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Sara Champion

Fortified hilltop site in Dorset, England. It has a long, if discontinuous, history of use as a settlement and ritual centre spanning over 4000 years from the beginning of the Neolithic period to late Roman times in the 4th century ad. However, the most important architecture at the site belongs to the period between 500 bc and ad 50, and the spectacular nature of these Iron Age remains has tended to obscure the significance of the earlier features. Maiden Castle was excavated between 1934 and 1937 by Mortimer Wheeler; testing of his results took place in 1986 and 1987.

The eastern knoll of the hill was first occupied in the mid-4th millennium bc by a Neolithic settlement bounded by a system of ditches. After this settlement had gone out of use, a long mound known as a bank barrow was constructed: running for 546 m from the eastern knoll across the earlier ditches to the western knoll, it is the longest known example of its type. This monument was probably connected with ritual, as two child burials were found near the eastern end. During a gap in the occupation of the site a circular structure, probably a Bronze Age (...


Jack Lohman

[formerly Marienburg]

Castle of the Teutonic Knights in northern Poland. The red-brick fortress of Malbork, the headquarters of the Order of Teutonic Knights from 1309 to 1457, is 48 km south-east of Gdańsk, on the right bank of the Nogat River. It is one of the most important architectural complexes in northern Europe.

The Teutonic Knights began building the castle c. 1274 on the western border of their territories, midway between Gdańsk and Elbląg, to complete the strategic network of castles along the Vistula River and the Baltic coast, from Toruń to Kaliningrad. The choice of Malbork reflects the importance that the Order attached to the acquisition of Pomerelia, the land lying on the west bank of the Lower Vistula, as the first step in an attempt to link up its eastern territories with those in the Holy Roman Empire.

The fortress, which was built in several stages, takes the form of three architectural groupings, each separated by a moat and protected by its own fortifications. The Upper Castle is the nucleus of the complex. To its north and set somewhat lower is the Middle Castle, consisting of three wings with the Grand Master’s Palace projecting from it to the west. The Lower Castle, incorporating a series of independent outbuildings, occupies a larger area to the north of the Middle Castle. The three castles are enclosed with the town in a common system of fortifications....


J. F. Morris

[Matsumotojō; Fukashijō; Gakojō; (Goose Lake Castle); Karasujō; (Raven Castle)]

Japanese site in the city of Matsumoto, central Nagano Prefecture. The castle, which was of the hirajiro (‘castle on a plain’) type, was important as an example of Azuchi–Momoyama-period (1568–1600) and Edo-period (1600–1868) architecture. The only surviving original buildings are in the donjon complex, consisting of a main donjon and a lesser donjon (both c. 1590s), a connecting gallery and two turrets (1633–8) adjoined to the main donjon. The complex has been designated a National Treasure. Most of the buildings in the castle were auctioned and demolished in 1872 after the abolition of domainal rule. The donjons were sold for some 235 ryō, but a petition of stay succeeded in preserving them. Repairs were carried out in 1903 by a local preservation society and in 1950–55 by the government. The restoration of 1950–55 used early photographs and other sources to restore 25 sections, primarily windows, staircases, pillars and loopholes....


Marianne Ström

Building serving passengers on urban, mainly underground, railways, comprising entrance, ticket hall, platforms and interchange arrangements. Although some stations are built at ground-level, most are underground in highly congested urban areas. The most noticeable architectural elements are generally therefore the entrances, which range from simple flights of downward steps to buildings resembling Baroque palaces, triumphal arches, classical mansions, vernacular cottages and farmhouses, delicate Art Nouveau kiosks or concrete boxes.

The first metro system was the London Metropolitan Railway, inaugurated on 10 January 1863; its engineer was John Fowler and its architect was John Hargrave Stevens (d 1875). The first electric underground railway was opened in London in 1890 and was soon emulated by other industrialized and congested cities, including Budapest (1896), Glasgow (1896–7), Vienna (1898), Paris (1900), Berlin (1902) and Hamburg (1912). In New York the ‘subway in the sky’, known as the ‘El’ (elevated railway), was inaugurated in ...


