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Donald F. Easton

[Gk. Ilion; Turk. Hisarlık]

Bronze Age and Classical site on the Asiatic side of the south end of the Dardanelles, north-west Turkey. It was excavated by John Brunton (very briefly, 1855–6), Frank Calvert (1863 and 1865), Heinrich Schliemann (1870–73, 1878–9, 1882, 1890), Wilhelm Dörpfeld (1893–4), and Carl Blegen for the University of Cincinnati (1932–8). In 1983 excavation of Bronze Age Troy resumed under Manfred Korfmann of Tübingen University; Brian Rose of the University of Cincinnati resumed work on Roman levels from 1988 to 2002; his discoveries include a large statue of the Emperor Hadrian found in 1993 and the head of a statue of Augustus found in 1997.

The prehistoric mound and later acropolis, now largely dug away, had c. 15 m of deposit and a diameter of c. 200 m; the lower town, mostly Hellenistic and Roman, covered an area c. 1200×800 m. The sequence of nine ‘cities’ distinguished by Schliemann and Dörpfeld must be understood as a sequence of 9 broad bands within a history of 50 or more building phases. Attention was focused on the site by Schliemann’s contention that it was the Homeric city of Troy. He sought the remains of Priam’s city in the second city of Troy (some 1000 years too early), with its megara and impressive fortifications, and discovered in ...


N. Ezerskaya


(b Tbilisi, Jan 4, 1934).

Georgian decorative artist. He studied (1952–8) at the Academy of Art, Tbilisi, under Ucha Dzhaparidze (1906–91), Iosif Sharleman’ (1880–1957) and Vasily Shukhayev, from whom he gained a feeling for colour and high standards in painting. His works at the academy were primarily decorative landscapes with brilliant and contrasting colours. Tsereteli’s acquaintance with ancient art, in particular with the mosaics of the 5th-century basilica at Pitsunda (Bichvinta), fostered an interest in monumental art. The study of mosaic technique at the studio of Marc Chagall in France helped Tsereteli to revive the traditions of smalto mosaic in Georgian art, and he discovered in it new aesthetic and technical possibilities.

Tsereteli’s smalto work (two- and three-dimensional) is elegant, decorative and festive in spirit. He used pagan and folkloric motifs lavishly, as well as flora and fauna and Georgian ornamental themes, which he developed into colourful compositions. The mosaics covering the wall of the bar and the decorative walls outside the hotel at the resort of Pitsunda (...



Kristyne Loughran

Semi-nomadic pastoralist people of North African Berber origins inhabiting the Sahara Desert, southern Algeria, south-western Libya, Niger, eastern Mali and other adjacent areas. Their language is Tamashegh, and they are nominal Muslims. They are known for their elaborate silver jewellery and leatherwork, their basketry and their woodwork. There are a number of important museum collections of Tuareg art, both in Europe (e.g. Neuchâtel, Mus. Ethnog.; Stuttgart, Linden-Mus.; Offenbach am Main, Dt. Ledermus.; Paris, Mus. Homme) and in Africa (e.g. Niamey, Mus. N. Niger; Algiers, Le Bardo).

The Tuareg are grouped into politically autonomous federations, which may be broadly divided into northern and southern groups. Tuareg class structure comprises noble classes (ihaggaren), tributary classes (imrad) and ex-servile classes (iklan). Marginal classes comprising freedmen include religious leaders (ineslemen) and artisan smiths (inadan). The Tuareg number c. 1,200,000, with c. 500,000 living in ...


Daniel E. Mader

(b Cairo, Egypt, Feb 28, 1935).

American sculptor of English origin. He returned with his family to England in 1937 and studied history at Oxford University from 1955 to 1958 and sculpture in London, at the Central School of Art and Design and at St Martin’s School of Art, from 1959 to 1960. Like Phillip King and other British sculptors who took part in the influential exhibition The New Generation: 1965, in his early work he favoured simple geometric shapes and industrial materials such as fibreglass and sheet metal painted in bright colours. The works that he showed in this exhibition, such as Meru II (fabricated steel, 962×2324×410 mm, 1964; London, Tate), which consists of a series of stepped units rounded on the outside and rectilinear on the inside, bear a superficial resemblance to Minimalist work of the same period. In distinction to the work of Americans such as Donald Judd, however, Tucker suggested an organic development of form and even hinted at narrative, rather than proposing basic geometric forms that could be perceived in their entirety almost at a glance. In the 1970s, with works such as ...


