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Joan Isobel Friedman, Ernő Marosi, Patrick M. de Winter, A. Demarquay Rook and Christian de Mérindol

French dynasty of rulers, patrons, and collectors. The first House of Anjou (see §I below) was founded by Charles of Anjou (1266–85) and was active mainly in Italy, notably as kings of Naples and Jerusalem. Members of the second House of Anjou (see §II below) lost Naples to the house of Aragon, House of family but continued to style themselves as kings of Naples, Sicily, and Jerusalem until the death of Charles, 5th Duke of Anjou, in 1481, when the titular kingdom passed to Louis XI, King of France.

L’Europe des Anjou: aventure des princes Angevins du XIIIe au XVe siècle (exh. cat. by S. Palmieri and others, Fontevrault Abbay, 2001) [includes several lengthy sections on Angevin Naples]

Joan Isobel Friedman

In 1266 Charles of Anjou (1226–85), brother of Louis IX, King of France (see Capet family, §2), defeated Manfred, King of Naples and Sicily (...

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Michel Hochmann

Italian family of patrons. Probably from Brussels originally, the d’Anna family were wealthy merchants who settled in Venice at the beginning of the 16th century. Martin [Martino] d’Anna (b ?1475; d Venice, 11 Nov 1556) acquired Venetian citizenship in 1545. He bought a palace on the Grand Canal from Lodovico Talenti on 7 December 1538 (Venice, Archv Stato, Notarile atti, Ba. 3258, fols 126–8). Talenti, not Martin, must have commissioned from Pordenone the famous frescoes (c. 1534; destr., known from prints) that decorated the building’s façade. Martin continued embellishing this residence, and in his will (1553, Venice, Archv Stato, Notarile testamenti, Ba. 1218/x42) he requested that his heirs neither destroy nor disperse the decorations and furniture.

The sons of Martin d’Anna, Daniele (d Venice, 26 Dec 1579) and Giovanni (d 1580), were also important patrons. They asked Leone Leoni to engrave several medals for them (e.g. portrait medals ...

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Olivier Michel

[Gondrin, Antoine-Louis de Pardaillan de]

(b Paris, Nov 5, 1665; d Paris, Nov 2, 1736).

French administrator and patron. He was the son of the Marquis de Montespan, whose wife, Françoise Athénais de Mortemart, became one of the mistresses of Louis XIV. During the prominence of her successor Mme de Maintenon, d’Antin pursued an undistinguished military career, and it was only after his mother’s death in 1707 that his gifts as a courtier were rewarded with the post of governor of the Orléanais and, in 1708, with that of Directeur-Général des Bâtiments du Roi (see Maison du Roi, §II). His predecessor, Jules Hardouin Mansart, had been termed Surintendant; d’Antin held this amplified title from 1716 to 1726, but thereafter returned to his initial designation. His dukedom was from 1710. He inherited the châteaux of Bellegarde (Loiret), Oiron (Deux-Sèvres) and Petit-Bourg near Fontainebleau, and considerably embellished them.

As Directeur-Général, d’Antin’s authority extended over all artists nominally attached to the royal household, over the Imprimerie Royale, the Mint, the Gobelins, the Observatoire and all the academies except the Académie des Sciences. During the last years of Louis XIV financial difficulties inhibited state patronage of the arts, but after his death in ...

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Anne Hagopian van Buren

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Jeffrey Chipps Smith

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Tiziana Mancini

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[Akkoyunlu]

Islamic dynasty that ruled in eastern Anatolia, Iran and Iraq from 1378 to 1508. The Aqqoyunlu (Turk.: ‘White Sheep’) were a group of Sunni Turkomans that rose to power by supporting Timur, eponym of the Timurid dynasty, against the Ottomans in western Anatolia. By allying with Timur, the first Aqqoyunlu ruler Qara Yülük (who had a Greek mother and married a Byzantine princess) was granted the region of Diyar Bakr in south-eastern Anatolia. In 1467 the Aqqoyunlu ruler Uzun Hasan (reg 1453–78) killed the Qaraqoyunlu leader Jahanshah in battle and moved the capital from Amid (now Diyarbakır in Turkey) to Tabriz in Iran. The Aqqoyunlu then took control of Azerbaijan and, briefly, much of Iraq and northern Iran. They became a power of international significance and opened diplomatic relations with Venice. The position of the Aqqoyunlu was not seriously threatened under Uzun Hasan’s son Ya‛qub (reg 1478–90), but conflicts among his successors allowed Isma‛il I, the founder of the ...

