You are looking at  1,141-1,160 of 1,279 results  for:

  • Art of the Middle East/North Africa x
Clear All


R. Krauss

(fl c. 1340 bc).

Egyptian sculptor. Thutmose’s official title was ‘overseer of works’ and, like his contemporary Bek, he is one of the very few Egyptian artists with whom specific works of art can be associated. His name and titles occur in a single inscription (on a horse’s blinker), found on the site of an extensive estate, comprising various ateliers and quarters for craftsmen as well as the owner’s house, at Amarna, (Tell) el-, the capital city of Akhenaten (reg c. 1353–c. 1336 bc). Thutmose’s ownership of a blinker implies that he possessed horses and a chariot, items commensurate with a social status considerably higher than usually presumed for Egyptian craftsmen.

In December 1912 the German excavators of el-Amarna, directed by Ludwig Borchardt, unearthed many pieces of royal and private statuary which had apparently been abandoned in a room of the main building of Thutmose’s estate. Among the finds were the now-famous painted limestone bust of Queen ...


(b Brünn, Moravia [now Brno, Czech Republic], Oct 27, 1894; d Jerusalem, March 1, 1980).

Israeli painter and draughtsman of Moravian birth. She spent her childhood in Vienna, having her first drawing lesson in 1906 and enrolling at an art school under the German painter Ernst Nowak (1851–1919) in 1909. While there she saw the works of Klimt, Schiele and Kokoschka and frequented the Graphische Sammlung Albertina to see the Old Master drawings. She moved to Jerusalem in 1912; here she married an ophthalmic surgeon, Dr Albert Abraham Ticho. From 1917 to 1919 she stayed in Damascus while her husband worked as a medical officer in the Austrian army. She returned to Jerusalem in 1919 where she remained for the rest of her life except for occasional trips to the USA and Europe. In 1932 she was one of the founder-members of the Bezalel Academy of Arts and Crafts in Jerusalem.

Ticho’s art was mainly derived from the landscape of Israel, though she also depicted flowers and figures. For most of her career her landscapes were executed in charcoal or pencil, as in the pencil drawing ...


Rupert L. Chapman and John M. Russell

[Til-Barsib, Kar-Shalmaneser; now Tall al-Aḥmar, Tell Ahmar]

Site in north Syria on the east bank of the River Euphrates, c. 15 km south-east of Carchemish and the modern Syrian–Turkish border. Til Barsip was a walled city of c. 55 ha and a major river ford on the Harran–Mediterranean road. It has a late 3rd-millennium bc necropolis that yielded large amounts of pottery. The city was conquered by the Aramaeans in about the 10th century bc and became the chief town of Bit-Adini (bibl. Beth-eden). In the 9th–7th century bc it was a Neo-Assyrian base with a palace that contained numerous wall paintings. It was excavated by François Thureau-Dangin in 1929–31. Finds are in the Louvre in Paris and the National Museum of Aleppo. In 1988 excavations resumed under Guy Bunnens in order to recover as much information as possible before its inundation by a reservoir.

F. Thureau-Dangin and M. Dunand: Til-Barsib (Paris, 1936) G. Bunnens: ‘Ahmar’, American Journal of Archaeology...



Sheila S. Blair, Jonathan M. Bloom and Basil Gray

Islamic dynasty of rulers and patrons in Iran and western Central Asia that reigned from 1370 to 1506.