Christine Clark

(b Ismâilîya, Egypt, Jan 18, 1921; d Sydney, Nov 24, 1973).

Australian painter and museum administrator. He studied at Hornsey School of Art, London, and at Kingston School of Art (1937–40). After serving as a fighter pilot in World War II he continued his studies from 1947 to 1949 at the National Art School, East Sydney Technical College. In 1950 he began working as an attendant at the Art Gallery of New South Wales in Sydney but within a year was appointed assistant to the Director. He held this position, retitled Deputy Director in 1957, until his death. He painted all his life, but his career as a painter was overshadowed by his administrative job. He was responsible for the curating and building up of the fine collection of aboriginal and Melanesian art in the Art Gallery of New South Wales.

During his lifetime Tuckson had only two one-man exhibitions, in 1970 and 1973 at the Watters Gallery, Sydney. Influenced by Picasso, Klee, and de Kooning, American Abstract Expressionists and aboriginal art, his art progressed from portrait and figurative studies through to Abstract Expressionist works. It is for these later works that he is admired as one of Australia’s best ...



Jonathan M. Bloom

Islamic dynasty that ruled Egypt and Syria from ad 868 to 905. It was founded by Ahmad ibn Tulun (b Iraq, 835; d Egypt, 10 May 884), son of a high-ranking Turkish slave at the Abbasid court at Samarra’, Iraq. Ahmad received military training there and theological instruction at Tarsus (now in Turkey). He came to the notice of the caliphs, and when his step-father was appointed governor of Egypt in 868 Ahmad went with him as his deputy. He gained control of the financial administration of the country and set up an independent military force, which he used to subdue Syria. In 878 he was formally recognized as governor of both Egypt and Syria. He was the first ruler to secure Egypt’s de facto independence from the Abbasid caliphs. The country prospered under his rule: for the first time in centuries the surplus funds derived from its rich agricultural base were not sent abroad as tribute, but were used to stimulate commerce and industry. In ...


(b Dresden, 1933).

Israeli sculptor, draughtsman and stage designer of German birth. His family left Germany in 1935 to settle in Palestine and there he studied at the Technical School of Tel Aviv until 1949. After serving in the Israeli army he returned to Germany in 1953 to design sets for Bertolt Brecht and the Berliner Ensemble and in 1956 he produced sets for Brecht’s Der gute Mensch von Sezuan. In 1957 he designed theatre sets in the Netherlands, Germany and Israel, by which time he was sculpting in iron, creating works such as Chariot (1956; see 1980 exh. cat.). He had his first one-man show in 1956 at the Santee Landwer Gallery in Amsterdam. In the 1960s he largely used bronze and iron to make his sculptures and assemblages, often incorporating weapon parts into them, as in Aggression (1964; see 1967 exh. cat., pl. 55). Other works of this period are similarly disturbing, such as ...




Capital city of Tunisia. The site, between a salt lake and a lagoon bordering the Gulf of Tunis, was first settled in the 9th century bc. In 146 bc during the Third Punic War it was destroyed along with nearby Carthage but later prospered under Roman rule. After the Muslim conquest in the 7th century ad and the founding of Kairouan, Tunis became second city of the region. The Zaytuna (‘Olive tree’) Mosque, founded in 732, was rebuilt between 856 and 864 by Abu Ibrahim Ahmad, sixth ruler of the Aghlabid dynasty (reg 800–909; see Islamic art, §II, 4(iii)). The prayer-hall has 15 aisles perpendicular to the qibla; the wide central aisle is surmounted by two cupolas, a gadrooned one (864) over the bay before the mihrab and another with polychrome decoration (11th century) facing the court. The trapezoidal court was lined at a later date with an arcaded gallery, and the square minaret at the north-west corner is a 19th-century rebuilding of a 13th-century original. An ablution facility was added under the Hafsids (...