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Joan Isobel Friedman and A. Bustamante García

Spanish dynasty of rulers, patrons and collectors, active in Italy. The county of Aragon was established as a kingdom in 1035 under Ramiro I (reg 1035–63), son of Sancho III the Great, King of Navarre (reg 1000–35). In the 13th century James I the Conqueror, King of Aragon (reg 1213–76), extended the kingdom by taking control of Valencia and the Balearic islands. His son, Peter III, King of Aragon (reg 1276–85), also became King of Sicily in 1282, following a revolt against the rule of the House of Anjou (see Anjou, House of family). Separate branches of the Aragonese dynasty, which included (1) Peter IV, King of Aragon (reg 1336–87), ruled the two kingdoms until 1409, when Martin, King of Aragon (reg 1395–1410), succeeded to the kingdom of Sicily. On his death in 1410 both kingdoms were given to his nephew, Ferdinand (...

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Mercedes Agueda

[Abarca de Bolea, Pedro Pablo]

(b Sietano, Aug 1, 1719; d Epila, Jan 9, 1798).

Spanish statesman and patron. He belonged to a noble Aragonese family and received a military education. Philip V made him an infantry colonel at an early age; he took part in the Italian campaign (1743–6) and was promoted to field marshal by Ferdinand VI. In 1755 he was first appointed ambassador to Lisbon and was then sent by the Bourbon Charles III as ambassador to Poland. In 1762 he was recalled to Madrid, where he held various political offices such as President of the Council of Castile. He was hostile to the Jesuits, who were expelled from Spain in 1767. In the role of enlightened politician, Aranda reformed military regulations (Ordenazas Militares) and in 1767 he re-established public events, such as the Carnival, which had previously been forbidden. In 1770 he wrote the national anthem.

In 1773, then head of the Aragonese party, he was removed from domestic politics by the minister, the Conde de Floridablanca, José Monino, and was appointed ambassador to Paris (...

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Marcus Burke

(bapt Madrid, March 1, 1607; d after 1678).

Spanish collector and patron. He was a court functionary closely connected with commerce in precious objects, silver, gold and jewellery. His interesting picture collection indicates his decidedly Italianate taste and connoisseurship. It grew from a modest but select group of works in 1643 to a large collection in 1664 of tapestries, jewellery, objets d’art and over 200 paintings, including Diego de Velázquez’s ‘The Weavers’ (Fable of Arachne) (c. 1657; Madrid, Prado), first recorded in an inventory of Arce’s collection in 1664, and a Holy Trinity by Jusepe de Ribera (possibly the painting of 1632–6; Madrid, Prado). Arce was also a patron of the Italo-Spanish painter Angelo Nardi (he had five to eight works by 1657).

The extensive documents of Arce’s financial affairs offer a glimpse into Spanish middle-class life in the 17th century. Included are matters relating to his custody of the children of his first wife by a previous marriage; the elaborate arrangements separating his estate from those of his two wives, their children by him and by previous husbands, and other relatives; and the attempts of his son to enter the ranks of the lesser aristocracy....

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Giorgio Tabarroni

Italian family of patrons and collectors. They were one of the wealthiest and most celebrated patrician families of Milan. The earliest records of them date from 1228, when they made lavish donations to the monastery of Chiaravalle, near Milan. Giuseppe Archinto (i) (d 1476), Chancellor under Duke Galeazzo Maria Sforza (reg 1466–76), added to the family’s wealth. His grandson Francesco Archinto (d 1551), a jurist, was the favoured commissary of Louis XII in the area of Chiavenna; a portrait of him, preserved by the family, is attributed to Leonardo da Vinci. Francesco’s cousin Filippo Archinto (1500–58) was appointed Senator by Duke Francesco Maria Sforza and in 1530 represented Milan at the coronation of the Emperor Charles V in Bologna. Filippo held various Imperial posts, including that of Ambassador to Rome, where Pope Paul III ordained him Bishop. In 1566 the Pope appointed him Archbishop of Milan, in which capacity his portrait (...