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

The Timurids were the last great Islamic dynasty of steppe origin. Their eponym, (1) Timur, rose to power in Transoxiana when the region was under the nominal control of Tughluq Temür (reg 1359–63), last of the Chaghatayid Mongols. In an accelerating succession of conquests, Timur established control of Transoxiana and Iran. Unlike earlier nomad conquerors, he did not aspire to rule the steppe but only the sown lands of the region, where he established governorships and permanent garrisons. He then undertook a series of quick and brilliant campaigns against the Tughluqs in India (1398–9), the Mamluks in Syria (1400–01) and the Ottomans in Anatolia (1402). These campaigns were not designed for annexation but to demonstrate his superior power and to bring booty to his capital. After his death more distant parts of the empire broke away: northern India came under the control of the Lodi and Sayyid dynasties; Syria reverted to the Mamluks and Anatolia to the Ottomans. His descendants ruled only in western Central Asia and on the Iranian plateau, where they struggled to maintain ever-diminishing portions of the realm. Princes of the royal house were sent to provincial centres as governors, a practice that contributed to the amorphous nature of Timurid power....


Mattie Boom

(b The Hague, Oct 17, 1835; d nr Marzuq, North Africa, Aug 1, 1869).

Dutch photographer and explorer. She was an amateur photographer but must have learnt the art from one of the professional photographers who had settled in The Hague, possibly Herman Bückmann (1820–84), the Delboy brothers (fl early 1860s) or the German Maria Hille (1827–?1893). Between 1860 and 1861 Tinne made photographs of mansions, buildings and lanes in The Hague (Leiden, Rijksuniv., and The Hague, Gemeentearchf). They are albumen prints of large format (370×450 mm), made from glass negatives, which were prepared with liquid collodion to be made light-sensitive shortly before use. She had a small carriage made for this purpose, which she kept with her while photographing and in which she could prepare the negatives. Her photographs show that the photographer chose her viewpoint and composition very carefully and spent a lot of thought on the lighting. The light and shade effects in the photographs create almost graphic effects....



Sheila S. Blair

[Arab. ṭirāz]

Inscription band in Islamic textiles, or fabric with an inscription band added in a technique different from the ground weave. Derived from the Persian word for embroidery, the term originally designated any embroidered ornament. In the early Islamic period textiles were often decorated with inscriptions containing good wishes and the caliph’s name and titles, and these fabrics were made up into robes of honour worn by the caliph or bestowed by him as official gifts. Hence the word came to refer to inscription bands done in embroidery or any other technique and the fabrics or garments on which they were found. Tiraz also referred to the workshops in which these fabrics were made, a synecdoche for dār al-ṭirāz (‘factory for tiraz’). In later times the word tiraz was also used to refer to the long bands inscribed with the ruler’s name and titles that were written across the façades of major buildings, as at the ...



S. J. Vernoit

[Tilimsān; Sp. Tremecén]

Town in north-west Algeria. The earliest settlement at the site was called Pomaria by the Romans; by the 8th century ad it was known as Agadir and a mosque (destr.) was erected c. 790. It later merged with a military camp, established in 1082 by the Almoravid Yusuf ibn Tashufin (reg 1061–1106). He founded the congregational mosque, which was enlarged in 1126 by his son ‛Ali (reg 1106–42), to whose patronage the splendid pierced stucco dome over the bay in front of the mihrab is attributed (see Islamic art, §II, 5(iv)(c)). The Almohads (reg 1130–1269) surrounded the town with ramparts and constructed a citadel. Under Muhammad al-Nasir (reg 1199–1214), a tomb was erected for the Andalusian mystic Abu Madyan (Sidi Boumedienne; d 1197) in the suburb of al-‛Ubbad, 2 km south-east of the city. The town, an entrepôt for European and African products and an important religious and cultural centre, became the capital of the Zayyanid dynasty (...


N. Yezerskaya


(b Tiflis [now Tbilisi], Jan 21, 1871; d Tbilisi, June 17, 1953).

Georgian painter. He studied at the trade school in Tiflis and began working as a master metalworker and blacksmith. His drawing ability was such that he was encouraged to study at the Academy of Arts, St Petersburg. He studied in the studio of Il’ya Repin, whose ideas on Critical Realism in painting had an influence on his work. Toidze’s interest in national culture was already perceptible in his diploma work Festival in Mtskheta (1900–01; Tbilisi, Mus. A. Georgia). It is a vivid and colourful portrayal of local types enjoying a traditional festive meal.