[Al-Jumhūriyyah al-Tūnusiyyah; Tūnis]

Country in North Africa with its capital at Tunis. It has an area of c. 163,600 sq. km, extending from the south shore of the Mediterranean Sea to the Sahara, and it is bordered to the west by Algeria and to the south-east by Libya. The coastal region and fertile plain of the Mejerda River are the most populous; the high plateau of the Tell and the eastern end of the Atlas range descend in the south to an area of salt flats and the sub-Saharan region. Tunisia’s geographical position has kept it constantly at the centre of Mediterranean history, with a cultural legacy that is a mixture of Berber, Punic, Roman, Arab, Byzantine, Spanish, Ottoman and French influences. Most of the population (10,102,000, 2005 estimate) is Arab, with a small percentage of Berber origin; the rest are French and Italian. The majority are Sunni Muslim, and there are Jewish and Christian minorities. Its main exports are phosphates, chemicals, textiles, crude oil, fish, olive oil and fruit, and there is a growing manufacturing sector; in the early 1990s tourism and remittances sent by migrant workers could not restrain Tunisia’s mounting debts. This article covers the art produced in the country from the late 19th century. For its earlier history ...


Marlia Mundell Mango

[Turk. Mazi Dağ; Mt Masius, Mt Izla]

Plateau in south-eastern Turkey, in what was northern Mesopotamia, to the south and west of the Tigris River between Diyarbakır (anc. Amida) and Nusaybin (anc. Nisibisا). The Syriac name Tur ‛Abdin means ‘the mountain of the servants (of God)’. It is a rural area noted for its Early Christian and medieval architecture and for its medieval illuminated manuscripts. From c. ad 300 onwards its culture was influenced by that of the surrounding and nearby cities of Amida, Nisibis, Dara (now Oğuz), Resh‛aina (Theodosiopolis), Martyropolis (now Silvan), Constantina (now Viranşehir) and the more distant city of Edessa (now Urfa; see Early Christian and Byzantine art, §II, 2, (i), (d)). The nearest large city is Mardin, a medieval foundation.

The Tur ‛Abdin preserves many of the churches and monasteries from which it derives its name. Some of these structures, which remain in the hands of Christian, Syriac-speaking communities, still serve their original purpose. Others stand abandoned or lie in ruins; still others entered the archaeological record (...


Nancy Micklewright

[Türkiye Cumhuriyeti]

Republic in the Middle East that lies 95% in Anatolia (Asia) and 5% in eastern Thrace (Europe), with its capital at Ankara. Turkey has an area of c. 779,452 sq. km, bordered in the west by Bulgaria, Greece and the Aegean Sea, in the south by Iraq, Syria and the Mediterranean Sea, in the north by the Black Sea and in the east by Georgia, Armenia and Iran. The economy is based on agriculture, with a significant growth in industrial output since World War II. The land is rich in minerals, and oil was found in south-east Anatolia in the 1960s. Tourism is an important additional source of revenue. The population of c. 71 million (2007 estimate) is 99% Muslim, the majority being Sunnis. Over 90% of the population has Turkish as its mother tongue. The principal linguistic minorities are the Kurds and Arabs. Kurdish is the mother tongue of ...


S. J. Vernoit

(b Tunis, May 15, 1922).

Tunisian painter. He was educated at the Lycée Carnot in Tunis from 1936 to 1940, participating in his first group exhibition in 1943, and for two months in 1951 attended art courses at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris. In 1956 he received a grant to study at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Rome, returned to Tunis in 1957 and taught drawing at the Lycée Technique Emile Loubet. The same year he also visited China, Central Europe and Russia. In 1959 he visited the USA for the first time, where he attended Columbia University, NY, and discovered the work of contemporary American painters. After 1963 he taught at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Tunis. He visited Nigeria in 1977, South Korea in 1978, and made a second journey to the USA in 1979, where he met George Segal in California. His early paintings were in a naturalistic style, but after his first visit to the USA he reacted against the pictorialism and folkloric representations of the Ecole de Tunis and pioneered abstract painting in Tunisia. Influenced by the work of Jackson Pollock and Mark Rothko, he evolved a style that was characterized by complex colour compositions within linear or grid frameworks. His abstract paintings include ...