C. L. H. Coulson, Sara Champion, Önhan Tunca, Ian M. E. Shaw, F. E. Winter, J. M. C. Bowsher, D. J. Cathcart King, John R. Kenyon, Simon Pepper, Quentin Hughes, W. A. Nelson, Willard B. Robinson, Ian V. Hogg, Yasser Tabbaa, Sheila S. Blair, Jonathan M. Bloom, Howard Crane, Christopher Tadgell, Walter Smith, Paola Mortari Vergara Caffarelli, Tan Tanaka, Son Young Sik, J. C. Moughtin and H. Stanley Loten

Buildings associated with warfare—usually defensive warfare—and political control.

See also Castle.

Military architecture has existed for millennia, ever since men have needed to compete for territory. It follows and tries to anticipate developments in tactics and weaponry, but historically it has also reflected current political organization and social structures. Prehistoric communal strongholds had additional economic and ritual functions; city walls were a defensive response to siegecraft; forts and camps were built for tactical advance and to consolidate military achievement; and in the medieval period the castle symbolized both local control and defensive capability. From the deployment of gunpowder artillery in the late 14th century until the mid-19th century, the design of fortifications responded to the use of ever more powerful artillery and the limitations imposed on an army dependent on horse transport. With the introduction of rifled artillery and motor-driven armoured vehicles, designs again underwent fundamental changes, until military architecture as such was rendered obsolete by the deployment after World War II of guided missiles that could overfly and destroy the most powerful fortifications. Although military architecture is inherently functional and utilitarian, its aesthetic and symbolic aspects are equally significant....


Richard Fawcett, Virginia Jansen, John N. Lupia and Helen Loveday

Group of buildings within which individuals are able to pursue their lives of prayer and self-denial with the moral support afforded by being with like-minded fellows. Although secluded religious communities are found in cultures throughout the world, this article discusses the development of the two principal traditions, Christian and Buddhist.

The earliest Christian monasteries, in Egypt and Palestine, were hardly more than gatherings of separately housed hermits who sought little from each other beyond the knowledge that they were among brethren whose aims were identical with their own. It was perhaps inevitable that the Edict of Milan of ad 313, by which the Church was given official standing within the Roman Empire, should lead to major changes and the beginnings of an organized format for the monastic life, devised c. 320 by St Pachomius and later by St Basil (d 379).

Western monasticism owes the basis of its medieval development to a Rule compiled ...


Martin Kauffmann and Carl D. Sheppard

Cathedral in Sicily that contains the largest surviving ensemble of mosaic decoration in Italy.

It was formerly a Benedictine monastery. The foundation of the monastic house of S Maria Nuova by King William II of Sicily (see Hauteville, House of family, §2) marked the climax of Norman ecclesiastical and artistic patronage on the island. The site chosen was on a hill overlooking Palermo. By a papal bull of 1174 (which refers to the monastery being under construction) the foundation was exempted from episcopal jurisdiction and made subject only to the papacy, which effectively delegated its involvement to the King as Apostolic Legate. In 1176 one hundred Cluniac monks, under the first abbot, Theobald (reg 1176–8), came at William’s invitation from the abbey of Santa Trinità at Cava dei Tirreni near Salerno. In the same year William endowed the abbey with extensive properties, including a large area in west-central Sicily, and exempted it from royal taxation. In ...



