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Gordon Campbell

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Gordon Campbell

American pottery manufactory in Baltimore, MD, founded in 1846 by Edwin Bennett, a Staffordshire potter, and his brother William. The company was known as Bennett & Brothers and in 1890 was incorporated as the Edwin Bennett Pottery Company. It closed in 1936. The early products were household wares with a brown glaze (known in America as Rockingham ware) and jugs of biscuit porcelain resembling Parian ware, but with a blue or sage-green ground and white decorations. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1840; d 1907).

Anglo-American potter. He was born in Staffordshire and as a young man worked for Doulton, where he developed a distinctive method of underglaze painting. In 1877 he emigrated to New York, where he established a studio; at first he imported English biscuit clay, but then developed his own compound. His pottery, in which he favoured Arts and Crafts styles or Islamic styles, was distributed through Tiffany & Co. Examples of his work at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, include a vase dated ...

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Giulio V. Blanc

(b Havana, Sept 3, 1914; d Westchester, Oct 30, 2008).

Cuban painter, ceramicist and printmaker. He studied at the Academia de S Alejandro in Havana (early 1930s) and at the Academia de S Carlos in Mexico City (1938), where he also became familiar with the work of the muralists. He had his first one-man exhibition at the Lyceum in Havana in 1942.

Bermúdez shared with many of his contemporaries an interest in Cuban realities and themes painted in a manner that was in keeping with 20th-century art movements. His work from the 1940s is characterized by popular Cuban scenes and types depicted in an almost caricatural, naive style with loud tropical colours (e.g. The Balcony, 1941; New York, MOMA).

In the 1950s Bermúdez abandoned the folkloric themes and tropical voluptuousness of his earlier paintings, instead depicting elongated, barely human, Byzantine-like figures. The most accessible of these paintings are of acrobats and musicians. In 1967 Bermúdez left Cuba for political reasons and settled in San Juan, Puerto Rico. There he continued to evolve metallic colour harmonies and surrealistic imagery including clocks, ladders and turbaned figures in his paintings. He also produced murals and lithographs, and his best-known print is the silkscreen entitled ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

German centre of ceramics production.The term ‘Bernburg Pottery’ is used to describe both Prehistoric pottery made in Thuringia c. 3000 bc, and the product of two faience factories that flourished in the 18th century. The first operated from c. 1725 to c. 1775, and produced blue-and-white wares (e.g. chinoiserie vase, ...

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Gordon Campbell

(fl 1566–89).

Italian potter. He was born in Ascanio and worked in Faenza, initially with Virgiliotto Calamelli, from whose widow he bought the workshop in 1570. Bettisi made huge maiolica services, including one of several hundred pieces made for Albert V of Bavaria in 1576; there is a broad-rimmed bowl from this service in Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. His wares and those of his workshop are marked ‘Don Pino’....

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Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(b Gotha, Dec 27, 1725; d Vienna, March 23, 1806).

German sculptor, painter and architect. He was the son of a court gardener who worked first in Gotha and then in Württemberg. He was originally intended to become an architect; in 1747 Duke Charles-Eugene of Württemberg sent him to train in Paris where, under the influence of painters such as Charles-Joseph Natoire and François Boucher, he turned to painting. The eight-year period of study in Rome that followed prompted Beyer to devote himself to sculpture, as he was impressed by antique works of sculpture and was also influenced by his close contacts with Johann Joachim Winckelmann and his circle. He also served an apprenticeship with Filippo della Valle, one of the main representatives of the Neo-classical tendency in sculpture. In 1759 Beyer returned to Germany, to take part in the decoration of Charles-Eugene’s Neues Schloss in Stuttgart.

In Stuttgart Beyer made an important contribution to the founding and improvement of facilities for the training of artists, notably at the Akademie, and to manufacture in the field of arts and crafts, particularly at the ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Biancho]

Type of maiolica covered with a thick white glaze. Bianchi ware was often extravagantly shaped and pierced but tended to be lightly decorated, usually in blue and orange. The decorative technique was known as compendiario (It.: ‘perfunctory’) and characteristically consisted of boldly drawn figures which left most of the glazed surface untouched. It was introduced in the Faenza potteries in the 1540s but was eventually produced all over Europe. The most prominent Faenza manufacturers of ...

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Gordon Campbell

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Bidet  

Gordon Campbell

Small washing basin formerly used solely for feminine hygiene. The bidet originated in France, c. 1710, and was initially a metal basin on a walnut stand; later basins were often porcelain, and stands sometimes took the form of chairs. In 1750 the first bidet with an upward water spray (...

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Hélène Guéné-Loyer

(b Mer, nr Blois, Nov 5, 1862; d Paris, 1927).