T. Kh. Starodub and Jonathan M. Bloom

revised by Sheila S. Blair

Central Asian republic on the east side of the Caspian Sea, bounded by Kazakhstan to the north-west, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the south-east and Iran to the south, where the Kopet Dag Mountains form a geographical barrier (see fig.). The Karakum Desert occupies much of the country and the Amu River constitutes an approximate or actual north-east boundary for much of its length. The capital, Ashkhabad, situated close to the southern border with Iran and on both the Transcaspian Railway and the Karakumskiy Canal, is almost entirely a 20th-century city following a sequence of devastating earthquakes. The country has the world’s fifth-largest reserves of natural gas and substantial oil resources, and since independence in 1991 much of the country’s revenue has been dispersed in grandiose schemes to modernize cities, especially Ashkhabad. As for most of its history Turkmenistan formed part of the wider nomadic and oasis-based culture of Central Asia, both before and after the Islamicization of the region, for the arts of the period prior to ...


Monique Riccardi-Cubitt

French term used to describe artefacts made in Turkey, or in France by Turkish craftsmen, and by derivation the influence on French design of elements from the Byzantine Empire, the Saljuq Islamic period and the Ottoman Empire. Specific motifs, borrowed from the original Turkish carpets, included arabesques or stylized flowers and vegetal scrolls and decorative animal forms—also included within the generic term ‘grotesques’—from the Renaissance onwards. From the Middle Ages inventories and accounts record objects façon de Turquie imported from the East through the Crusades or the Silk route. In the accounts (1316) of Geoffroi de Fleuri, treasurer to King Philippe V of France, ‘11 cloths of Turkey’ were noted, and in 1471 the inventory of the château of Angers records a wooden spoon and a cushion ‘à la façon de Turquie’. In the 16th century Turkish textiles were highly prized, and Turkish craftsmen were employed in Paris to embroider cloth for ladies’ dresses: in ...


Marianne Eaton-Krauss


(reg c. 1332–c. 1323 bc). Ancient Egyptian king of the late 18th Dynasty. His virtually intact Theban tomb (numbered KV 62) was discovered at the Valley of the Kings, in 1922, by Howard Carter. The art of Tutankhamun’s reign epitomizes the immediate post-Amarna style. The significance of his tomb’s contents (Cairo, Egyp. Mus.) for the cultural history of Ancient Egypt is still largely unstudied. Few of these artefacts—ranging from chariots to canopic vases—have been dealt with as works of art, and many are characterized by excessively ambitious design because of attempts to incorporate a plethora of religious symbols into the structure of a single item, a tendency particularly evident in the jewellery and the ceremonial calcite vessels. The technical precision evinced in the execution of these designs is, however, generally high, as Aldred has demonstrated for the gold work (see fig.).

Tutankhamun was probably born in el-Amarna (the city founded by ...


Peter F. Dorman


(reg c. 1479–c. 1426 bc). Ancient Egyptian ruler and patron of the 18th Dynasty. The long reign of Tuthmosis III can be viewed as both a retrospective and a formative period for Egyptian art and architecture of the New Kingdom, a period in which artists endeavoured both to preserve the standards of the past and to experiment with novel ideas. One of the greatest military figures of Egyptian history, Tuthmosis III passed the first half of his reign under the shadow of his stepmother and aunt, Hatshepsut (reg c. 1479–c. 1458 bc). He succeeded his father, Tuthmosis II (reg c. 1482–c. 1479 bc), at a young age, and although monuments such as the temple of Semna in Nubia were dedicated in his name during these early years, the management of affairs of state was largely in the hands of Hatshepsut acting as queen regent. Throughout his co-regency with Hatshepsut, Tuthmosis was accorded secondary (and occasionally equal) mention on royal and private monuments, and it is only from the beginning of his sole reign, in his regnal year 22, that the policies and, endeavours of the Egyptian throne can be unequivocally ascribed to him....


Yvonne Harpur

Stone-built mastaba, built for the ancient Egyptian official Ty (fl c. 2380 bc), in the Old Kingdom cemetery north of the Step Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara. Ty, the overseer of the sun temples of Neferirkare and Neuserre, served several 5th Dynasty kings, terminating his career within the most prolific period of tomb sculpture in the Saqqara necropolis. During the later Old Kingdom, Ty’s chapel reliefs were imitated by local sculptors and artists working in chapels in southern Egypt. Gradually, however, the superstructure was engulfed by sand and was thus preserved until its discovery in 1860 by the French archaeologist Auguste Mariette.