Toidze was attracted to images of working people and local types before and after the Revolution of 1917. His painting Revolution (1918; untraced, sketch in Tbilisi, Mus. A. Georgia) is a dramatic portrayal of social upheaval, but in the 1920s he became concerned with depicting the new public and social conditions. The Smiths (early 1920s; Tbilisi, Mus. A. Georgia), in which the twilight interior of the forge is illuminated by a mysterious light pouring from the fire, emphasizes the beauty and energy of the movements and the tense rhythms of the labour of the blacksmiths. During and after World War II, Toidze portrayed the patriotic feelings of the people in such paintings as the ...


(b Istanbul, April 19, 1899; d Istanbul, 1968).

Turkish painter. He spent his childhood in the Hijaz (now Saudi Arabia), where he took painting lessons from a retired Ottoman officer while an apprentice in a workshop. In 1919 Tollu enrolled at the Fine Arts Academy in Istanbul but a year later went to Anatolia to join the forces fighting for Turkish independence, serving until 1923 as a cavalry lieutenant. After leaving the army he worked in a railway workshop in Edirne but in 1926 returned to the Fine Arts Academy in Istanbul. In 1927 he was appointed art teacher at the Teacher Training College in Elazig and Erzincan. He made two trips to France and Germany, where for some two years he studied under such painters as André Lhote, Marcel Gromaire and Hans Hofmann, and such sculptors as Charles Despiau and Marcel Gimond (1894–1961). In Turkey he contributed to the first exhibitions of the Müstakīl Ressamlar ve Heykeltraşlar Birligi (Association of Independent Painters and Sculptors) and was a founder-member of the ...


C. A. Burney

[Turk.: ‘earth castle’; Rusahinili; Toprak Kale]

Site in eastern Turkey on a limestone spur of Mt Zimzim, overlooking modern Van. This Urartian citadel was built by Rusa, probably Rusa II (reg c. 680–c. 640 bc), and first attracted the attention of European scholars in 1877 when bronzes came on to the antiquities market. The ensuing British Museum excavations by Captain Emilius Clayton, Dr Raynolds and Hormuzd Rassam in 1879, although destructive, provided the first archaeological context for the previously published Urartian cuneiform inscriptions from Van. C. Lehmann-Haupt (from 1898), and subsequent Russian and Turkish expeditions followed. The principal collections of finds are in the British Museum in London, the Hermitage in St Petersburg and the Louvre in Paris.

The fortress was naturally defensible on three sides, with water brought, on the evidence of a contemporary inscription, probably from the artificial ‘Lake of Rusa’ (Keşiş-Göl). A rock-cut channel also brought water from a spring almost 2 km away into an enormous rock-hewn hall, with basin, drain and benches. A rock-cut spiral staircase, with 56 steps and lit by three windows, led from there into the fortress. The fortification walls are discernible only by the typically Urartian rock-cut ledges serving as base for the masonry....


Sulejman Dashi


(b Aka, Turkey, 1865; d Tiranë, Feb 11, 1918).

Albanian sculptor, collector and poet of Turkish birth. His family was in exile in Turkey, and he began his studies in the school of Madame Fyres (1878), finishing them in the Sultanie Lycée of Galatasaray in Istanbul (1894). Toptani’s artistic work is intrinsically linked to his efforts in the struggle for Albanian independence. Works such as the bust of ...


Morgan Falconer

(b Jerusalem, May 18, 1945).

Israeli conceptual artist. He emerged as an artist, in the 1970s, without having had any formal education, addressing disparate concerns germane to conceptual art. The series Five Finger Excercise, begun in 1973, looked at the idea of sameness and uniqueness in art by covering canvases with the artist’s fingerprints. Towards the end of the decade he began to settle on a core of related themes and concerns that continued to preoccupy him. Fascinated by Modernist art’s pursuit of formalism, Toren sought metaphors for the way in which art cannibalizes itself; in so doing he has addressed issues relating to representation in art. In the series Neither a Painting nor a Chair (1979–80; see exh. cat. 1990–91, p. 15) Toren used shavings of wood from a demolished chair as pigment for a series of ten paintings reconstituting the chair as an image. A similar series begun in 1983, Of The Times...