[Arab. masjid]

Muslim house of prayer. Islam requires no physical structure for valid prayer, which may be performed anywhere, and a minimal masjid (‘place of prostration’) may consist only of lines marked on the ground, but a building constructed especially for the purpose is preferred, in particular for congregational prayer at Friday noon, the principal weekly service. Such a building may be called a masjid or a jāmi (Turk. cami), from masjid al-jāmi‛ (Pers. masjid-i jāmi‛; Urdu jāmi‛ masjid), meaning ‘congregational mosque’. This term is often rendered in English as ‘great mosque’, or ‘Friday mosque’, a translation of masjid-i juma‛, a Persian variant. The word masjid may also be applied to any place where prayer is appropriate, for example the Masjid al-Haram, the enclosed area around the Ka‛ba in Mecca. Large buildings constructed for other religious purposes, such as madrasas and khānaqāhs, usually contain prayer-halls arranged like free-standing mosques. In cities throughout the Islamic world, the daily needs of the residents of particular quarters have been served by small mosques; they are often reduced versions of the major types of mosque that were most popular locally at the time of their construction. This article is concerned primarily with major structures built specifically for congregational prayer. For further bibliography and information on mosques in other types of buildings, ...


Gordon Campbell

Ornamental glass shade for an oil lamp, designed to be hung in a mosque. It is usually shaped like a vase, with a bulbous body, a flared neck, a flat base, and applied glass loops from which it was suspended. The form emerged in late 13th-century Syria, and many of the finest examples come from Syria and Egypt. From the 16th century mosque lamps were made in Europe (notably Venice) and exported to the Islamic world.

The inscriptions on mosque lamps generally mention the donor and include the opening lines of the ‘Verse of Light’ in the Qur'an (24.35), which likens God, the light of the heavens and the earth, to a glass lamp. Over a dozen mosque lamps from the three reigns of al-Nasir Muhammad (reg 1294–1340 with interruptions) represent the summit of 14th-century enamelled glass. A band of tall script at the neck with blue lettering on a gilded ground decorated with polychrome scrolls, leaves and buds contrasts with another band on the body inscribed with gold letters on a blue ground with scattered gold blossoms. At least 50 lamps inscribed with the Light Verse and the name of Hasan (...


J. M. M. Kylstra-Wielinga

Moated castle situated on the River Vecht in the central Netherlands, built c. 1280. It acted as a defence post for the county of Holland, halting the territorial encroachments of the bishops of Utrecht. Its quadrangular plan, with four corner towers and a fortified entrance (see fig.), is related to such castles as Harlech, built by Edward I of England (see James of St George), and to the bastions built in France during the reign of Philipp II Augustus (reg 1180–1223). Like the older type with a donjon, this variety did not appear in the Netherlands until after 1250. Floris V, Count of Holland (reg 1256–96), the patron of the castle, was influenced by the ideas of Edward I, with whom he was intimately associated, but Muiden also shows significant French influence.

The brick-built castle measures 32×35 m. Of the four corner towers (diam. ...


D. O. Shvidkovsky

[Rus. Novo-Iyerusalimsky Monastyr’]

Russian monastery near Istra, c. 60 km west of Moscow. One of the largest monasteries in Russia, it was founded in 1656 by Nikon, Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia (1652–66), as part of his attempt to reform the Russian Orthodox Church by restoring original Greek practices and architecture. To confirm his belief that true orthodoxy had survived only in Russia, he built in the centre of the monastery a replica (1658–85) of the church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem based on drawings and a wooden model brought from Palestine. The result, known as the cathedral of the Resurrection, was a large rotunda enclosing numerous chapels and the replica, set at the west end of a domed, cross-plan church. A tall bell-tower adjoined the church’s south transept. The rotunda was covered with a stone tent-shaped roof, which collapsed in 1723 and was replaced by a wooden roof. This complex building, though unique in Russian architecture, reflected the mid-17th-century tendency towards the elaboration of architectural forms. The original decoration of white walls and coloured tiles was later replaced by stucco details; between ...


Martin Biddle

[Nonnesuche; Nonesuch]

English 16th-century royal palace (destr.), built by Henry VIII between 1538 and 1547 on the site of the village of Cuddington, near Ewell (Surrey).