The tomb incorporates a multi-roomed chapel, burial shafts and a doorless serdab enclosing a life-size statue of the deceased (Cairo, Egyp. Mus., CG 20). The high walls of the chapel are decorated with raised reliefs (see fig.), many of which are delicately carved illustrations of outdoor activities (such as fishing, fowling and harvesting crops) and symbolic scenes, elaborated by hieroglyphic inscriptions. These are arranged in narrow, horizontal registers, usually before large representations of the tomb owner accompanied by his family or retinue. Some of the reliefs were left unpainted, but others retain traces of pigment, especially red-brown, black, green and yellow against a light ochre background wash. In every room the quality of sculpture is of a consistently high standard. Nevertheless, it is the sheer variety of detail in the scenes and inscriptions and the inventiveness of subject-matter and composition that have earned the chapel its reputation as a masterpiece of ancient Egyptian art....



Nina Jidejian

[Gr. Tyrus; Arab. Sur]

Ancient city in south Lebanon, c. 30 km south of Sidon, which flourished as one of the leading centres of the Phoenicians (see Phoenician). It was originally an island fortress facing Palaetyros (now Tell el-Rashidiyeh). In 332 bc, after an unsuccessful siege of seven months, Alexander the Great joined the island to the mainland with a causeway, thus turning Tyre into a peninsula. The history of the city spans more than 4000 years. The site was first excavated in 1860 by Ernest Renan, and again briefly in 1903; French expeditions surveyed it in 1921 and 1934–6, and since 1947 excavations have been directed by Maurice Chébab. Most of the finds are in the Louvre in Paris and the Musée National in Beirut.

Excavations have revealed little of the ancient city, but in the first half of the 1st millennium bc the skill of its craftsmen was recorded in the Bible (I Kings 5:18; 7:13–45). The magnificent remains of Roman and Byzantine Tyre, however, prove that the city deserved the title ‘Metropolis of Phoenicia’. A splendid avenue bordered with cipollino marble columns and paved with mosaic leads to the southern port. Other remains include a palaestra bordered with grey granite columns from Aswan in Upper Egypt, baths, a rectangular construction with five tiers of steps used for festivals, and cisterns for the flourishing purple dye industry. A monumental archway 20 m high was raised over the principal road leading into Tyre. The city’s aqueduct ran perpendicularly to the road. On both sides spread a vast Roman-Byzantine necropolis, which has yielded about 300 sarcophagi (e.g. Beirut, Mus. N.). Several of the sculptured reliefs depict episodes from the ...


John E. Bowlt


(b Aralyk, Armenia [now in Turkey], May 10, 1887; d Vologda, Feb 10, 1942).

Russian artist and watercolourist of Armenian birth. He did not receive a systematic art education, although he studied with Léon Bakst at the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg from 1905 to 1910. He regarded Bakst, a clear influence in the many nude studies of the early and mid-1910s, as one of his principal mentors. During this period Tyrsa also studied and copied church frescoes, sharing in the general rediscovery and reappraisal of the national traditions of Russian culture, including icons, church architecture and the decorative arts. After the October Revolution of 1917 he was successful as a commercial designer, poster artist and book and magazine illustrator, especially for children’s literature. Together with the artists Vladimir Konashevich, Vladimir Lebedev (1891–1967) and Yury Vasnetsov, and the writers Korney Chukovsky (1882–1969) and Samuil Marshak (1887–1964), Tyrsa contributed to the virtual renaissance of the children’s book during the 1920s and early 1930s. He also gave much attention to the Russian classics, illustrating Pushkin’s ...


Joan Oates

[Tell el-Obeid; Tell al-Ma‛abad; Tell al-Abd]

Site near Ur, Iraq. It is noted for the first identification of the prehistoric pottery that bears its name (5th millennium bc) and for a Sumerian temple with elaborate façade ornament (first half of the 3rd millennium bc). The site was excavated by H. R. Hall (1919) and by Leonard Woolley (1923–4). The black painted, greenish buff ceramic now known as Ubaid is one of the most distinctive Mesopotamian wares (see Mesopotamia, §V, 1). The decoration is largely geometric, more elaborate in the earliest phases (6th millennium bc, later stratigraphically identified at nearby Eridu) and tending towards broad, sweeping patterns in its latest phase (c. 4200 bc), by which time the potter’s wheel was in widespread use in Mesopotamia. No stratified material of prehistoric Ubaid date was excavated; the published Ubaid sherds were found either on the surface or out of context in the excavation of the later cemetery at the south end of the tell. These, however, identify the presence of all phases of the prehistoric Ubaid period at the site....