(b Italica, eastern Spain, ad 53; reg 98–117; d Selinus, Turkey, 117).

Roman emperor and patron. He was the adopted son of Nerva, whom he succeeded. From ad 101 to 107 he conducted the two Dacian campaigns that are depicted in the spiral reliefs on the great column that bears his name (ded. ad 113; see Rome, §V, 7; see fig.). It was erected as the crowning glory of the great Forum of Trajan, built between ad 107 and 113, which completed the vast urban complex of Imperial Fora (see Rome, §V, 2). Both the arch that marked its entrance and the Basilica Ulpia at its west end—the largest ever constructed in Rome—displayed a wealth of relief sculpture: a long frieze in high relief covered the attic of the basilica for its whole length, probably on all four sides of the building. On the slopes of the Quirinal Hill, which was cut to make room for the forum, Trajan built an extensive and articulated system of shops on two levels, culminating in the great hall (...


[Gr. Trapezous; now Trabzon]

Capital of the former Byzantine empire of the Grand Komnenoi from 1204 to 1461, now the Turkish city of Trabzon. The most easterly port on the south coast of the Black Sea, it gives access to central Asia over the Zigana Pass in the Pontic Mountains, which was used by Xenophon and Marco Polo (c. 1254–1324), among others. It is the natural capital of the well-watered and forested Pontic littoral.

Trebizond was colonized by Milesian Greeks from Sinope in the 7th century bc and remained a free city after its incorporation into the expanded Roman province of Galatia (ad 64). A harbour was built by Hadrian c. ad 151, but the city was sacked by the Ostrogoths in 260. It was supposedly evangelized by St Andrew; St Eugenios, martyred under Diocletian, became its patron saint. Under Roman and later Byzantine rule it also served as a supply station to Satala (now Sadak) for campaigns against the Sasanians and Arabs, and in ...


V. Ya. Petrukhin

Group of Middle Bronze Age archaeological monuments to the south of the Trialeti Range in the valley of the River Tsalka, Georgia. In 1936–40 and 1947 excavations led by Boris A. Kuftin (1892–1953) uncovered large barrows (diam. up to 100 m; first half and middle of the 2nd millennium bc) with various types of burial chamber, including some of massive stone covered by a layer of beams, containing rich funerary artefacts (now Tbilisi, State Mus. Georgia), among them a chariot similar in style to finds at Ur. The pottery consists of large, black-glazed or red-clay vessels with grooved and painted ornament, sometimes in spirals. This spiral design is repeated in filigree on a gold goblet (mound no. 17) that is also decorated with cornelian and paste inlay. Other examples of metalworking show the fusion of local and Ancient Near Eastern traditions, as in a silver goblet (mound no. 17) with two embossed and engraved friezes: the upper frieze shows a procession of 23 masked mummers moving towards a tree, a composition similar to that of Hittite reliefs, while the lower frieze depicts a string of deer and boar. Fragments remain of a small silver bucket with chased images of trees and animals such as goats, chamois, deer and boar, some of them wounded by arrows. The gold and silver vessels and the ceremonial weapons (bronze and silver daggers and a spear) recall similar finds at Ur....


