metternich was responsible for the protection of movable works of art in the Rhineland and in France, where he did extremely valuable work pursuant to the Hague Convention. After 1950 he worked for the West German Foreign Office to recover art works that had been taken abroad, and from 1952 to 1962 he was Director of the Bibliotheca Hertziana in Rome. Metternich’s scholarly work was dedicated to the art of the Rhineland. His special interests included Romanesque architecture and murals, such as Bonn Minster, Schwarzrheindorf, St Georg and St Aposteln in Cologne; Gothic churches such as Cologne Cathedral; Renaissance buildings (for example Schloss Rheydt) and such Baroque estates as Schloss Brühl. At the Bibliotheca Hertziana he devoted himself to architecture in Rome from the 15th to the 18th century and especially to problems concerning Bramante and the building of St Peter’s, Rome....


(b Lidköping, Nov 21, 1831; d Stockholm, 1907).

Swedish architect and restorer . After gaining early experience as a builder, he studied at the Academy of Arts from 1853 to 1859 and then worked for his former teacher F. W. Scholander. In 1860 Zettervall was appointed cathedral architect at Lund, where he remained in charge of the restoration works for the following 20 years. The restoration of the Romanesque cathedral at Lund necessitated the structural rebuilding of large parts of the edifice, especially the west front, with its twin towers. Zettervall followed the fashion of the time in valuing stylistic accuracy and uniformity above archaeological considerations. From a historical perspective his work was destructive, but as architecture Lund Cathedral is a tour de force. In the 1880s and 1890s the Gothic cathedrals of Skara and Uppsala were restored along the same lines, the interiors being particularly successful. Despite his involvement in these projects, Zettervall was not a true ecclesiologist so much as a gifted and versatile architect. While he was working at Lund, for example, he also designed a series of new or rebuilt churches and public buildings. For the complete rebuilding of Malmö Town Hall (...