French ceramics manufacturer. He was initially a physics and chemistry teacher and in 1889 visited the Exposition Universelle in Paris, where he saw Chinese porcelain with opaque glazes that enhanced the ground colours and emphasized the forms of the body. He transferred this technique to stoneware, a less expensive material that has the advantage of being able to withstand great variations of temperature when fired. In this way, with one type of ceramic body, it is possible to vary the degree to which enamels are fused in order to obtain dull, oily or crystalline finishes in the greatest possible variation of colours.

Bigot exhibited his work in the Salons from 1894 and through Siegfried Bing in 1897. In 1900 he won a major prize at the Exposition Universelle, for which he made a frieze of animals in low relief, after the design by the sculptor Paul Jouve (b 1880...

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John Mawer

(b Derby, bapt Oct 12, 1758; d Coalport, Jan 16, 1828).

English ceramic artist and porcelain manufacturer. In 1774 he was apprenticed to William Duesbury at the Derby porcelain factory, where his father, William Billingsley (d 1770), was a flower painter. He became one of their chief flower painters and some ten years later developed a new, soft, naturalistic style of painting flower petals on ceramics that came to be widely, though poorly, imitated at other English factories. His innovative technique involved painting with a heavily loaded brush, and then wiping away much of the paint with a virtually dry brush to produce more delicate colours and highlights (e.g. two-handled tray, c. 1790; Derby, Mus. & A.G.). Though particularly famous for his ‘Billingsley roses’, he also painted landscapes, buildings and other botanical subjects. In 1795 he helped John Coke (1776–1841) to set up a porcelain factory at Pinxton, Derbys. By 1799 he was working as a decorator of blanks, first in Mansfield, then moving in ...

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Gordon Campbell

Danish porcelain factory founded in Copenhagen in 1853 by Frederik Vilhelm Grøndahl, a former employee of Bing & Grøndahl’s only predecessor, the Kongelige Porcelainsfabrik (Royal Copenhagen Porcelain Factory, established 1775); Grøndahl’s partners were the art dealers Jacob Herman and Meyer Herman Bing, whose chain of retail outlets sold the products of the factory. Grøndahl’s two sons later became managers in the company. The company made (and still makes) table and display wares in porcelain and stoneware. Its designers have included the painter Pietro Krohn (1840–1905), who made the ‘Heron’ dinner service (1888); Jean René Gauguin (1881–1961; son of the painter Paul Gauguin), who made figures; Ingeborg Plockross-Irminger (1872–1962), who made statuettes of women and children; Jens Peter Dahl-Jensen (1874–1960), who later started his own factory; and the silversmith Henning Koppel (1918–81), who famously designed for Georg Jensen. The Company has issued Christmas plates annually since ...

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Ellen Paul Denker

(b Worcester, UK, Oct 4, 1857; d Alfred, NY, Dec 4, 1934).

American potter and teacher of English birth. As the son of Richard William Binns (1819–1900), director of the Worcester Royal Porcelain Co. Ltd, he was exposed at an early age to the pottery industry. After holding various positions in the Worcester firm, he resigned. In 1897 he settled in the USA, where he was appointed director of the Technical School of Arts and Sciences in Trenton, NJ, and superintendent of the Ceramic Art Co., also in Trenton. In 1900 he became the first director of the New York College of Clayworking and Ceramics at Alfred University, NY. In this capacity and as a founder-member and officer in the American Ceramic Society, he greatly influenced the development of American ceramics. He frequently contributed articles to Craftsman, Keramic Studio and the Transactions and Journal of the American Ceramic Society, and he was the author of several books. His own technically exquisite stoneware, produced at Alfred, was inspired by early Chinese ceramics and emphasized the interrelationship of classical shape and finely textured glazes. His students included ...

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Gordon Campbell

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Jean Stern

(b Bomen, Austria, Jan 14, 1864; d Pasadena, Feb 5, 1929).

American painter and porcelain painter of Austrian birth. Bischoff began his artistic training at a craft school in his native Bomen. In 1882 he went to Vienna for further training in painting, design and ceramic decoration. He came to the USA in 1885 and obtained employment as a painter in a ceramic factory in New York City. Bischoff moved to Pittsburgh, PA, then to Fostoria, OH, and finally to Dearborn, MI, continuing to work as a porcelain painter. In 1906 he moved his family to the Los Angeles area. Two years later he built a studio–home along the Arroyo Seco in South Pasadena, which included a gallery, ceramic workshop and painting studio. Once in California, Bischoff turned to landscape painting, in addition to continuing his flower paintings and his porcelain work. Through the 1920s, he painted the coastal areas of Monterey and Laguna Beach, the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the desert near Palm Springs. In ...

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Biscuit  

Gordon Campbell

Name given to porcelain and other pottery after having undergone the first firing, and before being glazed, painted, or otherwise embellished. The term is also used to denote the unglazed white porcelain that resembles marble and has been used since the mid-18th century (initially by Jean-Jacques Bachelier) for statuettes and busts....

Article

Gordon Campbell