Hayat Salam-Liebich

[Ṭarābulus; Aṭrābulus]

Port city in northern Lebanon. Founded by the Phoenicians in the 8th century bc and occupied successively by Greeks (who named it after its three walled quarters), Romans, Arabs and Crusaders, the seaside city was razed in 1289 when it was recaptured by the Mamluk sultan Qala’un (reg 1280–90), and a new city built inland. Thirty-five monuments, covering the range of religious, civil and military architecture, survive from the new Mamluk city. The mosques, spread throughout the city and built by rulers and local residents, include six congregational mosques and three neighbourhood mosques. The madrasas, most of which are clustered around the Great Mosque, range from imposing to modest. Caravanserais were built in the northern part of the city that was most accessible to roads from Syria; they followed the traditional plan of a central courtyard with a ground floor with vaulted rooms and a galleried storey above. Baths, modelled on the Syrian prototype, had a linear arrangement of dressing, cold, warm and hot rooms. These monuments were built of well-cut red or yellow sandstone, often accented by black stone and decorated with polychrome marble in the Syrian and Cairene traditions (...


Margaret Graves


Capital city and principal seaport on the North African coast of Libya. Founded in the 7th century bce by the Phoenicians, the site was occupied successively by the Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals and Byzantines before being conquered by the Arabs in the 7th century. After many centuries of complex governance passing between various dynasties, Tripoli became almost independent for much of the 15th century. Taken briefly by the Spanish in the 16th century, the city was then occupied by the Ottomans in 1551. In 1771 the Ottoman governor of Tripoli established his own dynasty, the Qaramanli dynasty, which lasted until the Ottomans re-occupied the area in 1835. Following the oil boom of 1995, Tripoli has grown dramatically: it is the largest city in Libya, with a population of around 1.7 million. It is sometimes known in Arabic as Ṭarābulus al-gharb (Western Tripoli) to distinguish it from the city of the same name in present day Lebanon that is known as ...



Donald F. Easton and Reynold Higgins

Region in north-west Anatolia, now part of Turkey, named after the ancient city of Troy.

Donald F. Easton

The Troad is largely mountainous, and most of its sites are therefore situated on the coast. Stray finds of stone tools indicate the presence of palaeolithic occupation, and a neolithic site has been identified at Coşkuntepe towards the south-west tip of the Troad. The earliest traces of occupation in the region are Late Chalcolithic and were revealed by soundings at the coastal sites of Kumtepe (level Ia) and Beşik-Sivritepe, where pattern-burnished ware is characteristic. Early Bronze Age deposits of Kumtepe (level Ib), Beşik-Yassıtepe and Early Troy I, again on the coast, produced finds partly paralleled at Poliochni on Lemnos. Beşik-Yassıtepe was a fortified site with megara and apsidal structures. Clay model axes found there are paralleled at Ezero. Bronze Age Troadic culture is most fully represented at Troy (c. 3000–1050 bc...



Luca Leoncini

Dedication of the remains of a defeated enemy, usually on or near the battlefield. This custom was practised by the Egyptians and the Sumerians as well as other peoples of the Mediterranean region and the Ancient Near East. Except in the case of some Egyptian and Mesopotamian monuments celebrating important victories, however, it was never accompanied by any special artistic production in these areas. In Greece and Rome, however, the artistic commemoration of a victorious battle became very popular.

The first trophy documented with certainty is Greek: the trophy of the Aiginetans in the Temple of Aphaia, celebrating their victory over Samos (520 bc). Trophies were mentioned with increasing frequency throughout the 5th century bc, but they became less popular in the 4th century bc and the Hellenistic age (323–31 bc). Among some of the Greeks, however, including the Spartans and the Macedonians, the custom of dedicating everything that remained on the battlefield to the gods remained for some time. For the rest of the Greeks the trophy was at once a symbol of victory, an ex-voto and a warning to the enemy. Two types of trophies are known. In the first and more common type the enemy’s arms were suspended from a post or cross, arranged as they had been worn by the soldier. This ‘anthropomorphic trophy’ was commonly connected with the figure of Victory. The second type, the ‘cumulus trophy’, was a stack of arms often placed on a pile of stones; the earliest form of trophy appears to have been a simple cone of stones. The array of enemy arms displayed in the two types symbolized the dedication of the defeated who had worn them to the gods who had given the victory. The first example of Victories connected with trophies was possibly the one on the balustrade of the ...