Construction began on 22 April 1538, the anniversary of Henry’s accession. The intention to create a nonpareil was there from the start, for the name first appears in the building accounts in June 1538. Although the main structure was probably complete by 1541, decoration continued until at least 1545. The palace was built around two courtyards, the inner one timber-framed to hold the long sequences of external decorations for which Nonsuch was renowned. The decorative scheme, composed of panels of stucco duro set between the wall timbers and framed by borders of carved, gilded slate covering the timbers, extended over the four interior walls, rising from the first floor, where the royal apartments were, to a height of c. 5.5 m. It continued on the east, south and west walls facing the garden, rising ...



Tadeusz Grajewski

Edifice designed for the management, planning, administration and other non-industrial activities of a business or other enterprise. A single building may house the offices of several separate businesses or may be entirely given over to serve as the headquarters of a single organization. In the latter case the office building often takes on a prestigious representative function. The relatively few specialized architectural requirements of the office building, together with the requirement (for communication purposes) for a location on an expensive central urban site, have led to an intimate relation between the development of the office building and that of the Skyscraper, although at the end of the 20th century low-rise complexes were increasingly being built in office parks away from the city centre.

In the Renaissance, the growth of banking and trade began to generate activities resembling those of modern businesses, but buildings designed specifically to serve as offices were rare. One notable example was the ...


M. C. Lacarra Ducay

Former castle–palace of the kings of Navarre in Navarra province, northern Spain. Olite symbolizes the unique character of the Navarre monarchy in the late medieval period, open to Europe through its interests in France and in contact with the other kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. The first castle, designated the ‘palace of the kings of Navarre’ in 13th-century documents, had been laid out at an unknown date on the site of a Roman praetorium of the 1st century ad; only its outer walls survive, with some Roman foundations, now incorporating the Parador de Turismo. Olite served as a residence for the governors during the kings’ long absences in France, but with the accession of the Evreux dynasty (1328) it became a favourite royal seat, owing to its pleasant climate and position in a rich wooded valley with abundant hunting. Queen Joanna II (reg 1328–49) and King Philip III of Evreux (...


Priscilla Boniface

Building for the protection of tender plants, particularly orange trees, in cold weather. By the 18th century the interpretation of the name and function had gradually expanded to include any ‘house’ the purpose of which was to contain plants for display (see also Conservatory). Orangeries were frequently used for promenades. The orange tree was being grown in mainland Europe by the end of the 15th century and in Britain by the end of the 16th century. The first purpose-built orangeries evolved from temporary structures and from garden houses, which were requisitioned to contain orange trees and other tender plants. In cold weather coverings could be manoeuvred over orange trees that were planted outside, but, if they were grown in pots, they were moved to the protective rooms. During the ‘closed season’, in either case, protective wooden shutters allowed some light and air to reach the plants. The temporary Orangery at ...



Stella Nair, Önhan Tunca, E. P. Uphill, Rob Jameson, Thorsten Opper, Janet Delaine, James Stevens Curl, Jonathan M. Bloom, Christopher Tadgell, Roya Marefat, Stanislaus Fung, Chang Kyung-Ho, Bruce A. Coats, Sian E. Jay, J. C. Moughtin and H. Stanley Loten

Official residence of an emperor, king, pope, or other sovereign ruler. The word derives from the Palatine Hill in Rome, where the residence of the Emperor Augustus (reg 27 bcad 14) was sited. This building was later developed as the Palace of the Caesars, covering the entire hill, and the name began to be applied to all other royal and imperial residences, including those of earlier eras. It was also later given to the official dwelling of the archbishop or bishop in a cathedral city and was then extended to any episcopal residence. Subsequently, many princely mansions (e.g. the Belvedere, Vienna) and even ducal seats (e.g. Blenheim Palace, Oxon) came to be described as palaces, while the Italian term palazzo was given to the large private mansions of noble families in Italian cities (see Palazzo). Other large and imposing judicial, executive, or administrative buildings (e.g. the ...



Philancy N. Holder

[It.: ‘palace’]

Italian term originally applied to large or residential buildings but now used more broadly to describe any large secular or urban structure. Although the early medieval Italian palazzo contained residential space, it was primarily civic in purpose, providing the seat of government during the era of the independent city-republics, communes and later rule by individuals. The terms Palazzo Pubblico, Palazzo Comunale, Palazzo del Podestà and Palazzo dei Priori all indicate types of designated government at the time of a particular civic building’s construction. Residential palazzi, on the other hand, are identified by the names of the families who built or remodelled them, as in the Palazzo Rucellai and the Palazzo Medici (later Palazzo Medici–Riccardi; see §2 below).

The architectural characteristics of such medieval civic structures as the Palazzo del Podestà (1255; also known as Palazzo Bargello) in Florence (see Florence, §I, 2) strongly influenced the development of the private palazzo. The massive, fortress-like exteriors, solid, sparsely fenestrated walls and crenellated watch-towers that characterized the medieval palazzo were clear indications of the fierce political climate of the Middle Ages. Until the 15th century, crenellations with rectangular merlons indicated papal or Guelph loyalties, while cleft battlements declared imperial or Ghibelline sympathies. Regardless of allegiance, however, masons throughout Italy built secular structures using identical vernacular building methods, adopting the uncomplicated post-and-lintel bay system. Builders dressed local stone into rusticated blocks for the load-bearing walls. Where stone was not readily available, brick construction predominated....


H. Soukupová

Castle in Moravia, Czech Republic, 25 km north-west of Brno. It was the seat of the Pernštejn family, who at the beginning of the 13th century acquired extensive lands in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, where they built numerous castles and founded a family monastery at Doubravník (before 1231). The castle was first mentioned in 1285; it was positioned on a rocky hill at the end of a long, wooded headland. Protected by steep slopes on three sides, it was accessible only from the north. A large cylindrical tower à bec, curtain walls and the outer walls of the living quarters survive from the 13th-century buildings. The tower faced the anticipated direction of attack and stood behind a protective gabled wall, beneath which was a gate with a drawbridge leading across a moat. The remaining curtain wall was thinner and characterized by visible outer projections. Leading from the cylindrical tower, now six-storey, there was probably a wooden gallery to the first floor of the adjoining domestic wing on the protected south-west side. The ground floor seems to have had three adjacent rooms, although only the outer walls and a pointed, bricked-up portal survive. A deep well is cut in the rock outside the east front....


Susanne Kronbichler-Skacha

[Schloss Salamanca]

Palace in Spittal an der Drau, Carinthia, Austria. It was built as the residence of Gabriel of Salamanca (1489/90–1539), the Spanish chancellor and financier of Ferdinand I, King of Bohemia (later Holy Roman Emperor, reg 1558–64). Gabriel was created Graf von Ortenberg in 1524, and the large palace, intended as the seat of the Salamanca family, was probably begun c. 1533. It took his sons and grandsons about 60 years to complete, but the original design was followed owing to a wooden model (untraced) supplied by the architect and mentioned in Gabriel’s will. The architect is unknown, but he must have been one of the Lombards from the area of Lake Como who were responsible for introducing the Italian Renaissance to northern Europe. There are striking parallels between Schloss Porcia and the contemporary Belvedere (begun 1538) at Prague Castle, by Paolo Stella, although the exterior of Schloss Porcia is a less up-to-date version of an Italian Renaissance palace. It was designed as a cube with three main storeys and an attic, and with circular towers at the north-west and south-east corners. The exterior façades are rather plain, the most notable features being two sets of triple-arched and balconied windows on the first and second floors. The courtyard, however, is unexpectedly splendid, with three storeys of arcades running around three sides of the court. These arcades are adorned with sculptural decoration of rich imagination—although not always of outstanding quality—by local craftsmen. Both stone-carving (e.g. in capitals, doorframes, figural medallions and reliefs) and stucco (e.g. arcade vaults and interior ceilings) were employed; the ground-floor arcade spandrels display emperors’ heads in medallions, with ancient gods, heroes and animals appearing above. Doorframes are richly embellished: one on the third floor, for example, is flanked by columns and has jambs decorated with allegorical and other reliefs. In ...